The primary Spanish dictionary used by both journals is the latest edition of Vox New College
Spanish and English Dictionary, which contains many more of the words used in archaeological
writing than do the other commonly available Spanish-English dictionaries. It also features
special sections on Spanish grammatical conventions (e.g., capitalization, numerals, syntax). For
authors writing in Spanish, the authoritative work is the latest edition of Diccionario de la Real
Words in languages other than the primary language in which the manuscript is written are
underlined or italicized in the manuscript. Use standard orthographies, including diacritical
marks, and explain unusual symbols (also see subsection 3.3.12 on accents below). Generic,
specific, and varietal names are italicized: e.g., Homo sapiens sapiens, Spondylus sp. All other
taxonomic designations are printed in roman type. Titles of books, journals, poems, and other
literary works are italicized when mentioned in the text; article titles mentioned in the text are in
roman type, set off by quotation marks. Letters that represent mathematical variables are
italicized (see subsection 3.3.4 above). Foreign words and phrases in common use, or anglicized,
should not be italicized. Consult the latest edition of Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary.
Any word or phrase that appears in the main section of the dictionary should not be italicized
(e.g., in situ, a priori, et al., vis-à-vis, milpa); any word that appears at the end of the dictionary
in the section on “Foreign Words and Phrases” should be italicized (e.g., anno mundi, caveat
For capitalization of nonarchaeological terms, consult The Chicago Manual of Style, 16
edition, Chapter 7. Capitalize the names of specific archaeological and geographical areas.
Examples: Mesoamerica, Lowland Maya, Gulf Coast, the Southwest, the Midwest. Directional,
topographical, and general geographic terms are in lowercase unless they are derived from
proper names of political, ethnic, or taxonomic entities. Examples: southwestern, north coast of
Peru, central Mexico; but Mesoamerican region, Maya Lowlands, Sonoran Desert, Eastern
Capitalize taxonomic names of generic and higher rank. Examples: order Artiodactyla, family
Bovidae, genus Bison, Pinus ponderosa. Names of mountains, rivers, oceans, and so forth are
capitalized, along with the generic terms—such as lake, mountain, river, valley—when used as
part of a name. When a generic term is used descriptively rather than as part of the name, when
used alone, or when plural, it is lowercased. Examples: the Mississippi River, the valley of the
Mississippi, the Mississippi River valley, the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, but Lakes
Michigan and Huron.
Capitalize proper names, including Lower, Middle, Early, and Late when they are part of the
name, of chronological, cultural, and geological divisions, but give taxonomic division names
and restrictive modifiers in lowercase. Examples: Upper Paleolithic period, late Holocene,
Classic period, Koster site, Anasazi (better: prehispanic Pueblo) culture, Upper Republican
aspect, Olmec horizon, Riverton phase, Denali complex. Capitalize the names of archaeological
classes, but place generic terms in lowercase. Examples: Clovis point, Cody knives, Hardin
Barbed point, Salado polychromes (which include types Gila Polychrome, Tonto Polychrome,
For rules governing hyphenation of nonarchaeological compound words, consult Chapter 7 in
The Chicago Manual of Style, 16
edition, or the latest edition of Merriam Webster's Collegiate
Dictionary. Compounds are spelled without hyphens if they can be considered permanent
combinations. Examples: rockshelter, preceramic, Postclassic, precolumbian, Paleoindian,
preconquest; but pre-Basketmaker, mid-Pleistocene, etc. Prefixes in common use are not
hyphenated. Examples: noncultural, reanalyze, infrastructure, intercommunity, intrasite.
Hyphenate descriptive terms that are combinations of words including a preposition. Examples:
red-on-buff pottery, 1-x-1-m unit. Hyphenate fractions when they are spelled out. Examples:
one-third, seven-tenths. A general rule is to hyphenate paired words serving an adjectival
function (termed compound modifiers). Examples: obsidian-hydration dating, heat-treated
silicates, two-story pueblo, low-ranked resource but high return rate; 5-m depth but depth of 5 m.
Never hyphenate a combination of an adverb ending in -ly plus a participle or adjective, e.g.,
poorly developed argument. Interdisciplinary research uses terminology and phrase constructions
borrowed from a parent discipline such as isotope chemistry. If common usage in a parent
discipline dictates leaving compound modifiers (such as “stable isotope ratio” or “heavy mineral
analysis”) open, we will normally follow that usage.
Abbreviations are used infrequently in the journals. Exceptions include acronyms for long
titles of agencies, institutions, etc., which will be mentioned frequently in the text (they are
always introduced following the full name at its first occurrence). Examples: Bureau of Land
Management (BLM), Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH). Metric units are
given in abbreviated form when they follow numbers. Examples: 7 km, 2,000 m asl, 23 cm. See
subsection 3.3.5 for information on placement of abbreviations pertinent to dates. A few other
abbreviations are permitted. Examples: et al., e.g., i.e., ca., cf. (“compare against”; does not mean
“see”), vs. (not versus), rev. ed., 3 vols. Never use ibid. or op. cit.; follow the conventions for in-
text citations given in section 3.4. Always spell out “percent” except in tables. “Figure” is always
spelled out, never abbreviated.
