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Selected characteristic and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
race and Hispanic origin of mother
All births 1
Characteristic                                                                                   
reported
All          
ages
Under 20   
years
20-24    
years
25-29    
years
30-34    
years
35-39    
years
40-54    
years
Not     
stated 2 
All races 3
Mother received WIC food for herself 
during this pregnancy 
3,412,436
1,571,452
47.0
81.2
68.5
44.0
30.7
29.5
30.0
71,614
Infant was being breastfed at 
discharge 4
2,897,658
2,193,707
77.5
66.0
70.7
79.0
82.8
82.8
82.1
65,610
White 5
Mother received WIC food for herself 
during this pregnancy 
1,799,992
573,107
32.4
77.0
59.2
29.5
16.9
14.7
14.8
31,491
Infant was being breastfed at 
discharge 4
1,656,323
1,280,006
78.7
64.3
70.9
80.2
83.6
83.0
82.5
29,736
Black 5
Mother received WIC food for herself 
during this pregnancy 
472,245
314,084
68.0
82.1
76.7
66.4
56.8
51.2
47.6
10,067
Infant was being breastfed at 
discharge 4
442,648
270,420
63.1
52.0
57.5
65.0
70.6
73.7
74.5
13,893
Hispanic  6 
Mother received WIC food for herself 
during this pregnancy 
809,687
567,725
71.1
85.6
79.5
69.1
61.9
60.7
61.0
11,095
Infant was being breastfed at 
discharge 4
563,403
465,126
83.6
79.6
81.7
84.4
85.8
86.3
85.8
7,215
1
Total number of births to residents of areas reporting specified items.
3  Includes other races not shown and origin not stated.
6
Includes all persons of Hispanic origin of any race.
NOTE: Includes California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, 
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, 
Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
Table 5. Mother received WIC food for herself during this pregnancy and infant was being breastfed at discharge, by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother: 
Total of 38 reporting states and the District of Columbia, 2012
Percent
2  No response reported for selected characteristic; includes births to residents of states using the 2003 Standard Certificate of Live Birth occurring in 
states using the 1989 Standard Certificate of Live Birth (____ percent).  See "Technical Notes."
4  Excludes data for California which did not report infant was being breastfed at discharge; also excludes data for Delaware (see "Technical Notes").
5
Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on the birth certificate.  Race categories are consistent with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget 
standards; see "Technical Notes." Data by race are non-Hispanic and exclude mothers reporting multiple races.
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Documentation Table 6. Pregnancy risk factors, by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother: Total of 38 reporting states and the District of Columbia, 2012
[Rates are number of live births with specified risk factor per 1,000 live births in specified group]
Risk factor and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
race and Hispanic origin of mother 
All            
births 1
Factor                                                                                
reported
All          
ages
Under 20   
years
20-24    
years
25-29    
years
30-34    
years
35-39    
years
40-54    
years
Not     
stated 2
All races 3
Diabetes
Prepregnancy (Diagnosis prior to this pregnancy)
3,412,436
25,694
7.6
3.1
4.6
6.5
8.9
13.2
18.4
20,713
Gestational (Diagnosis in this pregnancy)
3,412,436
176,252
52.0
17.4
28.9
47.4
64.4
88.9
110.6
20,713
Hypertension
Prepregnancy (Chronic)
3,412,436
48,703
14.4
5.0
8.2
12.3
16.9
26.0
37.8
20,713
Gestational (PIH, preeclampsia)
3,412,436
158,657
46.8
49.7
45.3
45.9
44.9
49.7
63.2
20,713
Eclampsia 4
2,827,179
7,030
2.5
3.1
2.6
2.3
2.3
2.6
3.5
17,503
Previous preterm birth
3,412,436
82,197
24.2
6.5
20.3
25.5
27.6
31.4
