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interrogations (when required), counseling, and recreation. Typically, schedules should not allow for naps
or extended periods of idleness. Individuals thrive on having a purpose, status, mission, relevance, dignity,
importance, and honor and on being honored. It is imperative that the source of the fulfillment of those
needs transition, at least in part, to education and occupation. There are several areas to consider in
executing a holistic rehabilitation program, to include—
Education, training, and self-development.
Evaluation and assessment. Factors such as detainee literacy, education, geographical
origin, vocational skills, professional skills, military experience, construction skills, and
management experience should be considered.
Academic education. After separating detainees by literacy, detainees can receive
instruction on a broad range of subjects, with a curriculum coordinated with the HN.
Beyond basic education for the younger or poorly educated detainees, the curriculum may
also include HN politics, HN constitution, and the structure of the HN government. Other
worthwhile periods of instruction may include money management, job applications, basic
computer skills, basic communication skills, hygiene, first aid, reporting crimes and
suspicious activity reporting, and community familiarization and awareness.
Vocational, occupational, and professional training. As a result of the initial assessment
and evaluation, the detainee may be enrolled in a vocational track. The track should mirror
the local industry to ensure that skills developed in detention are relevant upon detainee
release. The detention facility commander may approve the use of local community or
skilled detainees to teach these skills.
Religious discussion. Religious discussion programs may be made available upon approval
of the detention facility commander.
Teaming. Detainees may break up into small groups or teams. This will allow detainees the
opportunity for social development, integration, and exposure to the perspectives of others.
These teams should be a cross-sectarian mix; represent the spectrum of ages, experience, and
education; and be balanced to meet the needs of the detention system and contribute to order and
civility. The team will be the detention facility’s unit and do everything together. The team
leader may serve as the liaison with detention staff and convey fellow detainees’ sentiments.
Recreation. Detention facility commanders establish policies and procedures and implement a
comprehensive recreational program that includes leisure activities and outdoor exercise. One
example of this may be organized soccer matches to allow physical activity and team building
Leadership visibility. Senior leader should make frequent appearances. The display of concern
for order and control will resonate among the facility because detainees will know that order is
being maintained at the highest levels and that the guards are being supervised appropriately.
Detention support personnel. Aside from traditional functions that need to be performed in a
detention setting, several support functions should be considered to facilitate the successful
functioning of the system and to drastically improve the detention system’s image and ability to
gather useful information. These additional support positions (to include counselors, detainee
advocates/liaisons, and reintegration facilitators) may be provided by HN personnel.
Information operations. Robust information operations, to include police engagement
strategies, may be implemented within, and associated with, the detention system. These
operations should target the detainees, detention staff, local community, and society at large.
Sponsorship program. The system of vouching for others’ credibility and character is a
long-established system in most societies. These unofficial contracts may not be legally binding,
but they do have some significance to the parties. Sponsors may be one of the justice system’s
proxy parole officers, monitoring the released detainee and ensuring that he or she is honoring
the terms of release.
Community centers. If programs similar to those outlined above are implemented in the HN
penal system, it may be necessary to establish community centers that offer the same services.
These centers will provide the released detainee a venue where he or she can continue the
education and training he or she was receiving. Community centers will also allow services
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(such as literacy, adult education, life skills, vocational skills, and computer skills) to everyone
in the community, rather than being limited to just to those who were incarcerated.
Separation of detention from imprisonment. The ultimate objective of stability operations is
the transition of operations to HN control under the rule of law. As this transition matures, the
population within detention facilities will change from detainees who are held as combatants,
CIs, or RP to facilities that hold those who are truly criminals. Every effort must be made to
maintain the physical separation of detainees (which may be detained for other than criminal
activity), accused criminals who have not been tried and convicted in the courts, and criminals
who have been sentenced subsequent to court proceedings within the government legal system.
8-28. Circumstances may warrant the preclusion or compromise of some of the above considerations;
however, the above guidelines will facilitate positive perceptions, cooperation, and assistance.
8-29. Rehabilitation programs are not mandatory, but they should be encouraged for detainees who are
assessed to be appropriate candidates for rehabilitation. Rehabilitation programs should be constructed
based on the specific needs of detainees and the environment into which they will be released. In some OEs
the detainees may be almost totally illiterate, requiring extensive baseline academic training to increase
literacy. Other populations may be very literate, but live within environments that are economically
challenged, requiring vocational training or education to develop skills that can result in economic
prosperity for individuals and the HN. There are any number of environmental considerations and
combinations of factors that must be weighed when developing a relevant rehabilitation program.