For both journals, include all common accents for French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, etc.,
in the text and in the References Cited section. Be sure the accents are clearly marked, accurate,
and consistent. Pay particular attention to proper names and titles of works (the rules of
placement of accents in Spanish hold for all place names in Spanish, even on words that were
hispanicized from other languages such as Nahuatl or Mayan, except for words that have
accepted English spellings). Examples: Teotihuacan, Chichén Itzá, Copán, Kaminaljuyú. Foreign
book titles set in all capital letters will not display accents, except for letters such as Ñ in
Spanish. However, because the titles in the References Cited section of the journals are set with
initial capitals only, the author is responsible for adding accents to a title if accents are used
through the book or article (even if accents do not appear in the all-capitals title). Never add
accents to initial capitals-only titles that do not have them in the original.
3.4 In-Text Reference Citations
There are two different formats used for in-text citations in the journals. REVIEWS and
BOOK NOTES follow the format given in section 3.5; ARTICLES, REPORTS, COMMENTS,
FORUM contributions and BOOK REVIEW ESSAYS use the style described immediately
In-text year citations always immediately follow the name(s) of the author(s). All of the
examples make use of parentheses in their ordinary format. However, when reference citations
are used in textual material set off in parentheses, the parentheses in the citations convert to
brackets. Example: (e.g., Shapere  on the constitution of “observations” in physics, and
Kosso  on observation in science generally). For examples of citations in quoted material
see subsection 3.3.6 above.
3.4.1 Simple citation
(Wylie 1991) or Wylie (1991)
Note: For authors with two surnames, as is usually the case in Spanish-speaking countries, use
only the first surname in the citation unless ambiguity results. Provide both full surnames in the
References Cited entry.
3.4.2 Two authors
(Lipe and Varien 1999) or Lipe and Varien (1999)
3.4.3 Three or more authors
(Cobean et al. 1991) or Cobean et al. (1991)
Note: Use of “et al.” is limited to in-text citations. The only time all names should be listed for a
paper with three or more authors in a text citation is when a person is senior author of more than
one jointly authored item in the same year. Example: Barnosky, Anderson, and Bartlein (1987)
and Barnosky, Grimm, and Wright (1987) would appear as shown, not as Barnosky et al. (1987a,
1987b). Whereas the use of et al. is permissible in in-text citations, in the References Cited
section all names must be listed following the senior author's name.
3.4.4 Several authors cited in one place or several references by same author
(Ashmore 1986; Coe 1965; de Montmollin 1988; Fox 1987, 1991; Freidel 1986; Freidel and
Schele 1986; Freidel et al. 1990)
Note: Use semicolons to separate works by different authors and commas to separate distinct,
chronologically ordered works by the same author. References are always ordered alphabetically
within strings by author. Note that de Montmollin is alphabetized here under “d,” as the name
would also be alphabetized in the References Cited section.
3.4.5 Two or more references by same author or authors in same year
(Jones and Brown 1972a, 1972b; Wilson 1973c) or Jones and Brown (1972a, 1972b) and
Note: When an individual or individuals have both authored and edited (or compiled)
publications with the same date, and both are cited, the edited (or compiled) volume is to be
distinguished in citation as follows. Example: (Adams, ed. 1977) or Adams (ed. 1977). Edited
(or compiled) volumes are so identified in the text only when potential ambiguity occurs. The
authored publication precedes the edited (or compiled) one in both citation and reference.
Example: (Flannery 1976; Flannery, ed. 1976) or Flannery (1976) and Flannery (ed. 1976).
3.4.6 Two authors, same surname, same year published
(J. Smith 1982; N. Smith 1982) or J. Smith (1982) and N. Smith (1982)
Note: When two authors with the same surname and the same year published are cited, the first
initial of each author is added to prevent ambiguity.
3.4.7 Two authors, same surname, different years published
(Smith 1982; Smith 1987) or Smith (1982), Smith (1987)
3.4.8 Government agency, company, or similar entity as author
(United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service [USDA, SCS] 1975)
Note: State the complete name of the agency, company, etc., as with any other citation, but if the
citation will occur more than once in the text, then abbreviate names to their commonly accepted
acronyms and place in brackets. Thereafter when mentioned in the text the citation will be, e.g.,
(USDA, SCS 1975) or USDA, SCS (1975).
3.4.9 Citation with pages, figures, or tables specified
(Smith 1977:3), (Jones and Wilson 1971:Figure 2), (Johnson et al. 1970:Table 1), (Taylor
1964:23, 72–78) or Smith (1977:3), Jones and Wilson (1971:Figure 2), Brown (1968:533–534),
Johnson et al. (1970:Table 1), Taylor (1964:23, 72–78)
Note: Use a colon to separate date of publication from additional information. There should be
no space between the colon and additional information. Page numbers must always be given
when direct quotations are used in the text, when other authors' ideas are directly paraphrased, or
when specific ideas or data are referenced from a long text. Always use full page numbers in a
citation, e.g., 312–315, not 312–15. Never use ff. or passim (however, it is permissible to use
“ff.” as an abbreviation for folios). Spell out and capitalise such words as Figure, Table, Plate,
etc. If citing a figure, table, etc., do not include the page number on which it occurs unless
additional, separate textual information from that page is being cited as well.