32.2
20,713
Other previous poor pregnancy outcome 
3,412,436
75,109
22.1
7.7
17.4
21.9
25.2
30.7
38.8
20,713
Pregnancy resulted from infertility treatment
3,412,436
50,744
15.0
0.2
1.7
9.7
21.2
34.5
76.4
20,713
Mother had a previous cesarean delivery 5
2,263,252
479,768
213.0
113.7
172.9
202.2
229.0
261.2
271.7
11,040
White 6
Diabetes
Prepregnancy (Diagnosis prior to this pregnancy)
1,799,992
11,657
6.5
3.6
4.8
5.7
7.1
9.7
12.9
5,546
Gestational (Diagnosis in this pregnancy)
1,799,992
86,395
48.1
20.9
30.2
43.9
54.7
74.4
95.9
5,546
Hypertension
Prepregnancy (Chronic)
1,799,992
24,477
13.6
5.1
8.0
11.8
15.5
22.8
31.3
5,546
Gestational (PIH, preeclampsia)
1,799,992
91,392
50.9
55.5
50.5
51.2
48.2
51.6
65.1
5,546
Eclampsia 4
1,402,087
3,616
2.6
3.1
2.8
2.4
2.4
2.7
4.0
4,854
Previous preterm birth
1,799,992
45,692
25.5
6.2
21.1
25.5
28.1
33.3
33.8
5,546
Other previous poor pregnancy outcome 
1,799,992
44,618
24.9
9.3
19.3
23.2
27.4
34.6
45.3
5,546
Pregnancy resulted from infertility treatment
1,799,992
38,952
21.7
0.2
2.7
14.1
28.5
47.0
103.9
5,546
Mother had a previous cesarean delivery 5
1,170,047
238,952
204.7
97.1
163.0
189.0
218.8
250.7
263.2
2,521
Black 6
Diabetes
Prepregnancy (Diagnosis prior to this pregnancy)
472,245
4,986
10.6
3.8
5.6
9.8
15.4
23.9
33.2
3,294
Gestational (Diagnosis in this pregnancy)
472,245
20,249
43.2
13.4
24.2
43.9
65.7
85.7
99.4
3,294
Hypertension
Prepregnancy (Chronic)
472,245
14,178
30.2
8.3
14.7
28.6
44.4
72.0
93.3
3,294
Gestational (PIH, preeclampsia)
472,245
27,685
59.0
59.9
54.1
56.5
62.9
68.9
78.8
3,294
Eclampsia 4
387,472
1,562
4.1
4.4
3.7
3.8
4.2
4.7
5.8
2,905
Previous preterm birth
472,245
16,143
34.4
8.5
27.2
40.8
46.1
49.0
46.4
3,294
Other previous poor pregnancy outcome 
472,245
13,779
29.4
9.6
23.1
33.6
37.1
44.3
49.7
3,294
Pregnancy resulted from infertility treatment
472,245
2,118
4.5
*
0.6
2.6
7.2
14.9
36.9
3,294
Mother had a previous cesarean delivery 5
321,349
70,123
219.0
117.0
183.8
223.3
245.3
272.6
282.7
1,094
Hispanic  7 
Diabetes
Prepregnancy (Diagnosis prior to this pregnancy)
809,687
6,580
8.1
2.1
3.8
7.0
11.2
17.7
24.8
1,634
Gestational (Diagnosis in this pregnancy)
809,687
44,520
55.1
15.6
28.4
50.5
77.1
109.7
136.2
1,634
Hypertension
Prepregnancy (Chronic)
809,687
6,686
8.3
2.9
4.4
6.4
11.0
17.5
29.1
1,634
Gestational (PIH, preeclampsia)
809,687
29,369
36.3
38.6
32.9
33.2
35.8
45.4
59.3
1,634
Eclampsia 4
750,841
1,317
1.8
2.1
1.7
1.5
1.7
2.0
2.7
1,461
Previous preterm birth
809,687
14,475
17.9
5.3
14.3
19.8
22.5
24.3
26.2
1,634
Other previous poor pregnancy outcome 
809,687
11,389
14.1
4.7
10.3
15.0
17.7
21.2
25.3
1,634
Pregnancy resulted from infertility treatment
809,687
3,564
4.4
*
0.6
2.9
6.5
12.1
27.1
1,634
Mother had a previous cesarean delivery 5
566,513
127,853
226.1
128.5
184.5
222.1
248.1
277.6
284.0
980
 Figure does not meet standards of reliability or precision; based on fewer than 20 births in the numerator.
1  Total number of births to residents of areas reporting specified pregnancy risk factor.
 Includes other races not shown and origin not stated.
 Excludes data for Idaho, Kentucky, Michigan, Nebraska, New York City, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington.
 Excludes women who have not had a previous pregnancy and for whom total birth order is unknown.
7  Includes all persons of Hispanic origin of any race.
per 1,000
 No response reported for pregnancy risk factor item; includes births to residents of states using the 2003 Standard Certificate of Live Birth occurring in states using the 
1989 Standard Certificate of Live Birth (___percent).  See "Technical Notes".
 Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on the birth certificate.  Race categories are consistent with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget standards; see 
"Technical Notes." Data by race are non-Hispanic and exclude mothers reporting multiple races.