8-30. Throughout capture, processing, and orientation to the detention system, each detainee should be
carefully evaluated. This evaluation is used to place the detainee appropriately within specific rehabilitation
programs. Factors such as literacy, education, geographical origin, vocational skills, professional skills,
military experience, construction skills, and management experience are considered. Religious affiliation
should only be used in the context of appropriate placement. Detention and prison environments may serve
as optimal arenas to remove sectarian biases and the pervasive sense of sect-based quotas. The assessment
of detainees’ backgrounds allows the detention staff to use resources properly, mitigating the burden on the
detention staff and state.
8-31. Some detained personnel, specifically during stability operations, may be detained for criminal
activity that is deemed a threat to U.S. assets or to HN or multinational partners. Though the crimes they
are alleged to have committed should not be a consideration in their treatment, the assessment of these
factors may help to strategize the appropriate placement of detainees. A detainee may be a combatant who
meets all criteria under the Geneva Conventions as an EPW and may benefit from some level of job
training that is consistent with rehabilitation programs. While EPWs may not require rehabilitation in the
strictest sense, training them with a skill that they can apply upon release may provide them with
nonmilitary-related opportunities that can contribute to their economies and support their families upon
release. Further, these programs keep them actively engaged in a constructive activity making them less
likely to cause disruptions within the facility. All of these things must be considered when evaluating and
8-32. While a strong liberal arts education may be considered the foundation of a rehabilitation process, a
vocational education is generally the core of a successful rehabilitation process. Vocational training
potentially provides the skills for immediate employment and economic viability for a detainee upon
reintegration into the population. After initial assessment and evaluation, detainees may be enrolled in a
vocational track. These tracks should mirror the local industry so that the skills developed in detention are
relevant upon release. The initial evaluation and assessment considers the detainee’s prior work history,
occupational interests, occupational aptitudes, and employment opportunities offered in his or her
community. It also provides for occupations that are personally meaningful to the detainee, while
Rehabilitation of U.S. Military Prisoners and Detainees
12 February 2010
supporting the detainee’s academic and resocialization needs. Following the initial evaluation and
assessment, the detention staff compiles a list of tracks that are consistent with the detainee’s abilities and
interests. The detainee is given the opportunity to choose his/her preference from that list. This process is
important to the overall rehabilitation strategy because the opportunity to make choices provides an
opportunity for detainees to exercise a level of autonomy. Introducing the ability to make choices regarding
their future allows for the preservation of dignity and control in a relatively powerless environment.
8-33. Local businesses are typically consulted to determine what skills are in demand, and vetted members
of the local community may be used to teach these skills at the detention facility. This allows the detainees
to learn a skill as it is practiced in the community and also establishes points of contact within the industry.
The proactive enlistment of community involvement is very beneficial to the detainee’s reintegration,
allowing acceptance and reintegration to begin before the detainee is released. Strong community
involvement and support also provides potential employers with a pool of skilled laborers in which they
have established a relationship. Detainees may possess skills of their own that can be exploited to instruct
other detainees. With the wise use of resources and the incorporation of vocational training in the
rehabilitation system, detainees can become some of the most useful and potentially productive members of
society. Vocational and professional training may be made available for—
8-34. Coordination with the local HN business community can provide opportunities for work programs in
which the detainees can gain hands-on experience in their chosen vocation. These opportunities depend on
the local economic environment and the economy’s ability to absorb the workforce. These work programs
must be carefully controlled, and participants (detainee and sponsoring business) must be evaluated for
8-35. Transition programs may be integrated for detainees who have received release documentation and
are awaiting reintegration by the appropriate HN authority. This provides for the continuing education of
the detainee to reinforce structure and self-improvement, increasing the probability for success when they
are integrated back into society.
8-36. A facility may require the implementation of educational programs that are geared to benefit
detainees—coupled with other rehabilitation efforts outlined in the following paragraphs. The detention
facility is not only dedicated to sustaining good order and discipline, but also attempts to better individual
detainees in preparing for future reintegration into society.
8-37. The TIF reconciliation center is responsible for ensuring that each program of instruction has the
potential to provide a substantial impact on detainees participating in the programs. Rehabilitation
programs are self-improvement programs where each willing detainee has the opportunity to better himself
or herself and achieve program outcomes. These programs are critical for reintegration into the population.
Self-improvement programs (literacy, life skills) offered by the TIF reconciliation center and coupled with
additional programs (vocational, information operations, economic programs) that support the civilian
population and economy can achieve a substantial level of success.
8-38. Educational programs developed and offered by the TIF reconciliation center should be based on the
literacy rate of detainees within the facility. Illiterate detainees are separated from those who are literate,
and the curriculum is devised accordingly. The educational programs supporting higher learning skills
should be approved by the HN and monitored for proper curriculum development that is consistent with, at
a minimum, HN educational standards. These services may need to be designed to teach a person who had
little or no educational background before internment.