3.4.10 Multivolume set
(Thwaites 1896–1901:17:232–236, 19:197) or Thwaites (1896–1901:17:232–236, 19:197)
Note: In this example, “17” and “19” refer to the volume numbers. Volume number should be
cited exactly as it appears in the series, i.e., in Roman numerals or in Arabic numerals.
3.4.11 Forthcoming book or article in journal issue in press
(Kuttruff 1992) or Kuttruff (1992)
Note: Everything has a date. Never use “n.d.” or “in press” with in-text citations. Give date either
of manuscript completion (in the case of a manuscript that is “on file” somewhere), or of
manuscript submission or anticipated publication date for an item that has been accepted for
publication. Also see subsection 3.9.20 below.
3.4.12 No author specified
Cite the group or agency issuing the report or the publisher.
(United Nations 1963), (Committee on Ethics 1977), or United Nations (1963), Committee on
Note: Also see subsection 3.9.6 below.
3.4.13 Primary-source materials (e.g., unpublished archival materials including administrative
records, letters, etc.)
Citations for much primary-source material will be archive specific, so that it is impossible to
devise a rote formula for citation. It is important to include the name of the archive, title of the
work (if named), nature of the material (e.g., letter [optional], collection name, identification
number (legajo, fascicle, folio, etc.), date (if known), and geographic location of material.
Consider the following examples:
(Archivo General de la Nación, Lima [AGN], Juzgado de Aguas 220.127.116.11, f. 3v); note that
subsequent citations would use only the acronym AGN and the shortened “Aguas” (e.g., AGN,
Aguas 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124)
(Archivo General de Indias, Seville [AGI], Papeles de Cuba, legajo 2365, f. 345); subsequent
citation = (AGI, Cuba, legajo 2365, f. 523)
(McHenry County Courthouse, Woodstock, Illinois [MCC] 1880: Deed Book [DB] 1:5);
subsequent citation = (MCC 1890:DB 2:10)
(Raimond Quenel, Etienne Govreau, and Marie Louise Quenel to de Gruys Verloins, sale of
property, 8 February 1752, Kaskaskia Manuscripts [KM], Office of Randolph County Clerk,
Chester, Illinois); subsequent citation = (KM 52:2:8:1)
(F. Boas to E. B. Howard, letter, 9 May 1935, Boas Papers, American Philosophical Society,
Note: Primary-source citations appear only in the text and are not duplicated in the References
Cited section. If you are citing primary-source material from a published source, you must follow
conventional citation rules in the text and in the References Cited. It is preferable to cite Latin
American codices by the editor of the particular edition of the codex used (unless the actual
document was consulted), e.g., (Dibble 1980) for the sixteenth-century Codice Xolotl. See
corresponding example in subsection 3.9.3.
3.4.14 Earlier edition specified
In cases where many years separate the original publication of an item and a reprinted edition,
and where it is important to the author's argument to indicate the use of period sources, the
original date of publication should be placed in brackets following citation, in usual fashion, of
the reprint edition.
(Cobo 1956:169 )
(Russell and Erwin 1980 )
Note: See corresponding examples in subsection 3.9.5.
(Weekly Missouri Courier [WMC], 7 July 1838:page numbers [if available])
Note: After first mention, simply use WMC with date and page. Also see subsection 3.9.12.
3.4.16 Personal communication, no publication involved
(Katharina Schreiber, personal communication 1990) or Katharina Schreiber (personal
Note: Give full name and date. Personal communications should be used sparingly and should
never be used when a published citation is available for the same information. Written
permission to use any information provided in a personal communication must be obtained from
the person(s) providing it. Personal communication citations appear only in the text and are not
duplicated in the References Cited section.
3.4.17 Web pages and electronic documents
Treat web pages and electronic documents as published data, but cite the document
accordingly as a single- or multiple-authored document, or as one produced by a group or agency
(no author specified). For example:
(Glascock 2001; Shackley 2001) or Glascock (2001), Shackley (2001); likewise, for a group
citation use (Northwest Research Obsidian Studies Laboratory 2001), or Northwest Research
Obsidian Laboratories (2001).
3.5 Citations and References in REVIEWS and BOOK NOTES
References in REVIEWS should be used sparingly if at all; they are never used in BOOK
NOTES. When they occur, they should be placed in the text, in shortened form, enclosed in
1. Article: (Ashmore, Latin American Antiquity 2:199–225).
2. Book: (Willey, Introduction to American Archaeology, vol. 1, 1966).
3. Review: (Tilley, Review of Binford, American Antiquity 57:164–166).
4. Citations to the book under review require only the page numbers: (p. 5), (pp. 83–89).
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested