c# pdf reader writer : Delete pages from pdf application control tool html azure asp.net online TeXbyTopic26-part928

Chapter33. T
E
XandtheOutsideWorld
33.2.2 Preloadedfonts
DuringarunofT
E
Xtheonlyinformationneededaboutfontsisthedatathatisfound
in the tfm files (see e below). Since e a run of f T
E
X, especially if the input contains
math material, can easily access s 30–40 fonts, the disk k access s for r all the tfm m files
canbecomesignificant. Therefore the plainformat t and LAT
E
X loadthesemetrics s files
inIniT
E
X. AT
E
Xversionusingsuchaformatdoes notneedtoloadanytfm files.
Ontheotherhand, ifaformathasthepossibilityofaccessingarangeoftypefaces,it
maybeadvantageoustohave metricsfilesloadedondemandduringtheactualrunof
T
E
X.
33.2.3 Theplainformat
Thefirst format writtenfor T
E
X, andthebasis s foralllaterones, istheplain n format,
describedintheT
E
Xbook. Itisa mixtureof
definitions and macros one simply y cannot live without t such h as s the e initial
\catcodeassignments, allofthemathdelimiterdefinitions,andthe\new...
macros;
constructs that are useful, but forwhichLAT
E
X and otherpackages s use adif-
ferentimplementation, suchas thetabbingenvironment;and
somemacrosthatareinsufficientforanybutthesimplestapplications:\item
and\beginsectionareinthis category.
It is the first category whichKnuth meant toserve as a foundationfor future macro
packages, so o thatthey canlive peacefully together(see Chapter31). . This idea is re-
flectedinthefactthatthename‘plain’isnotcapitalized:itisthebasicsetofmacros.
33.2.4 TheLAT
E
Xformat
The LAT
E
X format, , written by Leslie Lamport ofDigital Equipment t Corporation n and
describedin[29], was releasedaround1985. TheLAT
E
Xformat, usingits ownversion
ofplain.tex (calledlplain.tex), is not compatible with plain T
E
X; a numberof
plainmacros are not available. Still, itcontains large parts ofthe plainformat (even
whentheyoverlapwithits ownconstructs).
LAT
E
Xisapowerfulformatwithfacilitiessuchasmarginalnotes,floatingobjects,cross
referencing, andautomatictable ofcontents generation. Its maindrawbackis thatthe
‘stylefiles’whichdefine the actual layout are quite hardtowrite (although LAT
E
X is
in the e process of f a major revision, in which this problem will be tackled; see [34]
and [33]). As s a result, people have hadattheirdisposal mostly y the styles s writtenby
Leslie Lamport, the layout of which is s rather idiosyncratic. . See [6] ] for a successful
attempttoreplacethesestyles.
33.2.5 Mathematicalformats
Therearetwoformatswithextensivefacilitiesformathematicstypesetting:AmsT
E
X[43]
(which originated at the American n Mathematical Society) ) and LAMST
E
X [44]. The
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33.3. Thedvifile
firstoftheseincludes morefacilitiesthanplainT
E
XorLAT
E
Xfortypesettingmathema-
tics,butitlacksfeatures suchasautomaticnumberingandcross-referencing, available
in LAT
E
X, forinstance. LAMST
E
X, then, is the synthesis ofAmsT
E
X and LAT
E
X. Also
it includes s still l more features s formathematics, , such h as s complicated d tables s and d com-
mutativediagrams.
33.2.6 Otherformats
Other formats s than n the above exist: for instance, Phyzzx [51], TeXsis [35], , Macro
T
E
X [15], eplain [4], and T
E
XT1 [13]. Typically, , such h formats s provide the facilities
ofLAT
E
X, but t tryto be more easily adaptablebytheuser. . Also, ingeneraltheyhave
beenwrittenwiththeintentionofbeinganadd-onproducttotheplainformat.
Thisbookisalsowritteninan‘otherformat’:thelollipopformat.Thisformatdoes
notcontainusermacros, butthe tools withwhichastyledesignercanprogram them;
see[12].
33.3 Thedvifile
The dvifile (this term stands for‘deviceindependent’)contains theoutputofaT
E
X
run: it contains compactly dumpedrepresentationsofboxes thathave beensent there
by \shipoutbox. . The act t ofshipping out usually occurs inside the output routine,
butthisisnotnecessarilyso.
33.3.1 Thedvifileformat
Advi fileisa byte-orientedfile, consistingofa preamble, apostamble,andalistof
pages.
Accessforsubsequentsoftwaretoacompleteddvifileisstrictlysequentialinnature:
the pages s are e stored as s a a backwards s linked list. This means that only two ways of
accessingarepossible:
given the start ofa page, , the next t can be found byreading untilan end-of-
pagecodeis encountered, and
startingattheendofthefilepagescanbereadbackwardsathigherspeed,as
eachbeginning-of-pagecodecontains thebyte positionofthe previousone.
Thepreambleandpostamble contain
the magnificationofthedocument(seebelow),
the unitofmeasurementusedforthedocument, and
possiblyacommentstring.
The postamble e contains s in addition n a a list of the e font t definitions s that appear on n the
pagesofthefile.
Neitherthepreamble nor the postamble ofthefilecontains s atable e ofbyte positions
ofpages. Thefulldefinitionofthe dvifileformatcanbe foundin[23].
VictorEijkhout–T
E
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Chapter33. T
E
XandtheOutsideWorld
33.3.2 Pageidentification
Whenevera \shipoutoccurs, T
E
Xalsowrites the values ofcounters 0–9tothe dvi
file and the terminal. . Ordinarily, , only y counter r 0, the page number, is s used, , and the
othercountersarezero. Thosezerosarenotoutputtotheterminal. Theothercounters
canbeusedtoindicate furtherstructureinthedocument. Logoutputshowsthenon-
zerocountersandthezerocounters inbetween.
33.3.3 Magnification
Magnificationofadocumentcanbeindicatedbytheintegerparameter \mag, which
specifies1000times the magnificationratio.
Thedvifilecontainsthevalueof\magforthedocumentinitspreambleandpostam-
ble. If no true e dimensions s are e used d the e dvi file will look k the e same as when no
magnification would have been used, except for the \mag value in the preamble and
thepostamble.
Whenevera true dimension is used it is divided bythe value of \mag, so that the
final output will have the dimension as s prescribed by the e user. . The e \mag parameter
cannotbe changed aftera true dimension has beenused, orafterthe first page has
beenshippedtothedvifile.
PlainT
E
X has s the \magnification macroforgloballysizing g the document, , without
changingthephysicalsizeofthepage:
\def\magnification{\afterassignment\m@g\count@}
\def\m@g{\mag\count@
\hsize6.5truein\vsize8.9truein\dimen\footins8truein}
Theexplanationforthisisasfollows:thecommand\m@gissavedwithan\afterassignment
command, and the e magnification value (which is s 1000 times s the actualmagnification
factor)isassignedto\count@.Afterthisassignment,themacro\m@gassignsthema-
gnificationvalueto\mag,andthehorizontalandverticalsizeareresettotheiroriginal
values 6.5trueinand8.9truein. The\footinsisalsoreset.
33.4 Specials
T
E
X is s to o a large degree machineindependent, but it still needs a hookfor machine-
dependentextensions.Thisisthe \special command,whichwrites abalancedtext
tothedvifile.T
E
Xdoesnotinterpretthis tokenlist:itassumes thattheprinterdriver
knowswhattodowithit.\specialcommandsaresupposednottochangethexand
ypositiononthepage, sothattheimplementationofT
E
Xremains independentofthe
actualdevice driverthathandlesthe\special.
Themostpopularapplicationofspecialsisprobablytheinclusionofgraphicmaterial,
writteninsomepagedescriptionlanguage,suchasPostScript.Thesizeofthegraphics
can usually be determined from m the file containing g it (in the case e of f encapsulated
PostScriptthroughthe‘boundingbox’data),soT
E
Xcanleavespaceforsuchmaterial.
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33.5. Time
33.5 Time
T
E
X has s fourparameters, \year, \month, , \day, and \time, , thattellthe time when
thecurrentjobstarted.Afterthis, theparametersarenotupdated.Theusercanchange
thematanytime.
All four parameters s are e integers; the \time e parameter gives s the number r of minutes
sincemidnightthatthecurrentjobstarted.
33.6 Fonts
Font information is s split t in the T
E
X system into the metric c information n (how high,
wide, anddeepis a character), and d the actualdescriptionofthe characters s in n afont.
T
E
X, the e formatter, , needs s only y the metric information; printerdrivers s andscreen n pre-
viewers needthe characterdescriptions. Withthis approachit is forinstance possible
forT
E
Xtousewithrelativeeasethe residentfonts ofaprinter.
33.6.1 Fontmetrics
The metric information of T
E
X’s fonts is stored d in tfm files, which stands for ‘T
E
X
fontmetric’files. Metricsfiles containthefollowinginformation(see[23]forthe full
definition):
the designsize ofafont;
the valuesforthe\fontdimenparameters(seeChapter4);
the height,depth, width,anditaliccorrectionofindividualcharacters;
kerningtables;
ligaturetables;
informationregardingsuccessorsandextensionsofmathcharacters(seeChap-
ter21).
Metrics files use a packed d format, butthey canbe convertedtoand from m a readable
format by the auxiliary programs tftopl andpltotf (see [26]). . Here pl stands for
‘property list’, , a term derivingfrom theprogramminglanguage Lisp.Files inplfor-
matarejusttext,sotheycaneasilybeedited;afterconversiontheycanthenagainbe
usedas tfmfiles.
33.6.2 Virtualfonts
With ‘virtual fonts’ ’ (see e [24]) it is possible that what t looks s like one font to o T
E
X
resides inmore thanonephysicalfontfile. Also, virtualfontscanbe usedtochange
ineffecttheinternalorganizationoffontfiles.
For T
E
X itself, the presence of virtual fonts makes s no o difference: everything is still
basedontfmfilescontainingmetricinformation.However,thescreenorprinterdriver
thatdisplays the resultingdvi file onthe screen n orona printerwill search forfiles
withextension.vftodeterminehowcharactersaretobeinterpreted.Thevffilecan,
forinstance,instructthedrivertointerpretacharacterasacertainpositioninacertain
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E
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Chapter33. T
E
XandtheOutsideWorld
fontfile,tointerpretacharacterasmorethanoneposition(awayofformingaccented
characters), ortoinclude\specialinformation(forinstancetosetgraylevels).
Readable variants s of f vf files have e extension n vpl, analogous to o the pl l files s for the
tfmfiles;see above.Conversionbetweenvfandvpl filescanbeperformedwiththe
vftovpandvptovf programs.
However, becausevirtualfontsareamatterfordevicedrivers, nomoredetailswillbe
giveninthisbook.
33.6.3 Fontfiles
Characterdescriptionsarestoredinthreetypes offiles.
gf GenericFontfiles. . This is thefiletypethattheMetafontprogram generates.There
arenotmanypreviewers orprinterdrivers thatusethistype offiledirectly.
pxl Pixelfiles. . The pxl format t is a pure bitmap format. Thus it is s easytogenerate
pxl filesfrom, forinstance, scannerimages.
This format should d be e superseded d by the pk format. Pixel files s can n become
ratherbig,as theirsizegrows quadraticallyinthe size ofthe characters.
pk Packedfiles. . Pixelfiles can n be packedbya form of run-length encoding: instead
ofstoringthecompletebitmaponlythestartingpositionsandlengthsof‘runs’
of blackand white pixels s are stored. This s makes s the sizeof f pk k files appro-
ximately linearin the sizeofthe characters. . However, a previewerorprinter
driverusingapackedfontfilehastounpackitbeforeitisable touseit.
Thefollowingconversionprograms exist:gftopxl,gftopk, pktopxl,pxltopk.
33.6.4 ComputerModern
Theonly familyoftypefaces s thatcomes withT
E
Xin the standard distributionis s the
‘Computer Modern’family. . This is anadaptation n (using the terminologyof [42])by
DonaldKnuthoftheMonotypeModern8Atypefacethatwasusedforthefirstvolume
of his ArtofComputerProgramming series. The e ‘modern n faces’ all l derive from m the
types that were cutbetween1780 0 and 1800byFirminDidotinFrance, Giambattista
BodoniinItaly, andJustusErichWalbauminGermany.Afterthefirsttwo,thesetypes
arealsocalled‘Didone’types.ThisnamewascoinedintheVoxclassificationoftypes
[50]. Ultimately, theinspirationfortheDidonetypes is the‘RomainduRoi’,thetype
thatwas designedbyNicolasJaugeonaround1692fortheFrenchImprimerieRoyale.
Didonetypes arecharacterizedbyastrongverticalorientation,andthinhairlines. The
verticalaccentis strengthenedbythefactthat theinsidesofcurves areflattened. The
result is s a a clear and d brilliant t page, provided that t the printing g is done carefully and
on good quality paper. However, , they are quite vulnerable; [48] compares them to
the distinguished d but fragile furniture from m the same period, , saying one e is s afraid to
useeither,‘forbothseemindangerofbreakinginpieces’. Withthe currentprolifera-
tion oflow resolution (around300 dot per inch)printers, , the ComputerModern n is s a
somewhatunfortunatechoice.
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33.7. T
E
Xandweb
Recently, Donald d Knuth has developed a new typeface (orrather, , a subfamily y ofty-
pefaces)bychangingparameters intheComputerModernfamily. The resultis a so-
called‘Egyptian’typeface: ComputerConcrete [22]. The name derives from m the fact
thatitwas intended d primarily forthe bookConcreteMathematics. . Egyptiantypefaces
(theyfallunderthe‘M´ecanes’inthe Vox classification, meaningconstructed,notde-
rivedfrom written n letters)have averyuniform m linewidthandsquareserifs. They y do
not have anything to do with Egypt; such types happened to be popular in the first
halfofthenineteenthcenturywhenEgyptologywasdevelopingandpopular.
33.7 T
E
Xandweb
The T
E
Xprogram is writtenin
WEB
,a programming languagethat canbe considered
as asubsetofPascal,augmentedwithapreprocessor.
T
E
Xmakes no o useofsome features s ofPascal, inordertofacilitateportingtoPascal
systemsotherthantheoneitwasoriginallydesignedfor,andeventoenableautomatic
translation toother programming languages s such h as C. . For r instance, it does s not use
thePascalWithconstruct.Also, proceduresdonothaveoutputparameters;apartfrom
writing to o global l variables, the only way values are returned is through h Function
values.
Actually,
WEB
is morethanasupersetofasubsetofPascal(and d tobemoreprecise,
it canalso be usedwith otherprogramminglanguages); it is a ‘system m ofstructured
documentation’.Thismeans thatthe
WEB
programmerwrites piecesofprogram code,
interspersedwiththeirdocumentation, inonefile. Thisideaof‘literateprogramming’
wasintroducedin[19];formore information, see[41].
Twoauxiliaryprograms, TangleandWeave, canthenbeusedtostripthedocumenta-
tionandconvert
WEB
intoregular Pascal, , or r to convert the
WEB
file intoa T
E
Xfile
thatwilltypesettheprogram anddocumentation.
