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TypesettingBasics xi
TypesettingBasics
WithVersion3.0andlaterofSWP andSW,youcanproduceyourdocumentseither
withorwithoutL
A
T
E
Xtypesetting.Ourfocushereisontypesetting.Evenifyouhavea
basicunderstandingoftheprogram,it'simportanttoreviewhowtypesettingworksand
whytheappearanceofyourprinteddocumentdifferssonoticeablywhenyoutypeset
comparedtowhenyoudon't.Youcanndbasicinformationinmoredetailintheonline
HelpandinCreatingDocumentswithScienticWorkPlaceandScienticWord.
WithVersion5.0,weintroducedanimportantnewfeature:creatingtypesetPortable
DocumentFormat(PDF)leswith
PDF
T
E
X,whichprovidesallthebeautyandfeatures
ofLAT
E
XtypesettinginPDFform. NowyoucanuseSWP andSWtotypesetlesfor
viewingacrossplatformswithPDFviewers.
Inourdocumentation, werefertotheprocessesthatyouusetotypesetyourdoc-
umentswithLAT
E
Xastypesetcompile,typesetpreview,andtypesetprint. Wereferto
theprocessesthatyouusetotypesetyourdocumentswithPDFastypesetcompilePDF,
typesetpreviewPDF,andtypesetprintPDF.Alltheseprocessesareavailableonlyas
commandsontheTypesetmenuorasbuttonsontheTypesettoolbar. Ingeneral,we
usethetermtypesettingtorefertoeithersetofprocesses.Wherenecessary,wedistin-
guishbetweenthem.Werefertotheprocessesthatdon'tinvolvetypesettingaspreview
andprint.ThesecommandsareavailableontheFilemenuandtheStandardtoolbar.
ProducingDocumentswithTypesetting
WhenyouprocessyourdocumentwithLAT
E
X,theprogramcompilesitwithLAT
E
Xto
createadeviceindependent—orDVI—le, whichisanelytypesetversionofyour
document. TheDVIlemaycontainautomaticallygenerateddocumentelementssuch
ascross-references,tablesofcontents,andnumbersforequations. Theprogramthen
sendstheDVIletothetypesetpreviewerortotheprinter.
Typesettingwith
PDF
T
E
XinVersion5isjustliketypesettingwithL
A
T
E
X,exceptthat
youproduceaPDFle.LiketheDVIle,thePDFleisanelytypesetversionofyour
document.Itcontainsthesameautomaticallygenerateddocumentelementsand,ifyou
haveaddedthehyperref packagetoyourdocument,livehypertextlinks,bookmarks,
andthumbnails. ThePDFlealsocontainsembeddedfontsand,ifyouhavespecied
PDFoutputsettings,graphicsconvertedtoformatsappropriateforPDFviewers. The
programsendsthePDFletothescreenortheprinterusingyourPDFsoftware.
TheappearanceofthePDFandDVIlesisalmostidentical. However,atypeset
documenthasanoticeablydifferentappearancefromwhatyouseeasyouworkinthe
documentwindoworwhenyouproduceyourdocumentwithouttypesetting.
Thetypesetappearanceofyourdocumentdependsontypesettingspecicationsfrom
threedifferentsources,allsetinitiallybytheshellyouusetocreateyourdocument:
 Thetypesettingspecications,acollectionofT
E
XandL
A
T
E
Xinstructionsrelatedto
typesettingdocumentelements,includingthoserepresentedbythetagsontheTag
toolbarintheprogramwindow.
 AnyL
A
T
E
Xpackagesoroptionsspeciedforthedocumentortheshell.
 AnyadditionalLAT
E
Xcommandsthatappearinthedocumentpreambleorinthebody
ofthedocument.
Thesespecicationsdon'taffecttheappearanceofyourdocumentifyoudon'ttypeset.
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xii What'sNew
Thechaptersthatfollowexplainhowtomodifysomeofthesespecicationsfrom
withinSWP andSW.However,weadviseagainstattemptsatextensivemodication
ofthespecicationsifyouaren'textremelyfamiliarwithT
E
XandLAT
E
X.
ITotypesetadocument
1.IfyouhaveVersion5,selectanoutputoptionfortypesetting:
a.FromtheTypesetmenu,chooseOutputChoice.
b.Selecttheoptionyouwant.DVIOutputisthedefault.
c.Ifyou'recreatingaPDFle,
iCheckConvert.texlinktargetsto.pdftoconvertany.texextensionsinhy-
pertextlinkaddressesto.pdfextensions.
iiChoosePDFGraphicsSettingstospecifytheletypeandlocationofgraphics
andplotsexportedduringthetypesettingprocess,andthenchooseOK.
d.ChooseOK.
2.On theTypesettoolbar, clickthebuttonfor thetypesettingcommandyouwant
or,fromtheTypesetmenu,choosethecommand(commandsfortypesettingwith
PDF
L
A
T
E
XappearonlyinVersion5):
Menu
Command
Button
Typeset Compile
Typeset Preview
Typeset Print
Menu
Command
Button
Typeset CompilePDF
Typeset PreviewPDF
Typeset PrintPDF
3.IfyouchooseaCompilecommand,selecttheoptionsyouwantandchooseOK.
NotethattheCompiledialogboxindicatesthenameandlocationofthetypesetle
tobecreated.
4.IfyouchooseaPrevieworPrintcommand,setthenumberofL
A
T
E
Xpasses.
Theprogramcompilesyourdocumentifnecessary,savingatranscriptoftheprocess
ina.logle.Whenthecompilationiscomplete,theprogrameitherdisplaysyour
typesetdocumentintheTrueT
E
XPreviewerorprintsitontheprinteryouindicate.
IfyouchosetocreateatypesetPDFle,theprogramopensyourPDFviewerto
displaythetypesetleorprintyourdocument.
YoucanalsoprintyourdocumentfromtheTrueT
E
XPrevieweroryourPDFviewer.
ProducingDocumentswithoutTypesetting
Whenyouproduceyourdocumentwithouttypesettingit,theprogramsendsthedocu-
mentdirectlytoanon-L
A
T
E
Xpreviewerortotheprinterusingmanyofthesameroutines
withwhichitdisplaysthedocumentinthedocumentwindow.Consequently,whatyou
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Conventions xiii
seeinthepreviewwindoworinprintissimilartowhatyouseeasyouworkonyour
documentinthedocumentwindow. (Theprogramdoesn'treectthepagesetupspeci-
cationsortheprintoptionsinthedocumentwindow.)
Whenyoudon'ttypeset,theappearanceofyourdocumentdependsonthreesetsof
specications;likethetypesettingspecications,theyareallsetinitiallybythedocu-
mentshell:
1.Thestyle,acollectionofthespecicationsfortheappearanceofeachtaginthe
documentwindowandinprint.
2.Thepagesetupspecications.
3.Theprintoptions.
TheonlineHelpandCreatingDocumentswithScienticWorkPlaceandScienticWord
provide informationaboutmodifyingthesespecications and aboutpreviewing and
printingwithouttypesetting. Thesethreesetsofspecicationsdon'taffectthetype-
setappearanceofyourdocumentinanyway,althoughthestyledetermineshowthe
documentappearsonthescreenwhenyou'reworkingonit.
UnderstandingtheDifferencesintheFinalProduct
EachtimeyouproduceyourdocumentinSWPorSW,youcanchoosewhetherornot
totypesetit.Theresultsdiffernoticeably.
Ifyoutypeset,theprogramcompilesthedocumentandgeneratesanyspeciedau-
tomaticelementssuchasfrontmatteritems(tablesofcontentsorlistsofguresand
tables),cross-references,footnotesandmarginnotes,numberedequations,indexes,and
bibliographies. LAT
E
Xand
PDF
LAT
E
Xalsoprovidehyphenation,kerning, ligatures,so-
phisticatedparagraphandlinebreaking,andotherautomaticformattingfeatures.
Ifyoudon'ttypeset,theprogramproducesthedocumentusingmanyofthesame
routinesitusestodisplaythedocumentinthedocumentwindow.Nodocumentelements
areautomaticallygenerated,andtheprintedresultsaresimilartowhatyouseeasyou
workonthedocument.
Conventions
Understandingthenotationandthetermsusedinourdocumentationwillhelpyouun-
derstandtheinstructions. Weassumeyou'refamiliarwithbasicWindowsprocedures
andterminology. Ifnecessary,reviewyourWindowsdocumentation. Inourmanuals,
weusethenotationandtermslistedbelow.
GeneralNotation
 Textlikethisindicatesthenameofamenu,programcommand,ordialogbox.
 T
EXT LIKE THIS
indicatesthenameofakeyboardkey.
 Textlikethisindicatesinformationyoushouldtypeexactlyasitisshown.
 Textlikethisisaplaceholderforainformationthatyoumustsupply.
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xiv
What'sNew
 Text t like thisindicatesthenameofaleordirectory,aLAT
E
Xcommand,or
othercode.
 Textlikethisindicatesatermthathasspecialmeaningintheprogram.
 TypesetyourlemeanstoprocessyourdocumentwithL
A
T
E
Xor,ifyouhaveVersion
5,
PDF
L
A
T
E
X.
 Choosemeanstodesignateacommandfortheprogramtocarryout. . Aswithall
Windowsapplications,youcanchooseacommandwiththekeyboardorthemouse.
Commandsmaybelistedonamenuorshownonabuttoninadialogbox. For
example, theinstruction“FromtheFilemenu,chooseOpen” meansyoushould
rstchoosetheFilemenuandthenfromthatmenu,choosetheOpencommand.
 Selectmeanstohighlightthepartofthedocumentthatyouwantyournextactionto
affectortohighlightaspecicoptioninadialogboxorlist.
 Checkmeanstoturnonanoptioninadialogbox.
KeyboardConventions
WealsousestandardWindowsconventionstogivekeyboardinstructions.
 Thenamesofkeysintheinstructionsmatchthenamesshownonmostkeyboards.
Theyappearlikethis:
ENTER
,F4,
SHIFT
.
 Aplussign(+)betweenthenamesoftwokeysindicatesthatyoumustpresstherst
keyandholditdownwhileyoupressthesecondkey.Forexample,
CTRL
+
G
means
thatyoupressandholddownthe
CTRL
key,press
G
,andthenreleasebothkeys.
 Thenotation
CTRL
+wordmeansthatyoumustholddownthe
CTRL
key,typethe
wordthatappearsinboldtypeafterthe+,thenreleasethe
CTRL
key.Notethatifa
letterappearscapitalizedintheinstructions,youshouldtypethatletterasacapital.
MouseConventions
Theprogramusesthesemousepointers:
Pointer Indication
Thepointerisovertext
Thepointerisovermathematics
Aselectionisbeingdragged
Aselectionisbeingcopied
Aselectionisbeingcopiedordraggedwiththerightmousebutton
Agraphicisbeingpanned
Agraphicisbeingresized
Thepointerisoverahypertextlink
Additionally,theprogramdisplaysapointerforthecomputationalenginewhenacom-
putationisinprogress.
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GettingHelp xv
InthismanualwegivemouseinstructionsusingstandardWindowsconventions.The
instructionsassumeyouhavenotchangedthemousebuttondefaults.
 Pointmeanstomovethemousepointertoaspecicposition.
 Clickmeanstopositionthemousepointer,thenpressandimmediatelyreleasethe
leftorrightmousebuttonwithoutmovingthemouse.
 Double-clickmeanstopositionthemousepointer,thenclicktheleftmousebutton
twiceinrapidsuccessionwithoutmovingthemouse.
 Dragmeanstopositionthemousepointer,presstheleftmousebuttonandholdit
downwhileyoumovethemousetoanewlocation,thenreleasethebutton.
AsinmostWindowsapplications,youcanusetherightmousebuttontodisplaya
Contextmenuforthecurrentselectionortheitemunderthemousepointer. Pressing
theApplicationkey
alsodisplaysthemenu.
GettingHelp
Inadditiontotheinformationavailableinthemanualssuppliedwiththeprogram,you
cangetinformationaboutSWP andSW fromtheonlineHelpsystem,thelibraryof
referencematerialsaboutmathematicsandscience,and,ifyouhaveanInternetconnec-
tion,theMacKichanSoftwarewebsite.Iftheseresourcesdon'tcontaintheinformation
youneed,technicalsupportisavailable.Wealsoregularlymakeadditionalinformation
availableonourunmoderateddiscussionforumandemaillist. Youcanndanerrata
sheetforthisbookatthisURL:http://www.mackichan.com/techtalk/errata.html.
OnlineHelp
WithoutleavingSWP andSW,youcansearchtheonlineHelpsystemtondinfor-
mationaboutallprogramcommandsandoperations,includingthoserelatedtonumeric,
symbolic, andgraphiccomputations. . Also, , youcanndadditionalmaterialregard-
ingT
E
X,L
A
T
E
X,L
A
T
E
Xpackages,andotherrelatedtopics. Inaddition,twoassociated
programs—theStyleEditorandtheDocumentManager—havetheirownonlineHelp
systems.
ITogethelpfromtheHelpmenu
Choose
To
Contents
Seealistofonlineinformation
Search...
FindaHelptopic
Index
AccesstheonlineindextoComputingTechniques,
GeneralInformation,ortheReferenceLibrary
MacKichanSoftware
OpenthelinktotheMacKichanSoftware,Inc.
Website
website
Register...
Registeryoursoftwareandobtainalicense
SystemFeatures...
Seealistofavailablefeatures;changetheserial
numberforyourinstallation
LicenseInformation
Obtaininformationaboutregisteringyoursystem
About...
Obtaininformationaboutyourinstallation
ITogodirectlytotheHelpContents,pressF1.
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xvi What'sNew
SupplementalTechnicalDocuments
Weurgeyoutoexplorethesupplementaltechnicaldocumentssuppliedwiththepro-
gram.YoucanuseSWPorSWtoopen,view,andprintthedocuments.Inparticular,
weurgeyoutoreadthefollowingdocuments:
 IntheHelpngeneraldirectory, , thedocumenttechrefv5.tex,whichcon-
tainstechnicalinformationonthefeaturesinVersion 5.
 InthePlaydirectory,thesampledocuments,whichdemonstratetheuseofcompu-
tationinSWP.
 IntheSWSamplesdirectory,
 Thesampledocuments,whichillustratetheuseofvarious s LAT
E
Xpackagesin
SWPandSW.
 TheleOptionsPackagesLaTeX.tex,whichdescribesandcontainslinks
toinformationabouttheoptions,packages,andotherT
E
X-relateditemsprovided
withtheprogram.
 TheleBibTeXBibliographyStyles.tex,whichlistsanddescribesthe
B
IB
T
E
Xstyle(.bst)lesinstalledwiththeprogram.
ObtainingTechnicalSupport
Ifyoucan'tndtheanswertoyourquestionsinthemanualsortheonlineHelp,youcan
obtaintechnicalsupportfromourwebsiteat
http://www.mackichan.com/techtalk/knowledgebase.html
orfromourWeb-basedTechnicalSupportforumat
http://www.mackichan.com/techtalk/UserForums.htm
YoucanalsocontactourTechnicalSupportstaffbyemail,telephone,orfax. Weurge
youtosubmitquestionsbyemailwheneverpossibleincaseourtechnicalstaffneedsto
obtainyourletodiagnoseandsolvetheproblem.
Whenyoucontactusbyemailorfax, pleaseprovidecompleteinformationabout
theproblemyou'retryingtosolve. Wemustbeabletoreproducetheproblemexactly
fromyourinstructions.Whenyoucontactusbytelephone,youshouldbesittingatyour
computerwiththeprogramrunning.
PleaseprovidethefollowinginformationanytimeyoucontactTechnicalSupport:
 TheMacKichanSoftwareproductyouhaveinstalled.
 Theversionandbuildnumberofyourinstallation(seeHelp/About...).
 Theserialnumberofyourinstallation(seeHelp/SystemFeatures...).
 TheversionoftheWindowssystemyou'reusing.
 Thetypeofhardwareyou'reusing,includingprinterandnetworkhardware.
 Adescriptionofwhathappenedandwhatyouweredoingwhentheproblemoc-
curred.
 Theexactwordingofanymessagesthatappearedonyourcomputerscreen.
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GettingHelp xvii
ITocontactTechnicalSupport
 ContactTechnicalSupportbyemail,fax,ortelephonebetween8
AM
and5
PM
Pa-
cicTime:
Internetemailaddress:support@mackichan.com
Faxnumber:360-394-6039
Telephonenumber:360-394-6033
Toll-freetelephone:877-SCI-WORD(877-724-9673)
AdditionalInformation
YoucanlearnmoreaboutSWP andSWonourwebsite,whichweupdateregularlyto
providethelatesttechnicalinformationabouttheprogram.Thesitealsohouseslinksto
otherT
E
XandL
A
T
E
Xresources. Wemaintainanunmoderateddiscussionforumandan
unmoderatedemaillistsoouruserscanshareinformation,discusscommonproblems,
andcontributetechnicaltipsandsolutions. Youcanlinktothesevaluableresources
fromourhomepageathttp://www.mackichan.com.