NOTE: Includes California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, 
South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
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Infection and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
race and Hispanic origin of mother
All            
births 1
Infection                                                                                   
reported
All          
ages
Under 20   
years
20-24    
years
25-29    
years
30-34    
years
35-39    
years
40-54    
years
Not     
stated 2
All races 3
Gonorrhea
3,412,436
9,140
269.9
850.7
495.5
192.6
91.8
72.3
58.8
25,632
Syphilis
3,412,436
1,987
58.7
74.1
83.1
49.6
39.7
55.9
89.8
25,632
Chlamydia
3,412,436
62,194
1,836.4
6,101.9
3,566.3
1,207.1
533.5
372.8
319.1
25,632
Hepatitis B
3,412,436
8,010
236.5
85.1
164.8
238.8
280.8
342.8
362.0
25,632
Hepatitis C
3,412,436
8,743
258.1
108.6
295.2
309.6
239.8
206.7
233.4
25,632
White 4
Gonorrhea
1,799,992
2,282
127.3
387.0
246.9
104.4
57.3
48.8
40.0
7,294
Syphilis
1,799,992
443
24.7
24.4
35.7
22.5
18.8
23.7
*
7,294
Chlamydia
1,799,992
20,493
1,143.1
4,604.4
2,553.1
775.3
333.1
219.6
230.5
7,294
Hepatitis B
1,799,992
1,255
70.0
47.7
67.0
75.1
67.3
79.4
66.7
7,294
Hepatitis C
1,799,992
6,217
346.8
139.2
442.5
415.5
289.2
253.4
299.1
7,294
Black 4
Gonorrhea
472,245
5,006
1,070.2
2,510.3
1,487.8
754.4
369.1
260.4
176.8
4,493
Syphilis
472,245
1,044
223.2
235.6
257.7
203.8
158.9
227.2
387.2
4,493
Chlamydia
472,245
23,062
4,930.4
11,690.0
7,150.4
3,229.0
1,578.3
977.5
681.8
4,493
Hepatitis B
472,245
1,820
389.1
119.5
271.1
406.7
555.4
655.6
808.0
4,493
Hepatitis C
472,245
711
152.0
82.6
145.0
157.2
176.0
201.2
168.3
4,493
Hispanic  5 
Gonorrhea
809,687
1,306
161.9
337.1
241.1
126.7
74.9
66.4
*
3,245
Syphilis
809,687
378
46.9
30.1
51.3
38.7
48.0
59.7
94.9
3,245
Chlamydia
809,687
14,470
1,794.3
4,166.3
2,856.9
1,277.7
672.3
524.7
343.5
3,245
Hepatitis B
809,687
883
109.5
83.7
127.8
107.8
107.7
88.9
153.7
3,245
Hepatitis C
809,687
1,178
146.1
89.1
155.3
154.8
159.1
141.9
126.6
3,245
 Figure does not meet standards of reliability or precision; based on fewer than 20 births in the numerator.
1  Total number of births to residents of areas reporting specified maternal morbidity.
 Includes other races not shown and origin not stated.
5
Includes all persons of Hispanic origin of any race.
per 100,000
 No response reported for infections treated and/or present during this pregnancy item; includes births to residents of states using the 2003 Standard 
Certificate of Live Birth occurring in states using the 1989 Standard Certificate of Live Birth (___percent).  See "Technical Notes".
 Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on the birth certificate.  Race categories are consistent with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget 
standards; see "Technical Notes." Data by race are non-Hispanic and exclude mothers reporting multiple races.
NOTE: Includes California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, 
Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
Documentation Table 7. Infections present and/or treated during this pregnancy, by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother: Total of 38 reporting states 
and the District of Columbia, 2012
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Month care began and race and Hispanic origin 
of mother
All          
ages
Under 20   
years
20-24    
years
25-29    
years
30-34    
years
35-39    
years
40-54    
years
All races 1
1st trimester
74.1
58.4
66.9
76.0
80.3
79.9
77.0
2nd trimester
19.9
31.1
25.2
18.6
15.4
15.7
17.9
Late or no care
6.0
10.4
7.9
5.4
4.3
4.3
5.2
3rd trimester
4.5
7.9
6.0
4.1
3.3
3.2
3.8
No care
1.5
2.5
1.9
1.3
1.0
1.1
1.4
Total
3,412,436
266,468
789,464
972,914
875,076
407,335
101,179
Not stated 2
115,767
10,335
28,823
31,257
27,765
13,758
3,829
White 3
1st trimester
79.0
64.0
71.0
80.3
84.1
83.8
80.9
2nd trimester
16.7
28.4
22.8
15.8
12.9
13.1
15.2
Late or no care
4.3
7.6
6.2
4.0
3.0
3.1
4.0
3rd trimester
3.4
6.2
4.9
3.1
2.4
2.4
3.0
No care
0.9
1.4
1.2
0.8
0.7
0.7
1.0
Total
1,799,992
98,866
371,697
545,207
511,430
220,044
52,748
Not stated 2
46,037
2,642
10,016
13,193
12,674
5,874
1,638
Black 3
1st trimester
63.6
51.9
60.2
66.5
69.5
70.0
67.0
2nd trimester
26.4
34.9
29.1
24.4
21.7
21.6
23.8
Late or no care
10.0
13.2
10.7
9.1
8.8
8.5
9.2
3rd trimester
7.0
9.5
7.4
6.4
6.3
6.0
6.5
No care
2.9
3.7
3.2
2.7
2.5
2.4
2.8
Total
472,245
57,576
150,510
121,281
88,247
42,633
11,998
Not stated 2
24,353
3,370
8,200
5,917
4,139
2,124
603
Hispanic  4 
1st trimester
69.0
57.1
65.3
71.2
74.1
74.3
71.7
2nd trimester
23.5
31.4
26.0
22.0
20.1
20.1
22.1
Late or no care
7.5
11.5
8.7
6.8
5.8
5.6
6.3
3rd trimester
5.5
8.6
6.5
5.0
4.2
4.0
4.4
No care
2.0
2.9
2.2
1.8
1.6
1.6
1.8
Total
809,687
93,454
215,201
217,918
171,666
89,218
22,230
Not stated 2
24,314
3,029
6,667
6,430
4,995
2,571
622
 Includes other races not shown and origin not stated.
