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Index
Abbe prisms, 110–111
Abbe sine condition, 323
Abbe V- number, 94, 178
Aberrations, 61–62
astigmatism and field curvature, 69–71
(See alsoAstigmatism)
balancing, 430–431
chromatic, 72–73 
(See alsoChromatic aberration)
coma, 67–69 
(See alsoComa aberration)
correction of, 80–83, 426–428
distortion, 71–72 
(See alsoDistortion)
lens shape and stop position effect on, 
73–77
measurement of, 66–67, 585–587
optical computations for, 321–327
optical path difference, 79–80 
(See alsoOptical path difference (OPD))
point spread functions for, 385–391
and ray intercept curves, 83–89
residual, 80–83, 429–430, 462
Seidel, 62–72
spherical, 64–67 
(See alsoSpherical aberration)
third-order (seeThird-order aberrations)
tolerances for, 355–359
variation with aperture and field, 77–79
zonal (seeZonal aberrations)
Absorption, 173–178, 287
Absorption filters, 192–195
Acceptance cones, 282
Accommodation, 126, 131
Achromatic doublets, 412
Achromatic prisms, 94–96
Achromatic singlets, 415–417
Achromatic telescope objectives:
design forms, 404–413
thin-lens theory for, 402–404
Additive tolerances, 570–575
Aerial image modulation (AIM) curves, 
366–367
Afocal attachments, 470
Afocal systems, 251–255
Airspaced achromats, 408–409, 411
Airspaced anastigmats, 459–464
Airspaced triplets, 342–345, 506
Airy disks, 159
Alignment telescopes, 446
Alternate lenses in zoom systems, 295
Amici objective, 450–451
Amici prisms, 107–108
Anamorphic systems, 287–291
Angles:
of diffraction, 382
of incidence, 7–8
of prisms, 95, 567–568
of refraction, 7–8
subtended, 251, 253, 268
Angstroms, 2–3
Angular aberrations, 66, 79
Angular blur, 154
Angular depth of focus, 155–156
Angular dispersion, 92
Angular field of view, 143, 253
Angular motion detection, 131
Angular resolution limits, 162
Angulon design, 470
Aniseikonina, 138
Antireflection coatings, 204
Apertures, 141–142
aberration effects of, 73–79
diffraction effects of, 157–160
in Galilean telescopes, 262
and image illumination, 151–154
in meniscus anastigmats, 454
in meniscus camera lens, 395, 
397–399
and optical invariant, 54
603
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Apertures (Cont.):
and pupils, 142–143
and sagittal coma, 323
and vignetting, 143–147
Aplanatic optical systems, 276
Aplanatic surfaces and fronts, 449–451
Apochromatic lenses, 411
doublets, 417–418
triplets, 505
Apodization, 380
Apparent angular field of view, 253
Apparent thickness, 29
Apparent width, 561
Aqueous humor, 126
Arc-lamp motion picture projectors, 472
Aspheric correctors, 486–487, 532, 541
Aspheric surfaces, 547
fabricating, 483–484, 557
general and skew rays on, 312–317
in meniscus camera lens, 400–401
plastic for, 190
for residual aberrations, 430
in third-order aberrations, 332–335
Astigmatism, 69–71, 76
computations for, 324
in Cooke triplets, 421
in eyes, 136
and field angle, 83
manual correction of, 427
in plane parallel plates, 103
with point spread functions, 385–386, 
389, 391
in reflecting systems, 476–477
Astronomical telescopes, 252
Athermalization, 412–413
Autocollimating microscopes, 584, 598
Automatic computer design, 394, 431–435
Aviar lenses, 462
Axial gradients, 187
Back focal length, 23
calculation of, 39–40
and optical invariant, 53
of two-component systems, 47
in zoom systems, 294
Baffles, 148–150
Baker-Nunn satellite tracking cameras, 
490
Balsam cement, 213
Bandpass filters, 207
Bang-bang zooms, 292
Bar targets, 366–367
Barium crowns and flints, 179
Barrel distortion, 72
Beaded screens, 197
Beam power, 165, 245
Beam splitter prisms, 103–104, 114–116
Beam truncation, 166
Beam waists, 165–168
Bell centering, 555
Bench collimators, 586
Binary surfaces, 296, 413
Binocular field of vision, 128
Binocular vision, lack of, 138
Binoculars, 258
Biocular systems, 444–445
Biotar objectives, 456, 459
Blackbody radiation, 231–237
Blanks, 549–550
Blind spot, 127
Blocking, 551–552
Blue optical glass filters, 193
Blur and blur sizes, 154–155
with Mangin mirrors, 487
rapid estimation of, 491–496
in reflecting systems, 476
with spherical aberrations, 364–365
Borosilicate glasses, 185
Bouwers system, 488–491
Brashear-Hastings prisms, 110–111
Brass gages, 597
Bravais system, 289
Brewster’s angle, 200
Brightness:
conservation of, 227
telescope, 247
units for, 239
in visual acuity, 129–131
Broad-band coating, 205
Broken ring test, 128
Canada balsam, 213
Cancellation of waves, 11, 14
Candle power of searchlights, 245
Candles, 239
Cardinal points, 22–24
Cassegrain systems:
benefits of, 482–483
conic sections in, 477–480
focal length in, 44–45
Schmidt, 487
Catadioptric systems, 487, 491, 533
Cataracts, 137
Cauchy dispersion equation, 176
Cemented doublets, 406–408
Cemented quadruplets, 436
Cemented triplets, 436
Cements, 213–214, 578, 580
604
Index
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Center-of-curvature tests, 589
Centering, 555–556, 565–567
Central negative doublets, 521
Central obscuration, 380–381
Chief rays, 69, 142
Chromatic aberrations, 72–73, 76–77
in blur, 492
in Bouwers system, 489–490
computations for, 325–326
in condenser systems, 472
in Cooke triplets, 420, 422
in eye, 137
in eyepieces, 440
in lens design, 433
manual correction of, 427
in plane parallel plates, 103
in prisms, 103
Rayleigh limit in, 358–359
residuals in, 81–82
in Schmidt systems, 485
in symmetrical principle, 401
in telescope objectives, 402
in visual acuity, 129–130
Chromatic difference of magnification, 73
Circular polarizers, 199
Cladding in fiber optics, 283–285
Closing equations, 302–303, 305
Coatings, 201–209
Coddington’s equations, 317–321
Coherent illumination, MTF with, 380–383
Cold mirrors, 210–211
Cold stops, 147–148
Collimators, 580–584, 586
Color in Cooke triplets, 420
Color temperature in blackbody radiation,
237
Coma aberration, 67–69
computations for, 322–323
in Cooke triplets, 421
in diffractive surface design, 417
in eyepieces, 440
and field angle, 83
and lens shape, 75–77
with Mangin mirrors, 487
manual correction of, 427
in plane parallel plates, 103
with point spread functions, 385, 
388, 391
Rayleigh limit in, 358–359
in reflecting systems, 476–480
in symmetrical principle, 401
in telescope objectives, 402, 405–406
Communications, fiber optics for, 286–287
Comparison photometry, 132
Compensating eyepieces, 451
Compound microscopes, 269–271
Computer-controlled polishers, 558
Computer design, 431–435
Concave lenses, wave fronts affected by, 9
Concave radius:
in microscope objectives, 452
in unknown optics analysis, 598
Concentric Bouwers, 489, 494–496, 498
Condenser systems, 245–247, 470–474
Cone channel condensers, 279–280
Cones, 127–128
Conic sections, 313, 484–485
Conjugates, 9, 251–252
Conrady dispersion equation, 176–177
Conservation of radiance, 225–230
Constant-deviation prisms, 105, 113–114
Contact lenses, 136–137
Contrast sensitivity, 132
Contrast transfer function, 369
Convergence, 131
Convex lenses, wave fronts affected by, 9
Convex radius in microscope objectives, 
452
Cooke triplet anastigmats, 418–419
element shape solutions in, 421–422
glass choice in, 423–424
with high-index crowns, 511
initial aberration values in, 422–423
power and spacing solutions in, 419–421
Cooling process, 179
Corneas, 126
Cosine-to-the-fourth, 153–154
Cover glass in microscopes, 447
Critical angle in prisms, 96
Crown glasses, 179
in Cooke triplets, 418, 422–423, 511
in meniscus anastigmats, 457
in meniscus camera lenses, 395
in Petzval lenses, 467, 524
in telescope objectives, 402, 404–405
Crystalline materials, 187–188
Cup centering, 555
Curvature:
Coddington’s equations for, 317, 319–320
computations for, 324
in meniscus camera lenses, 399
in paraxial raytracing, 37–38
Petzval (seePetzval curvature)
in thin lenses, 42
Curves in design, 436
Cutoff frequencies, 377–378
Cylinder lenses, 287–289
Cylindrical surfaces, 557
Index
605
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Dagors, 455, 516
Dall-Kirkham system, 481
Damped least squares, 434
Dark adaptation, 131–132
Data transmission, fiber optics for, 
286–287
Defects, eye, 134–138
Density:
of optical glass, 181
in transmission calculations, 175
Depolarizers, 200
Depth of field, 154
Depth of focus, 154–157, 348
Derotation prisms, 112
Detector optics, 274–281
Deviation:
in centering, 565–566
in prisms, 91–92, 94
Dialyte achromats, 411
Diamond turning, 414, 483, 559
Dichroics, 210
Dielectric reflection, 200–209
Diffraction, 11–16
of apertures, 157–160
of gaussian beams, 163–168
Diffraction efficiency, 413–414
Diffraction grating, 163
Diffraction-limited systems, 376–383, 492
Diffractive surfaces, 296–297, 413
achromatic diffractive singlets, 415–417
apochromatic diffractive doublets, 
417–418
diffraction efficiency in, 413–414
manufacturability of, 414
Sweatt model for, 414–415
Diffuse sources, irradiance from, 223–225
Diffusing materials, 195–198
Dimensions for prisms, 567–568
Diopter adjustments, 445
Diopter gages, 598
Diopters, 24, 125–126
Direct vision prisms, 94–96
Direction cosines, 308–311
Dispersing prisms, 91–92
Dispersion, 175–178
in fiber optics, 287
in prisms, 92
relative, 7
Distances:
eye judgment of, 131
with microscopes, 447, 452
rangefinders for, 271–274
Distortion, 71–72, 76–77, 79
computations for, 324
in Cooke triplets, 421
Distortion (Cont.):
in eyepieces, 440–441
keystone, 56–57
in lens design, 433
manual correction of, 427
measurement of, 586–587
in symmetrical principle, 401
Dogmar anastigmats, 462, 464, 517
Double-Gauss designs:
anastigmats, 456, 459
camera lens, 537
high-index crowns, 534
high-speed lenses, 538
split-rear crowns, 536
Doublet magnifiers, 507
Doublet telescope objectives, 548
Dove prisms, 105–107
Dutch telescopes, 252
Effective clear aperture, 257–258
Effective focal length (efl), 23
calculation of, 39
and optical invariant, 53
in zoom systems, 294
Electromagnetic spectrum, 1–2
Electronic computer design, 431–435
Element shape solutions, 421–422
Ellipsoidal mirrors:
in arc-lamp motion picture projectors, 
472–473
manufacturing, 557
for reflecting systems, 477–484
Emissivity, 235–237
Empty magnification, 258
Endoscopes, 256–257
Enlarger lenses, 464
Entrance pupils, 52, 142, 254
Entrance windows, 143
Equiconcave and equiconvex elements, 436
Equivalent air paths, 257
Equivalent air thickness, 101
Erecting prism systems, 108–111
Erecting telescopes, 252, 254, 445
Erfle eyepieces, 444, 510
Exit pupils, 142
in magnifiers, 444
in optical devices, 257–267
in telescopes, 254, 260
Exit windows, 143
Express lenses, 455
Extended objects, 21
Eye relief, 254–255
Eyelenses:
in microscopes, 269
in telescopes, 252–254
606
Index
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Eyepieces (seeTelescope systems and 
eyepieces)
Eyes, 125–126
defects of, 134–138
in optical design, 257–267
sensitivity of, 131–134
structure of, 126–128
visual acuity of, 128–130
F-numbers, 151–153
F-theta laser scanning lenses, 546
Farsightedness, 135–136
Fasteners, 213–214
Fiber optics, 281–285
for communications, 286–287
gradient, 285–286
Field, aberration variation with, 77–79
Field coverage, 424, 429
Field curvature, 69–71
Coddington’s equations for, 317, 
319–320
computations for, 324
in meniscus camera lenses, 399
Field flatteners, 466–467
Field lenses, 255–257
light pipes for, 280
in radiometers, 278–279
Field of view:
in field lenses, 255
in Galilean telescopes, 263
Field of vision, 128
Field stops, 141, 143
Fifth-order aberrations, 88, 352–354, 
363–365
Filters:
absorption, 192–195
interference, 200–209
photographic density of, 175
spatial, 168
thin-film coatings, 207
First-surface mirrors, 116–117
Fish-eye lenses, 468–469, 514
Fitting operations, 575
Flashed opal, 198
Flat-field microscope objectives, 451–452
Flint glasses, 179, 183
in Cooke triplets, 418
in meniscus anastigmats, 454, 457
in Petzval lenses, 467
in telescope objectives, 402
Float glass, 183
Focal collimators, 581–583
Focal lengths:
in anamorphic systems, 288
in Cassegrain mirror systems, 44–45
Focal lengths (Cont.):
Coddington’s equations for, 318
in compound microscopes, 269
measurement of, 581–584
and optical invariant, 53–54
in reflecting systems, 452, 479
in telescopes, 253
of thin lenses, 42
in two-component systems, 47–48
in zoom systems, 294–296
Focal points, 22
in image formation, 39–42
in telescopes, 252
Focus:
in anamorphic systems, 289, 291
depth of, 154–157, 348
of eyepieces, 445
in optical path difference, 348–349
in zoom systems, 293
Foot-lamberts, 239
Foucault test, 557, 588–592
Fourier transform lenses, 168
Fovea, 127
Fraunhofer form, 405, 434
Frequency, 2
Frequency distribution curves, 570–572
Frequency response in MTF, 369
Fresnel lenses:
plastics for, 191
in rangefinders, 274–275
Fresnel reflection, 200
Fresnel surfaces, 413
Front focal length (ffl), 23, 53
Front focus distance (ffd), 48
Front meniscus camera lenses, 400, 434
Fused fibers, 285
Fused quartz glass, 183, 185
G-sums, 339
Gain of projection screens, 197
Galilean telescopes, 252–253, 255
in anamorphic systems, 287–288
aperture stops in, 262
field of view in, 263
Gamma radiation, 1
Gastroscopes, 284
Gauss form:
in lens design, 434
in telescope objectives, 405
Gaussian beams, diffraction of, 163–168
Gaussian optics, 22
Gelatin filters, 193
General and skew ray computations:
aspheric surfaces, 312–317
spherical surfaces, 308–312
Index
607
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Generalized design technique, 424
aberration balancing in, 430–431
manual correction in, 426–428
residual reduction in, 429–430
trigonometric correction in, 428–429
Generating process, 550
Geneva lens gages, 598
Geometric image energy distribution, 
360–361
Geometric spot size, 362–366
Geometrical modulation transfer factor, 
496
Germanium IR design, 544
Glare stops, 147–148
Glass fibers, 283–285
Glass filters, 194
Glass molding, 483–484
Glasses (seeOptical glass)
Goerz Dagors, 455
Goerz prisms, 111–112
Gradient index fibers, 285–286
Gradient index glasses, 187
Graphical raytracing, 306–307
Gray-bodies, 235
Green optical glass filters, 193
Gregorian telescopic system, 477–480
GRIN rods, 285–286
Grinding, 552–554, 556
Half-field angles in radiometers, 277
Hartmann dispersion equation, 176–177
Heat-absorbing glasses, 194
Height:
for objects at infinity, 52
in raytracing, 38
Hektor anastigmats, 460–461
Heliar anastigmats, 460, 520
Hemispheres, radiation into, 222–223
Herzberger dispersion equation, 176–177
High-power microscope objectives, 
450–451, 530
High-speed processing, 556
Higher-efficiency coating, 205
Higher-order aberrations, 88
Hot mirrors, 210
Huygenian eyepieces, 441
Huygen’s principle, 12, 157–158
Hyperboloids, 477–484
Hyperfocal distance, 156
Hypergon lenses, 401
Hyperopia, 135–136
Illumination:
and apertures, 151–154
of natural sources, 239–240
Illumination (Cont.):
in photometry, 240–242
units for, 239
in visual acuity, 129–131
Illumination devices:
integrating spheres, 247–248
light pipes in, 281
projection condensers, 245–247
searchlights, 243–245
telescope brightness, 247
Image evaluation, 347
geometric spot size, 362–366
image energy distribution, 360–361
modulation transfer function, 366–372
computation of, 372–376
diffraction-limited systems, 376–383
optical path difference, 348–355
point spread functions for, 385–391
radial energy distribution, 383–385
spread functions for, 361–362
tolerances in, 355–360
Image formation, 21–22
cardinal points in, 22–24
focal points and principal points in, 
39–42
light ray refraction in, 30–32
matrix optics in, 54–55
mirrors in, 43–45
optical invariant in, 49–54
paraxial raytracing in, 34–38
paraxial region in, 32–34
position in, 24–26
Scheimpflug condition in, 55–57
separated component systems in, 45–49
sign conventions in, 57–58
size in, 26–30
thin lenses in, 42–43
y-ybar diagrams in, 55
Image height:
objects at infinity, 52
in paraxial raytracing, 38
Images:
evaluating (seeImage evaluation)
forming (seeImage formation)
illumination of, 151–154
orientation of, in prism systems, 
99–100, 105–107
radiometry of, 225–230
Immersion lenses, 277–280
Immersion objectives, 447, 450–451
Index dispersion, 175–178
Index-slope angle products, 37–38
Indexes:
of eye surfaces, 127
of lenses in paraxial raytracing, 37–38
608
Index
Indexes (Cont.):
of prisms, 94
of refraction, 3–4
and dispersion, 178
importance of, 568
for mirrored surfaces, 43
test for, 592
Infinite conjugates, 251–252
Infinity, height for objects at, 52
Infinity f-numbers, 152–153
Infrared region, 1
Infrared transmitting glasses, 186–187
Instrument myopia, 135
Integrating spheres, 200, 247–248
Intensity:
in photometry, 240
in radiometry, 220–221
Intercept length for mirrored surfaces, 44
Interference, 11–16
Interference coatings, 207–208
Interference filters, 200–209
Interferometers, 558
Internal transmittance, 184
Intersection coordinates for skew rays, 
313–314
Inverse Dall-Kirkham system, 481
Inverse square law, 220–221
Inversion prisms, 111–113
Inverting telescopes, 252
IR Cooke triplet, 543
IR telescope, 545
Iris, 126
Irradiance:
from diffuse sources, 223–225
in photometry, 240–242
in radiometry, 220
Iterative technique, 428
Johnson’s law, 376
K-mirrors, 113
Kellner eyepieces, 442
Kepler telescopes, 254–255
Keratoconus, 137
Kettler-Drude dispersion equation, 
176–177
Keystone distortion, 56–57
Kinematic mounts, 575–576
Kinoforms, 296, 413
Knife-edge scans, 596
Knife-edge test, 588–592