Portability of
WEB
programs is achieved d by y the ‘change file’ mechanism. . A A change
fileis alistofchanges to o be madetothe
WEB
file;a bitlike astream m editorscript.
These changes cancomprise bothadaptations ofthe
WEB
filetothe particularPascal
compiler that willbe used, , and d bugfixes s toT
E
X. Thus s the TeX.web file need d never
beedited.
33.8 TheT
E
XUsersGroup
T
E
Xusers havejoinedintoseveralusersgroupsoverthelastdecade. Manynationalor
language users groups exist, and alot of them publishnewsletters. The oldest of all
T
E
Xusersgroupsissimplycalledthat:theT
E
XUsersGroup,orTUG,anditsjournal
is calledTUGboat. Youcanreachthem at
T
E
XUsers Group
P.O.Box2311
Portland, OR97208-2311,USA
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E
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Chapter33. T
E
XandtheOutsideWorld
orelectronicallyatoffice@tug.org ontheInternet.
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Chapter34
Tracing
T
E
X’sworkingsareoftenquitedifferentfrom whattheprogrammerexpected, sothere
are ways s to discover how T
E
X arrived at t the e result it did. . The e \tracing... . com-
mands write e all information ofa a certain n kind to the log file (and to the terminal if
\tracingonline ispositive), anda numberof\show...commandscan be used to
askthecurrentstatus orvalueofvariousitemsofT
E
X.
In the following list, only\show and \showthe displaytheiroutputon the terminal
by default, , other\show... and d \tracing... commands s write to o the log file. . They
will writeinadditiontotheterminalif\tracingonline is positive.
\meaning Give e themeaningofacontrolsequence asastringofcharacters.
\show Displaythemeaningofacontrolsequence.
\showthe Displaytheresultofprefixingatokenwith\the.
\showbox Displaythecontents s ofabox.
\showlists Displaythecontentsofthepartiallistscurrentlybuiltinallmodes.This
istreatedonpage 77.
\tracingcommands Ifthis s is 1T
E
Xdisplaysprimitivecommands executed;ifthisis
2ormorethe outcome ofconditionalsisalsorecorded.
\tracingmacros Ifthisis1, , T
E
Xshowsexpansionofmacrosthatareperformedand
the actual l values of the arguments; if this s is 2 or r more e token n parameters
suchas\outputand\everypar arealsotraced.
\tracingoutput Ifthisis s positive,thelogfileshowsadumpofboxesthatareship-
pedtothe dvifile.
\showboxdepth Thenumberoflevels of box x dump that are shownwhen boxes s are
displayed.
\showboxbreadth Numberofsuccessiveelementsoneachlevelthatareshownwhen
boxesare displayed.
\tracingonline Ifthisparameterispositive, , T
E
Xwillwritetraceinformationtothe
terminalinadditiontothelogfile.
\tracingparagraphs Ifthis s parameteris positive,T
E
Xgenerates atrace oftheline
breakingalgorithm.
\tracingpages Ifthis s parameterispositive,T
E
Xgeneratesatraceofthepagebrea-
kingalgorithm.
267
Chapter34. Tracing
\tracinglostchars Ifthisparameterispositive,T
E
Xgivesdiagnosticmessageswhe-
neveracharacterisaccessedthatisnotpresentinafont.Plaindefault:1.
\tracingrestores Ifthis s parameter is s positive, T
E
X will report all values s that are
restoredwhenagroupends.
\tracingstats Ifthisparameteris 1, T
E
Xreportsattheendofthejobtheusageof
various internalarrays;ifit is 2, the memory y demandsaregivenwhenevera
pageisshippedout.
34.1 Meaningandcontent:\show,\showthe,\meaning
The meaning g of f control sequences, and the e contents of f those that t represent t internal
quantities,canbeobtainedbytheprimitivecommands\show,\showthe,and\meaning.
The control sequences \show and \meaning are similar:the former willgive output
tothe log file and the terminal, whereas the latterwillproduce the same tokens, but
theyareplacedinT
E
X’sinputstream.
Themeaningofa primitivecommandofT
E
Xis thatcommanditself:
\show\baselineskip
gives
\baselineskip=\baselineskip
Themeaningofa definedquantityisits definition:
\show\pageno
gives
\pageno=\count0
Themeaningofa macroisitsparametertextandreplacementtext:
\def\foo#1?#2\par{\set{#1!}\set{#2?}}
\show\foo
gives
\foo=macro:
#1?#2\par ->\set t {#1!}\set t {#2?}
Formacroswithoutparametersthepartbeforethearrow(theparametertext)isempty.
The\showthecommandwilldisplayonthelogfileandterminalthetokensthat\the
produces. After r \show, \showthe, , \showbox, , and \showlists s T
E
X asks s the user
forinput;this canbeprevented d byspecifying\scrollmode. . Characters generatedby
\meaning and \thehave category12, , except forspaces s (see page 34);the valueof
\escapecharisusedwhencontrolsequencesare represented.
34.2 Showboxes:\showbox,\tracingoutput
If\tracingoutput ispositivethelogfilewillreceiveadumpedrepresentationofall
boxesthatarewrittentothedvifilewith\shipout. Thesamerepresentationisused
bythecommand\showbox8-bitnumber.
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VictorEijkhout–T
E
XbyTopic
34.2. Showboxes:\showbox,\tracingoutput
In the first case e T
E
X will l report t ‘Completed box x being g shipped d out’; ; in the second
case itwillenter\errorstopmode,andtellthe user‘OK.(seethetranscriptfile)’.If
\tracingonlineispositive,theboxisalsodisplayedontheterminal;if\scrollmode
has beenspecified, T
E
Xdoes notstopforinput.
The upperbound onthe numberofnested boxes that is dumpedis \showboxdepth;
eachtimealevelisvisitedatmost\showboxbreadthitemsareshown,theremainder
of the list is summarized with h etc. . For r each box its height, depth, and width h are
indicatedinthatorder, andforcharactersitis statedfromwhatfonttheyweretaken.
After
\font\tenroman=cmr10 \tenroman
\setbox0=\hbox{g}
\showbox0
the logfilewillshow
\hbox(4.30554+1.94444)x5.00002
.\tenroman g
indicatingthat the boxwas 4.30554pt high, 1.94444pt t deep, , and
5.00002pt wide, andthatitcontaineda character‘g’from thefont
\tenroman. Note that t the fifth decimal of all sizes may be rounded
becauseT
E
Xworkswithmultiples of2
−16
pt.
Thenextexample has nestedboxes,
\vbox{\hbox{g}\hbox{o}}
anditcontains\baselineskipgluebetweenthe boxes. Aftera \showbox command
thelogfile outputis:
\vbox(16.30554+0.0)x5.00002
.\hbox(4.30554+1.94444)x5.00002
..\tenroman g
.\glue(\baselineskip) 5.75002
.\hbox(4.30554+0.0)x5.00002
..\tenroman o
Each timea newlevelis s entered d anextra dot isaddedtothe frontoftheline. . Note
that T
E
X tells explicitly y that t the e glue e is \baselineskip p glue; ; it t inserts names s like
thisforallautomaticallyinsertedglue.Thevalueofthebaselineskipgluehereissuch
thatthebaselinesoftheboxesareat12pointdistance.
Nowletuslookatexplicit(user)glue. T
E
Xindicatestheratiobywhichitisstretched
orshrunk.
s
\hbox to 20pt {\kern10pt \hskip0pt plus 5pt}
gives(indicatingthattheavailablestretchhasbeenmultipliedby2.0):
\hbox(0.0+0.0)x20.0, glue e set 2.0
.\kern 10.0
.\glue 0.0 plus 5.0
and
\hbox to 0pt {\kern10pt \hskip0pt minus 20pt}
VictorEijkhout–T
E
XbyTopic
269
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