4
Includes all persons of Hispanic origin of any race.
NOTE: Includes California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, 
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, 
New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, 
Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
Documentation Table 8. Month prenatal care began, by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother: Total of 38 reporting states and 
the District of Columbia, 2012
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
3
Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on the birth certificate.  Race categories are consistent with the 1997 Office of 
Management and Budget standards; see "Technical Notes." Data by race are non-Hispanic and exclude mothers reporting multiple races.
 No response reported for timing of prenatal care; includes births to residents of states using the 2003 Standard Certificate of 
Live Birth occurring in states using the 1989 Standard Certificate of Live Birth (___ percent).  See "Technical Notes."
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Documentation Table 9. Obstetric procedures, by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother: Total of 38 reporting states and the District of Columbia, 2012
[Rates are number of live births with specified obstetric procedure per 1,000 live births in specified group]
Abnormal condition and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
race and Hispanic origin of mother
All            
births 1
Procedure                                               
reported
All          
ages
Under 20   
years
20-24    
years
25-29    
years
30-34    
years
35-39    
years
40-54    
years
Not     
stated 2
All races 3
Cervical cerclage
3,412,436
11,993
3.5
1.6
2.4
3.4
4.2
5.4
5.9
21,998
Tocolysis
3,412,436
33,395
9.8
11.0
10.5
9.6
9.2
9.8
9.8
21,998
External cephalic version  4
3,273,953
9,645
3.0
2.2
2.4
3.0
3.3
3.7
3.7
20,329
Percent successful 4,5
3,273,953
5,823
60.4
62.3
57.2
60.0
60.8
63.0
61.3
20,329
White 6
Cervical cerclage
1,799,992
5,597
3.1
1.4
2.0
3.0
3.6
4.6
5.5
5,766
Tocolysis
1,799,992
18,665
10.4
12.6
11.1
10.2
9.8
10.2
10.2
5,766
External cephalic version  4
1,698,612
5,609
3.3
2.0
2.6
3.3
3.7
4.0
4.0
5,761
Percent successful 4,5
1,698,612
3,246
57.9
49.7
51.7
57.5
59.4
62.7
61.4
5,761
Black 6
Cervical cerclage
472,245
3,552
7.6
2.5
4.6
8.0
11.5
13.8
14.0
4,083
Tocolysis
472,245
6,654
14.2
15.4
14.7
13.9
13.6
13.5
11.6
4,083
External cephalic version  4
450,311
1,178
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.8
2.8
3.0
3.7
4,083
Percent successful 4,5
450,311
771
65.4
73.2
65.2
66.1
62.7
64.2
58.1
4,083
Hispanic  7 
Cervical cerclage
809,687
1,802
2.2
1.3
1.7
2.1
2.7
3.7
3.3
1,698
Tocolysis
809,687
5,540
6.9
6.6
6.8
6.6
6.7
8.0
7.9
1,698
External cephalic version  4
803,163
1,937
2.4
2.3
1.9
2.4
2.6
3.4
3.0
1,693
Percent successful 4,5
803,163
1,210
62.5
63.3
60.4
64.8
62.6
61.7
56.9
1,693
 Figure does not meet standards of reliability or precision; based on fewer than 20 births in the numerator.
1   Total number of births to residents of areas reporting specified obstetric procedure.
 Includes other races not shown and origin not stated.
4   Excludes data for Ohio (see "Technical Notes").
7  Includes all persons of Hispanic origin of any race.
per 1,000
 No response reported for obstetric procedure item; includes births to residents of states using the 2003 Standard Certificate of Live Birth occurring in 
states using the 1989 Standard Certificate of Live Birth (___percent).  See "Technical Notes".
 Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on the birth certificate.  Race categories are consistent with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget 
standards; see "Technical Notes." Data by race are non-Hispanic and exclude mothers reporting multiple races.