Knife-edge traces, 362
Knoop hardness, 181
Koehler projection condensers, 471
Koenig prisms, 110–111
Lagrange invariant, 49–54
Lambertian diffusers, 195–196
Lamberts, 239
Lambert’s law, 221–222
Landolt broken ring test, 128
Laser ablation, 136–137
Laser beam diffraction, 163–168
Laser beam expanders, 255
Laser diodes, 291
Laser disk objectives, 547
Laser rangefinders, 274
LASIK, 136–137
Lateral aberrations, 64–66, 322, 358
Lateral magnification, 26
Law of refraction, 5–8
Laws of probability, 570
Leman prisms, 111–112
Lens bench collimators, 584
Lens benches, 580–581
Lens shape effect on aberrations, 73–77
Lenses:
designs for:
automatic, 432–435
sample, 503–548
mounts for, 577–580
power of, 24
in unknown optics analysis, 598
wave fronts affected by, 8–11
Lenticular screens, 197
Licht-Sprechers, 97
Light pipes, 279–281
Light wave propagation, 2–5, 157–158
Line images, 289–290
Line spread functions, 361–362
Linear aberrations, 79
Linear blur, 154
Linear dimensions in computations, 302
Linear kinoform surfaces, 413
Linear resolution, 163
Liquids, 213–214
Long-pass transmission filters, 207
Longitudinal departure, 71
Longitudinal magnification, 27
Longitudinal spherical aberrations, 
64–66, 322
Lord Rayleigh’s criterion, 161–162
Low-expansion glasses, 185–186
Low-index, broadband Cooke triplets, 
512
Low-index glass, 527
Low-power microscope objectives, 448
Low-reflection coatings, 204–205
Lumens, 219, 237–239
Luminous radiation, 237–243
Lyot stops, 147
Index
609
Magnetorheologic polishing, 558
Magnification, 26–27
in anamorphic systems, 287
in microscopes, 269–270
in telescopes, 251, 253–254
Magnifiers, 267–269, 285, 444–445
Maksutov system, 486–491
Mangin mirrors, 487–488, 493–494, 497
Manual aberration correction, 426–428
Marechal criterion, 357, 385, 387
Materials:
in design, 435
in optical manufacture, 549–550
specifications and tolerances for, 
568–569
Matrix optics, 54–55
Measurements:
aberration, 66–67, 585–587
focal length, 581–584
modulation transfer function, 
594–596
telescopic power, 585
Medium-power microscope objectives, 
448–449
Melt fits, 575
Meniscus forms:
camera lens, 395–401
in design, 436
focal points in, 41
inner crown, 529
for photographic objectives, 453–459
in residual aberrations, 429
Meridional rays and planes, 69, 
304–308
Merit function, 432–434
Merte effect, 462
Merte surfaces, 460
Mesopic curve, 134
Micrometers, 2–3
Microns, 2–3
Microscopes and microscope objectives, 
447–448
aplanatic surfaces in, 449–450
autocollimating, 584, 598
compound, 269–271
flat-field, 451–452
high-power, 450–451, 530
low-power, 448
medium-power, 448–449
Rayleigh limit in, 358
reflecting, 452–453
simple, 267–269
Millimicrons, 2–3
Minifiers, 285
Minimum deviation of prisms, 94
Mirrors:
ellipsoidal, 472–473, 477–484, 557
in image formation, 43–45
Mangin, 487–488, 493–494, 497
mounting, 580
plane, 116–117
semireflecting, 210
spherical, 474–476, 493, 497
Modified Amici prisms, 111–112
Modulation transfer function (MTF), 
366–372
with coherent and semi-coherent 
illumination, 380–383
computation of, 372–376
diffraction-limited systems in, 376–383
measurement of, 594–596
Motion, magnification of, 27
Mounting techniques, 575–580
Multilayer coatings, 207–209
Myopia, 134–135
Nanometers, 2–3
Narrow bandpass filters, 207
Natural stop positions, 76
Nearsightedness, 134–135
Negative magnification, 27
Negative outer meniscus elements, 539
Newton’s black spot, 15
Newton’s rings, 14–15
Nicol prisms, 199
Night myopia, 135
Nodal points, 22–23
Nodal slides, 581
Nonbrowning glasses, 183
Nonspherical surfaces, 557–559
Null lenses, 558
Numerical aperture (NA), 152
in fiber optics, 282
in illumination for MTF, 382–383
Objective lenses and systems:
in microscopes, 269, 447–453
photographic (seePhotographic
objectives)
in telescopes, 252, 254, 402–413, 
445–447
testing, 594
Offense against sine condition 
(OSC), 323
Oil-immersion microscopes, 450
Old Schott dispersion equation, 176–177
1-diopter prisms, 126
Opal glass, 198, 200
610
Index
Opening equations, 302, 304–305, 309, 319
Optic nerve, 127
Optical axes, 22
Optical coatings, 201–209
Optical computations, 301–302
aberration, 321–327
Coddington’s equations, 317–321
general and skew rays:
aspheric surfaces, 312–317
spherical surfaces, 308–312
meridional rays, 304–308
paraxial rays, 302–304
Optical contact method, 214
Optical devices, 251
anamorphic systems, 287–291
compound microscopes, 269–271
diffractive surfaces, 296–297
exit pupils, eyes, and resolution in, 
257–267
fiber optics, 281–287
field lenses and relay systems, 255–257
radiometers and detector optics, 
274–281
rangefinders, 271–274
simple microscopes and magnifiers, 
267–269
telescopes, 251–255
variable-power systems, 291–296
Optical glass, 178–184
in Cooke triplets, 418, 422–424, 511
gradient index, 187
infrared transmitting, 186–187
low-expansion, 185–186
in meniscus anastigmats, 454, 457
in meniscus camera lenses, 395
in Petzval lenses, 467, 524
in telescope objectives, 402, 404–405, 410
Optical invariant, 49–54
Optical laboratory practice:
aberration measurement, 585–587
focal length measurement, 581–584
Foucault test, 588–592
lens benches, 580–581
modulation transfer function 
measurement, 594–596
resolution tests, 592–594
Schlieren test, 592
star test, 587–588
telescopic power measurement, 585
unknown optics analysis, 596–599
Optical manufacture:
blocking, 551–552
centering, 555–556
grinding, 552–554
Optical manufacture (Cont.):
high-speed processing, 556
materials, 549–550
nonspherical surfaces, 557–559
polishing, 554–555
rough shaping, 550–551
single-point diamond turning, 559
Optical mounting techniques, 575–580
Optical path difference (OPD), 15, 79–80
for aberration measurements, 66–67
computations for, 326–327
focus shift in, 348–349
in ray intercept plots, 88–89
RMS, 355–356
spherical aberration in, 349–355
Optical path length, 15
Optical specifications and tolerances, 
559–560
additive, 570–575
centering, 565–567
materials, 568–569
prism dimensions and angles, 567–568
surface accuracy, 560–564
surface quality, 560–561
thickness, 564–565
Optical systems, resolution of, 160–163
Optical systems design, 393–395
achromatic telescope objectives, 
402–413
Cooke triplet anastigmats, 418–424
diffractive surfaces, 413–418
by electronic computer, 431–435
generalized design technique, 
`424–431
practical considerations in, 435–436
simple meniscus camera lens, 
395–401
symmetrical principle in, 401
Optical transfer function (OTF), 372
Orders of aberrations, 83–89
Orientation in prism systems, 99–100, 
105–107
Orthometar lenses, 455
Orthoscopic eyepieces, 442–443
OSC aberration computations, 323
Overcorrected astigmatism, 71
Overcorrected distortion, 72
Overcorrected spherical aberration, 65
Overspecification, 559
Paraboloidal mirrors:
blur size estimation in, 493
manufacturing, 557
in reflecting systems, 476–477
Index
611
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