1
TailoringTypesettingtoYour
Needs
ThetypesetappearanceofyourSWP orSWdocumentdependsontypesettingspec-
ications,allsetinitiallybytheshellyouusetocreatethedocument. Startinganew
documentwithacarefullychosenshellisimportant;itminimizesthetypesettingmodi-
cationsyoumayhavetomake.Ifthedocumentshelladherescloselytoyourtypesetting
requirements,youmaythenbeabletocreatetheperfecttypesetappearanceforyour
documentjustbymakingoneortwosmallchangesfromwithintheprogram. Once
you'vetailoredyourdocumenttoyourtypesettingrequirements,youcanexportitasa
shellsothatyoucanuseitrepeatedly.SeeChapter2“WorkingwithTypesettingSpeci-
cationsandDocumentShells”foramoredetailedexplanationofbasicL
A
T
E
Xdocument
structureandforinformationaboutchoosinganappropriateshellandcreatingyourown
shells.
Theinformationinthischapteranswersthetypesettingquestionswereceivemost
oftenfromusers. Thequestionsinvolvepagelayout,frontandbackmatter,tablesand
graphics,andmathematics.Thetableneartheendofthechapterrefersyoutoadditional
informationaboutothertypesettingtasks. IfyouhaveabasicknowledgeofT
E
Xand
L
A
T
E
XandarefamiliarwithSWPorSW,thischaptermaybeallyouneedtoadaptan
existingdocumentshelltoyourrequirements.
Youcanndmore informationintheonlineHelpsystem, inlinksfromthele
OptionsPackagesLaTeX.tex in the SWSamples directory of your installation,
and in the T
E
Xand LAT
E
Xreferences noted on page x.
Note The instructions forthe basic processes to which we refer in this chapterappear
in Chapter 2.
Cautions
The techniques we suggest for modifying the typeset appearance of your document in-
volve working from within SWP or SW rather than using an ASCII editor to work
directly with the T
E
Xand L
A
T
E
Xcode. The techniques involve modifying the docu-
ment class options (see page 67), adding and modifying L
A
T
E
Xpackages (see page 75),
and inserting T
E
Xcommands in your document (see page 80). The techniques should
work successfully for typesetting bothdevice independent (DVI)les and,in Version 5,
Portable Document Format (PDF) les.
The suggested techniques are general. They work with many, but not all, document
shells. The techniques are most likely to be successful with document shells based on
2
Chapter 1 Tailoring Typesetting to Your Needs
standard LAT
E
Xtypesetting specications. They are less likely to be successful if you
have added an unusual combination of packages to your document, because they may
cause LAT
E
Xconicts. If your document uses a Style Editor shell, you may nd that
using the Style Editor to make the changes you need is easier and more successful than
working from within the document. The suggestions in this chapter may not work with
Style Editor documents.
We are unable topredictthe effect of these modications on documents created with
L
A
T
E
Xtypesetting specications that you have added to the program. In other words,
we can't guarantee results. Please note that we do not support documents created with
typesetting specications not provided with our program. Note too that some L
A
T
E
X
packages are distributed with the program only as a convenience or for compatibility
and maynot necessarily work with SWP or SW or with other packages.
Some of the suggestions involve bypassing the way L
A
T
E
Xnaturally works, an ap-
proach that can sometimes have unpredictable results. Other suggestions involve plac-
ing LAT
E
Xcode in the document preamble and otherwise sending commands directly to
LAT
E
X. Any time you add T
E
Xelds or raw T
E
Xcode toyour document, you runthe risk
of damaging it.
Important Even seemingly small coding errors can have large and unwelcome ef-
fects. Errors may prevent compilation, or they may damage or truncate your document
irrevocably. Save a copy of your document before you attempt any of the modications
suggestedhere.
Most importantly, we urge you not toattempt extensive modications ofthe typeset-
ting specications unless you're very familiar with T
E
Xand LAT
E
X.
Tailoring the Page Layout
Making small changes to the page layout may yield the perfect typeset appearance for
your document. Often, the most straightforward way to affect the page layout is by
modifying one or more of the class options in effectforyour document, and most ofthe
techniques presented in this section take advantage of that capability. The class options
control many fundamental aspects of page layout and document design, such as paper
size, bodytext point size,title and authorinformation,pageorientation,orcolumns. See
L
A
T
E
XClass Options on page 67 for more information.
Remember Save a copy of your document before you attempt to modify it.
Changing the Margins
Your document has two sets of margins,one forproducing yourdocument withouttype-
setting and one for producing your document with typesetting. If you don't intend to
typeset yourdocument,you can change the margins using the page setup specications.
Access this set of specications with the Page Setup command on the File menu. Re-
member that the changes you make to the margins using the page setup specications
have no effect on the typeset appearance of your document.
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