NOTE: Includes California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, 
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, 
Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
 Percent successful external cephalic version (ECV) is the number of successful ECVs per 100 live births to women with an attempted ECV in specified group.
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[Percents are number of live births with specified source of payment per 100 live births in specified group]
Source of payment and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
race and Hispanic origin of mother
All          
ages
Under 20   
years
20-24    
years
25-29    
years
30-34    
years
35-39    
years
40-54    
years
All races 1
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Medicaid
43.9
75.0
64.8
41.9
27.9
26.1
26.9
Private insurance
46.9
16.2
24.8
48.4
63.9
65.5
64.2
Self-pay
4.1
3.6
3.8
4.2
4.2
4.6
5.1
Other
5.1
5.2
6.5
5.4
4.1
3.8
3.8
Total 2
3,412,436
266,468
789,464
972,914
875,076
407,335
101,179
Not stated 3
58,256
4,528
13,318
16,480
14,895
7,140
1,895
White 4
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Medicaid
31.6
70.1
56.3
29.9
16.9
14.8
15.3
Private insurance
60.9
23.3
34.2
62.0
76.8
79.1
77.8
Self-pay
3.0
1.9
2.9
3.1
2.9
3.2
4.0
Other
4.5
4.7
6.6
5.0
3.4
2.9
2.9
Total 2
1,799,992
98,866
371,697
545,207
511,430
220,044
52,748
Not stated 3
23,096
1,262
4,655
6,883
6,627
2,905
764
Black 4
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Medicaid
66.8
81.2
77.7
66.8
53.1
44.3
41.1
Private insurance
25.5
12.2
15.0
25.3
38.6
46.7
49.5
Self-pay
2.9
2.4
2.2
2.7
3.6
4.3
4.8
Other
4.9
4.3
5.0
5.1
4.7
4.8
4.6
Total 2
472,245
57,576
150,510
121,281
88,247
42,633
11,998
Not stated 3
6,967
773
2,189
1,739
1,386
692
188
Hispanic  5 
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Medicaid
61.1
76.7
70.7
59.3
50.7
49.3
50.0
Private insurance
25.0
10.9
15.5
26.3
35.2
36.8
36.6
Self-pay
7.5
6.5
6.8
7.9
8.2
8.2
7.8
Other
6.4
5.9
7.0
6.6
6.0
5.7
5.6
Total 2
809,687
93,454
215,201
217,918
171,666
89,218
22,230
Not stated 3
13,885
1,590
3,630
3,818
3,009
1,489
349
 Includes other races not shown and origin not stated.
2
Total number of births to residents of areas reporting principal source of payment for the delivery.
5
Includes all persons of Hispanic origin of any race.
NOTE: Includes California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, 
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, 
New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, 
Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
Documentation Table 10. Principal source of payment for the delivery, by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother: Total of 38 
reporting states and the District of Columbia, 2012
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
 No response reported for principal source of payment for the delivery; includes births to residents of states using the 2003 
Standard Certificate of Live Birth occurring in states using the 1989 Standard Certificate of Live Birth (___ percent).  See 
"Technical notes"
4
Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on the birth certificate.  Race categories are consistent with the 1997 Office 
of Management and Budget standards; see "Technical Notes." Data by race are non-Hispanic and exclude mothers reporting multiple 
races.
Interval since last live birth and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
race and Hispanic origin of mother
All ages
Under 20   
years
20-24    
years
25-29    
years
30-34    
years
35-39    
years
40-54    
years
All races 1
0-3 months (plural deliveries)
2.4
3.8
1.9
2.1
2.5
2.9
4.2
4-11 months
1.4
6.9
2.9
1.3
0.8
0.6
0.4
12-17 months
8.4
26.5
14.6
8.2
5.7
4.6
3.3
18-23 months
12.5
22.3
16.5
12.8
11.3
9.2
6.5
24-35 months
22.9
25.3
26.1
22.9
23.5
19.4
14.7
36-47 months
15.5
10.6
17.4
15.8
15.7
13.9
11.2
48-59 months
10.7
3.4
11.0
11.9
10.4
10.1
8.6
60-71 months
7.4
0.8
5.6
8.9
7.4
7.7
7.2
72 months and over
18.7
0.3
4.0
16.0
22.6
31.8
43.8
All births 2
2,064,653
47,699
393,989
610,472
618,171
315,712
78,610
Not stated 3
164,649
5,167
30,203
45,672
48,597
27,272
7,738
Median between 1st and 2nd births (months)
37
21
29
37
39
47
61
White 4
0-3 months (plural deliveries)
2.8
4.4
1.9
2.4
2.9
3.3
5.1
4-11 months
1.2
6.4
2.6
1.1
0.7
0.6
0.4
12-17 months
7.9
27.9
14.9
8.1
5.5
4.7
3.7
18-23 months
14.0
23.5
18.1
14.9
13.1
10.7
7.9
24-35 months
26.6
25.0
27.9
27.0
28.3
23.3
17.9
36-47 months
16.4
9.3
17.2
16.1
17.2
15.7
12.7
48-59 months
10.1
2.7
10.0
10.7
9.8
10.2
9.1
60-71 months
6.4
0.5
4.6
7.5
6.2
7.0
7.1
72 months and over
14.7
0.2
2.8
12.2
16.4
24.5
36.2
All births 2
1,048,362
13,925
168,832
315,262
346,529
164,661
39,153
Not stated 3
72,594
1,295
11,124
19,995
23,736
12,916
3,528
Median between 1st and 2nd births (months)
34
20
28
34
35
40
50
Black 4
0-3 months (plural deliveries)
2.6
4.7
2.6
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
4-11 months
2.4
7.6
3.9
2.0
1.3
0.9
0.6
12-17 months
11.0
26.8
16.2
9.8
7.4
5.5
3.7
18-23 months
11.5
21.1
15.9
10.4
8.9
7.4
5.3
24-35 months
18.3
23.3
24.0
17.3
15.1
13.5
11.5
36-47 months
13.8
10.9
16.6
14.3
12.4
10.9
9.8
48-59 months
10.6
4.0
10.6
12.6
10.2
8.9
8.0
60-71 months
7.8
1.2
5.8
10.3
8.3
7.5
7.3
72 months and over
22.0
0.3
4.5
21.1
33.9
42.8
51.0
All births 2
294,337
11,817
81,561
87,628
68,831
34,783
9,717
Not stated 3
32,395
1,602
7,859
9,121
7,922
4,453
1,438
Median between 1st and 2nd births (months)
39
20
29
42
50
60
74
Hispanic  5 
0-3 months (plural deliveries)
1.6
2.7
1.5
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.3
4-11 months
1.5
6.8
2.6
1.3
0.8
0.6
0.4
12-17 months
7.9
25.1
12.5
7.2
5.4
4.1
2.5
18-23 months
10.2
22.2
14.6
9.8
8.1
6.7
4.7
24-35 months
18.3
27.0
25.0
18.0
15.8
13.1
10.3
36-47 months
14.6
11.5
18.5
15.6
13.2
11.1
8.5
48-59 months
11.8
3.7
12.9
13.9
11.3
9.6
7.7
60-71 months
9.1
0.7
7.0
11.2
9.8
8.7
7.4
72 months and over
25.0
0.2
5.3
21.6
34.2
44.2
56.3
Number
All births 2
533,190
18,564
118,580
161,335
139,249
76,242
19,220
Not stated 3
34,927
1,321
7,250
10,134
9,449
5,319
1,454
Median between 1st and 2nd births (months)
44
21
32
45
53
63
84
Documentation Table 11. Live births by interval since last live birth, by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother: Total of 
38 reporting states and the District of Columbia, 2012
Percent
3  No response reported for interval since last live birth, for births which are second and higher order; including births to 
residents of states using the 2003 Standard Certificate of Live Birth occurring in states using the 1989 Standard Certificate 
of Live Birth (___ percent).  See "Technical Notes."
4
Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on the birth certificate.  Race categories are consistent with the 1997 
Office of Management and Budget standards; see "Technical Notes." Data by race are non-Hispanic and exclude mothers reporting 
multiple races.
NOTES: Includes California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, 
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Nevada, New 
Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, 
Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.  
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Number
Percent
1  Includes other races not shown and origin not stated.
2  Includes all births of second or higher order birth to residents of areas reporting interval since last live birth.
5  Includes all persons of Hispanic origin of any race.
Documentation Table 12. Onset of labor, by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother: Total of 38 reporting states and the District of Columbia, 2012
[Rates are number of live births with specified onset of labor per 1,000 live births in specified group]
Onset of labor by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
race and Hispanic origin of mother
All            
births 1
Condition                                                                                   
reported
All          
ages
Under 20   
years
20-24    
years
25-29    
years
30-34    
years
35-39    
years
40-54    
years
Not     
stated 2
All races 3
Premature rupture of the membranes (prolonged, >=12 hrs)
3,412,436
118,889
35.1
35.4
34.2
34.3
35.8
35.8
38.7
21,634
Precipitous labor (<3 hrs)
3,412,436
93,104
27.5
19.2
24.5
28.2
30.4
30.3
28.1
21,636
Prolonged labor (>=20 hrs)
3,412,436
43,708
12.9
16.3
14.0
13.0
11.9
10.8
10.6
21,636
White 4
Premature rupture of the membranes (prolonged, >=12 hrs)
1,799,992
65,259
36.4
35.6
35.0
35.9
36.9
38.0
40.2
5,880
Precipitous labor (<3 hrs)
1,799,992
50,014
27.9
16.5
23.2
27.8
31.6
32.2
29.1
5,880
Prolonged labor (>=20 hrs)
1,799,992
25,129
14.0
16.8
15.4
14.4
13.1
12.1
11.8
5,880
Black 4
Premature rupture of the membranes (prolonged, >=12 hrs)
472,245
18,884
40.3
41.8
40.1
38.8
41.4
40.1
42.1
3,440
Precipitous labor (<3 hrs)
472,245
14,101
30.1
25.6
28.9
32.4
32.1
29.5
29.3
3,440
Prolonged labor (>=20 hrs)
472,245
5,596
11.9
16.7
12.3
11.2
10.8
9.8
8.4
3,440
Hispanic  5 
Premature rupture of the membranes (prolonged, >=12 hrs)
809,687
21,311
26.4
29.7
26.5
25.0
25.9
26.3
29.1
1,859
Precipitous labor (<3 hrs)
809,687
19,593
24.3
17.0
22.3
26.3
27.0
26.4
24.2
1,860
Prolonged labor (>=20 hrs)
809,687
8,462
10.5
14.9
12.1
9.7
8.7
7.7
8.8
1,860
1  Total number of births to residents of areas reporting specified abnormal condition.
 Includes other races not shown and origin not stated.
5  Includes all persons of Hispanic origin of any race.
per 1,000
 No response reported for characteristic of labor and delivery item; includes births to residents of states using the 2003 Standard Certificate of Live Birth occurring in 
states using the 1989 Standard Certificate of Live Birth (___percent).  See "Technical Notes".
 Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on the birth certificate.  Race categories are consistent with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget standards; see 
"Technical Notes." Data by race are non-Hispanic and exclude mothers reporting multiple races.
NOTE: Includes California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South 
Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
Documentation Table 13. Characteristics of labor and delivery, by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother: Total of 38 reporting states and the District of Columbia, 2012
[Rates are number of live births with characteristic per 1,000 live births in specified group]
Labor and delivery characteristic and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
race and Hispanic origin of mother
All            
births 1
Characteristic                                               
reported
All          
ages
Under 20   
years
20-24    
years
25-29    
years
30-34    
years
35-39    
years
40-54    
years
Not     
stated 2
All races 3
Induction of labor
3,412,436
786,437
231.7
263.8
250.1
236.0
217.0
203.1
203.6
17,953
Augmentation of labor
3,412,436
701,316
206.6
263.9
232.5
209.8
188.8
164.8
144.7
17,953
Steroids (glucocorticoids) for fetal lung maturation
3,412,436
48,023
14.1
13.9
13.6
13.4
14.1
15.6
20.6
17,953
Antibiotics received by mother during labor
3,412,436
728,570
214.6
216.9
214.0
210.1
215.2
221.0
226.6
17,953
Clinical chorioamnionitis during labor
3,412,436
44,498
13.1
19.1
14.9
12.9
11.7
10.2
9.3
17,953
Moderate/heavy meconium staining of amniotic fluid
3,412,436
173,985
51.3
56.6
52.1
51.0
50.1
49.8
48.6
17,953
Fetal intolerance of labor
3,412,436
162,851
48.0
56.1
50.3
46.7
45.0
46.2
53.4
17,953
Epidural or spinal anesthesia during labor
3,412,436
2,428,541
715.4
742.8
724.1
711.5
710.2
704.6
702.3
17,953
White 4
Induction of labor
1,799,992
478,385
266.4
334.6
299.3
271.4
243.9
229.1
228.3
4,212
Augmentation of labor
1,799,992
375,898
209.3
271.8
240.1
216.2
192.1
167.2
145.9
4,212
Steroids (glucocorticoids) for fetal lung maturation
1,799,992
28,176
15.7
17.2
15.3
15.0
15.1
17.1
22.0
4,212
Antibiotics received by mother during labor
1,799,992
401,507
223.6
225.3
218.5
218.6
225.7
234.8
240.5
4,212
Clinical chorioamnionitis during labor
1,799,992
19,787
11.0
15.0
12.6
11.2
10.1
8.9
8.4
4,212
Moderate/heavy meconium staining of amniotic fluid
1,799,992
82,763
46.1
47.5
46.4
45.9
46.1
45.6
44.8
4,212
Fetal intolerance of labor
1,799,992
88,112
49.1
62.4
53.8
48.2
45.1
45.3
53.2
4,212
Epidural or spinal anesthesia during labor
1,799,992
1,338,004
745.1
801.6
761.8
741.5
734.6
729.2
726.0
4,212
Black 4
Induction of labor
472,245
104,011
221.4
247.5
228.1
216.2
211.0
204.4
202.1
2,450
Augmentation of labor
472,245
94,570
201.3
254.7
223.8
195.5
171.5
146.7
135.5
2,450
Steroids (glucocorticoids) for fetal lung maturation
472,245
8,769
18.7
17.1
17.8
17.9
20.4
21.4
22.5
2,450
Antibiotics received by mother during labor
472,245
119,988
255.4
270.4
266.2
248.3
244.4
243.1
245.1
2,450
Clinical chorioamnionitis during labor
472,245
6,352
13.5
18.9
15.4
12.5
11.0
9.5
7.5
2,450
Moderate/heavy meconium staining of amniotic fluid
472,245
30,625
65.2
69.5
62.6
66.0
65.0
67.0
64.3
2,450
Fetal intolerance of labor
472,245
26,830
57.1
64.2
57.9
54.2
55.0
56.0
62.4
2,450
Epidural or spinal anesthesia during labor
472,245
348,205
741.2
764.5
750.7
733.1
730.3
726.6
723.5
2,450
Hispanic  5 
Induction of labor
809,687
143,720
177.8
203.4
189.0
173.5
164.8
162.3
166.9
1,365
Augmentation of labor
809,687
161,944
200.3
261.1
224.0
192.3
176.7
159.2
142.5
1,365
Steroids (glucocorticoids) for fetal lung maturation
809,687
7,199
8.9
8.3
8.0
8.1
9.7
10.5
15.8
1,365
Antibiotics received by mother during labor
809,687
141,947
175.6
174.7
173.0
172.1
176.6
185.6
191.3
1,365
Clinical chorioamnionitis during labor
809,687
11,757
14.5
23.5
17.9
13.2
10.7
9.4
8.3
1,365
Moderate/heavy meconium staining of amniotic fluid
809,687
43,784
54.2
57.8
54.2
53.8
53.4
53.3
52.1
1,365
Fetal intolerance of labor
809,687
33,100
40.9
44.1
39.4
38.4
39.8
46.3
54.5
1,365
Epidural or spinal anesthesia during labor
809,687
515,446
637.7
672.5
648.6
626.1
624.5
629.7
632.2
1,365
1
Total number of births to residents of areas reporting specified labor and delivery characteristic.
3  Includes other races not shown and origin not stated.
5
Includes all persons of Hispanic origin of any race.
per 1,000
2  No response reported for characteristic of labor and delivery item; includes births to residents of states using the 2003 Standard Certificate of Live Birth occurring in states 
using the 1989 Standard Certificate of Live Birth (___percent).  See "Technical Notes".
4  Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on the birth certificate.  Race categories are consistent with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget standards; see "Technical 
Notes." Data by race are non-Hispanic and exclude mothers reporting multiple races.
NOTE: Includes California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, 
Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, 
Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
Method of delivery and race and Hispanic 
origin of mother
Total 1
Method 
reported  
All ages
Under 20   
years
20-24          
years
25-29          
years
30-34                     
years
35-39                             
years
40-54                       
years
All races 2
Primary cesarean 3
2,905,024 
672,423
23.1
20.3
20.8
21.9
24.1
28.5
37.1
Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery 4
484,761 
49,512
10.2
10.1
9.5
10.6
10.6
9.9
9.1
White 5
Primary cesarean 3
1,552,346
358,669
23.1
20.7
20.8
21.9
23.6
27.8
36.8
Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery 4
240,924
25,248
10.5
7.6
8.6
10.6
11.1
10.7
10.1
Black 5
Primary cesarean 3
396,788
103,630
26.1
22.3
23.6
25.1
29.2
34.5
43.0
Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery 4
71,901
8,022
11.2
12.5
11.2
11.5
11.0
10.6
10.1
Hispanic 6
Primary cesarean 3
679,220     144,357 
21.3
18.9
19.2
20.0
22.6
27.4
34.3
Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery 4
128,686      11,662 
9.1
10.3
9.3
9.4
9.2
8.3
7.3
2 Includes other races not shown and origin not stated.
3 Primary cesarean rate is the number of births to women having a cesarean delivery per 100 births to women without a previous cesarean.
6
Includes all persons of Hispanic origin of any race.
Documentation Table 14. Primary cesarean delivery and vaginal birth after previous cearean delivery, by age and race and Hispanic origin of 
mother: Total of 38 reporting states and the District of Columbia, 2012
Percent
4
Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery rate is the number of births to women having a vaginal delivery per 100 births to women with a 
previous cesarean delivery.
NOTE: Includes California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, 
Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, 
North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and 
Wyoming.
1
Total for primary cesarean is the number of births to women delivering without a previous cesarean.  Total for vaginal birth after cesarean 
delivery is the number of births to women delivering after a previous cesarean.
5
Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on the birth certificate.  Race categories are consistent with the 1997 Office of Management 
and Budget standards; see "Technical Notes."  Data by race are non-Hispanic and exclude mothers reporting multiple races.
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