8-39. The lack of basic reading, writing, and math skills may be a major contributing factor to why a high
number of illiterate males participate in combatant or illegal activities. The diminished opportunity to
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obtain profitable employment needed to support families may cause some to support criminal or insurgent
elements for employment. The lack of education can be a major contributor, causing moderate males to
turn to combatant, criminal, or insurgent activities for monetary reasons, even though they do not believe in
or personally support the activities or cause. Moderate detainees who participated in combatant, criminal,
or insurgent acts because of little or no opportunity to provide for their families, may be discouraged from
rejoining combat, criminal, or insurgent organizations through education programs and the subsequent
opportunities that education provides.
8-40. The TIF reconciliation center may focus on elementary education if detainees possess only
rudimentary education skills. Detainees attending these classes may have no formal education experiences
and may be illiterate. Illiteracy can lead to desperation that fuels adverse motivations in otherwise moderate
detainees. Detainees participating in rehabilitation programs may be scheduled to attend school for a
predetermined period and be tested at the end of the period to measure their comprehension. If a detainee
meets program standards, that individual receives credit for the program; if the detainee does not pass
program standards (as set by the TIF reconciliation center and HN), the individual does not receive credit.
The educational programs may be taught by HN teachers who are employed by the TIF reconciliation
center services. Some program teachers may be detainees or RP with specific skills. Teachers develop
educational programs based on detainee constraints, time available, and security requirements.
8-41. Religious discussion groups may also be offered to detainees as a program to educate them on
specific aspects of their religion. The program should be taught by vetted religious leaders of the same
religious affiliation as the detainees. The program educates detainees on the nationally accepted teachings
of their religion as viewed by the HN society. During the program, detainees are brought together with
religious leaders and scholars to focus on major teaching points of dogma. The program may be valuable in
curbing extreme fanaticism that may be a catalyst for violence within the detainees’ world view.
8-42. A liberal arts education has been described as “the foundation of the rehabilitation process.” A
curriculum such as politics, HN constitution, and the structure of the HN government provides more
fluency in discussing these topics, and detainees will better appreciate their situation and how they can
peacefully contribute to its success. Other worthwhile periods of instruction may include managing money,
job applications, basic computer skills, basic communication skills, hygiene, first aid, crime and suspicious
activity reporting, and community familiarization and awareness.
8-43. The detention facility commander may approve religious discussion groups within the facility. The
goal for religious groups is to provide religious support to detainees and moderate extremists within the
facility. This is above and beyond the standard clerical support that is required and provided in the course
of normal detention operations. Clerical leaders who are chosen to participate must be carefully vetted and
are typically selected from moderate elements of their respective religions. Religious discussion is never
forced on a detainee; participation in this program is voluntary.
8-44. Extremists participating in religious discussion groups may be tempered by the more moderate
philosophy and reinforced by socialization with other more moderate detainees. It is also possible that
religious extremists may reject a moderate interpretation of their religion and detract from efforts to present
a moderate approach. Many extremists may not participate, fearing that the facility-sanctioned advocate is a
cooperative spiritual leader. Detention facility commanders must allow autonomy, within established
security requirements, for religious leaders and instructors. The only way that moderate leaders retain
credibility is by operating on their own—forced sessions of “religious reeducation” only discredit a
religious leader to those who are receptive and have little impact on those who are inherently beyond
reconciliation. Detainees may also use personal time to engage in worship or religious study on their own.
The detention system may wish to implement instruction in “social intervention” based on HN principles,
rather than straight doctrinal dogma.
8-45. Socialization is an important component of prison populations. The detention system is composed of
teams to mitigate the potential for socialization and indoctrination that is counter to U.S. and HN interests
Rehabilitation of U.S. Military Prisoners and Detainees
12 February 2010
and to shape positive socialization and influence. This allows detainee opportunities for social
development, integration, and exposure to the perspectives of others within a group that is populated in a
manner which reduces the likelihood of disruptive, criminal, or antisocial behavior. Following initial
evaluation and assessment, detainees are placed on an existing team. Just as individuals are segregated
upon apprehension for security and information-gathering purposes, the detention population is similarly
segregated and recombined in elements that facilitate security and information gathering and shaping of the
detainee social network.
8-46. A team established within the detention facility conducts all activities as a group. The team leader
serves as the liaison with detention staff and conveys fellow detainees’ sentiments. Teams aid in converting
detention into a rehabilitative environment, rather than one that is punitive or idle. Teams do not eliminate
extremism or recidivism, nor do they create jobs. However, they may diminish the prevalence or need to
engage in profitable criminal behavior because released detainees are better equipped to function
appropriately in society.
8-47. Many military police express support for physically exhausting activity in detention as a positive
outlet for energy that may otherwise be used for counterproductive purposes. Sports clubs may be
organized within the facility for this purpose. Time and space are set aside to accommodate detainees’
physical exercise. This also contributes to the socialization of the detention population. Teams are
cross-sectarian, and military police foster the right messages within this context.
8-48. Detainees may have a heightened respect for high-ranking officials. Order within a facility is likely
to increase with increased leadership visibility. Therefore, senior leadership should make frequent
appearances throughout the facility. This display of concern for order and control resonates among the
facility as the detainees know that order is being maintained at the highest level and that guards are being
supervised appropriately. However, leaders should ensure that guard force duties and responsibilities are
not undermined. Leadership needs no specific reason to make rounds and conduct random inspections.
Detainees typically feel secure from abuse (from guards and other detainees) and may be discouraged from
inciting unrest. When senior leadership enforces even the most trivial infraction among the detention staff,
it sends a clear message to the detention population that order is to be maintained in the facility.
8-49. Several support functions should be considered to facilitate the ability to gather useful information to
further the rehabilitation process, and identify rehabilitation failures or setbacks. This support may include
behavioral health personnel, detainee advocates/liaisons, and reintegration facilitators.
Behavorial Health Personnel
8-50. Behavioral health services will be provided to detainees, based on the availability of medical
resources and patient workload. Resources to provide this care may be task-organized and may include
inpatient and outpatient care. Health care personnel providing behavioral health services to detainees may
include a psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, behavioral health nurse, occupational therapist, and
behavioral health specialist.
8-51. All detainees will receive a behavioral health screen when in-processing and before distribution into
the general population. A translator will be used to translate between the screener and the detainee. The
behavioral health screen will be conducted by a behavioral health team member. Each detainee will be
screened individually to maximize privacy. The behavioral health screen will include whether the detainee
has a present suicide ideation, the history of suicidal behavior, the history of (or current) psychotropic
medication use, current behavioral health complaints, the history of behavioral health treatment, and/or the
history of treatment for substance abuse. During the behavioral health screen, each detainee will be
observed for general appearance and behavior; evidence of abuse and/or trauma; and current symptoms of
12 February 2010
psychosis, depression, anxiety, and/or aggression. After screening, each detainee will be recommended for
placement into the general population, placement into the general population with appropriate referral to
behavioral health, or referral to behavioral health for an emergency assessment prior to placement into the
general population. The screening will begin with an introduction and explanation of the nature and
purpose of the screen. Each question will be asked by the screener and translated by the translator. Under
no circumstance will a translator conduct the screen. Behavioral health screening forms will not be
presigned, and detainees will not be screened in groups. The original completed screen will be placed in the
detainee’s individual medical record.
8-52. Detainee advocates may be used by detention facility commanders to serve as liaisons between
detainees and facility leaders. The detainee advocates serve as sympathizers and mediators in a facility.
Many of these positions may be filled by vetted HN personnel. The difference in rehabilitative effect by
having an indigenous person perform this function, rather than even the most concerned U.S. leader, can be
profound. Their primary responsibility is addressing detainees’ concerns and finding resolutions that are
mutually acceptable to detainees and facility leadership. Advocates address all detainee concerns,
regardless of how unfounded, baseless, or improbable the allegation. The advocates liaise with team leaders
and are responsible for investigating claims and discussing reasonable solutions with facility leadership.
This advocate-team leader channel should be strictly followed. Having concerns and complaints addressed
also gives the detainees another degree of autonomy. Advocates have no decisionmaking authority, only
the capacity to pass on decisions that have been made by facility leaders. Detainees may view sympathetic
decisionmakers as targets of pressure and manipulation. The role of an advocate provides a buffer for that
very reason. Detainees are made aware of the decisionmaking limitations of the advocates to limit the
extent to which they are manipulated.
8-53. Advocates are also responsible for facilitating individual religious worship (such as providing prayer
rugs, Qur’ans, Bibles, or other religious literature and accoutrements). Another function of the advocates
includes liaising with detainee families to ensure that they have the most accurate and current information
regarding their loved one. They are also involved in scheduling and managing visitation. Recently released
or soon-to-be released detainees are prime candidates for this intermediary role.
8-54. Not all detainees commit crimes for motives relating to economic or social desperation; however,
these may be important underlying motivations for a significant number of them. For these detainees, no
amount of exposure to military police, broadening of perspective, or increased understanding is going to
address the fundamental need that was the impetus for the crime. The detention system must reach beyond
the detention facility as halfway houses, convict-to-work programs, and parole officers do in the American
justice system. Much like a U.S. parole officer, a reintegration facilitator coordinates release and
reintegration functions for detainees. These facilitators are typically vetted HN personnel who are
employed to act in this capacity.
8-55. Reintegration facilitators establish a relationship with the detainee as release approaches. They
review the detainee’s file and make appropriate recommendations, referrals, and placements within the
community that take advantage of education and skills acquired in detention. Reintegration facilitators are
responsible for networking with organizations and persons, to include—
Law enforcement offices.
Prison and detention facilities (for released detainees who could fill detainee support positions
within detention/prison facilities).
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested