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the OE. All commands and national and international agencies involved must have clearly defined
responsibilities. When planning and executing resettlement operations, consider the following actions:
Coordinate with the Department of State, the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian
Affairs, and HN civil and military authorities to determine the appropriate levels and types of aid
required and available.
Minimize outside contributions (issue basic needs items only) until DCs become self-sufficient,
and encourage DCs to become as independent as possible.
Review the effectiveness of humanitarian responses, and adjust relief activities as necessary.
Coordinate with CA units to ensure the use of U.S., HN, international, and other organizations
(UN Children’s Fund, Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere). Receiving assistance
from these organizations capitalizes on their experience and reduces the requirements placed on
U.S. armed forces.
Apply security restrictions, as required, for DCs. Under international laws, DCs have the right to
freedom of movement; but in the event of a mass influx of DCs, security considerations may
CIVIL-MILITARY AND RESETTLEMENT OPERATIONS
10-4. Resettlement operations typically require integrated and synchronized civil-military operations. The
situation will determine if civil-military operations are supporting resettlement or if resettlement is
supporting civil-military operations. CA forces are specially organized, trained, equipped, and suited to
perform civil-military operations liaison, to include providing support to resettlement operations, with the
varied civil agencies and multinational partners in an operational area. CA forces bridge the gap between
U.S. armed forces and HN military and civilian authorities in support of military objectives. They can also
provide support to non-U.S. units in multinational operations. (CA participation in detainee operations
within the United States may have limitations, and the roles they perform in non-U.S. territories will
typically be performed by other U.S. governmental agencies in U.S. territories.)
10-5. Civil-military operations are the activities of a commander that establish, maintain, influence, or
exploit relations between U.S. armed forces, governmental and nongovernmental civilian organizations and
authorities, and the civilian population in a friendly, neutral, or hostile operational area to facilitate military
operations and consolidate and achieve U.S. objectives. Activities conducted by CA personnel enhance the
relationship between U.S. armed forces and civil authorities in areas where U.S. armed forces are present.
Support by CA personnel also involves the application of their functional specialty skills that are normally
the responsibility of the civil government to enhance the conduct of civil-military operations. The
contribution of CA forces to an operation centers on their ability to rapidly analyze key civil aspects of the
operational area, develop an implementing concept, and assess its impact throughout the operation. (See
FM 3-05.40 for more information about CA.)
RESPONSIBILITIES FOR CIVIL AFFAIRS ACTIVITIES
10-6. The President and the Secretary of Defense develop and promulgate the policy that governs CA
activities that U.S. commanders perform (in joint and multinational contexts) due to the politico-military
nature and sensitivity of these activities.
10-7. CA planning is based on national military strategy and is consistent with a variety of legal
obligations, such as those provided for in the U.S. Constitution, statutory laws, judicial decisions,
Presidential directives, departmental regulations, and the rules and principles of international laws
(especially those incorporated in treaties and agreements applicable to areas where U.S. armed forces are
10-8. CA forces are made available to commanders to maintain proper, prudent, and lawful relations with
the civilian population and government indigenous in the operational area. When commanders’ operations
affect, or are affected by, the indigenous civilian population, resources, government, or other civil
institutions or organizations in the operational area, CA forces will be assigned to assist in civil-military
operations. (See DODD 2000.13.)
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10-9. U.S. Army CA forces are designated as special operations forces. (See Title 10, USC.) All
CONUS-based special operations forces are assigned to the U.S. Special Operations Command. CA units
are under the combatant command of U.S. Special Operations Command until operational control is given
to one of the geographic combatant commanders. U.S. Special Operations Command is the combatant
command for special operations forces.
10-10. The U.S. Special Operations Command coordinates with geographic combatant commanders to
validate all requests for CA units and individuals during peace and war. The U.S. Special Operations
Command coordinates with each of the Services and then provides CA forces that are organized, trained,
and equipped to plan and conduct CA activities in support of a geographic combatant commander’s
mission. The U.S. Special Operations Command commander has the capability of providing one
airborne-qualified CA battalion that—
Is an Active Army unit that consists of regionally oriented companies.
Is structured to deploy rapidly.
Provides initial CA support to military operations.
Is primarily used to provide rapid, short-duration CA generalist support for nonmobilization
contingency operations worldwide.
Is not designed or resourced to provide the full range of CA functional specialty skills.
10-11. The U.S. Army Special Operations Command is the Army component of the U.S. Special
Operations Command. Its mission is to command and support and ensure combat readiness of assigned and
attached Army Special Operations Forces. The U.S. Army Special Operations Command has the
responsibility, in conjunction with U.S. Special Operations Command, to recruit, organize, train, equip,
mobilize, and sustain the Regular Army’s only CA brigade. As an Army Service component command, the
U.S. Army Special Operations Command’s primary missions are—
Programming and budgeting.
Management and distribution of resources.
Program performance review and evaluation.
10-12. The U.S. Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command headquarters is a
nondeploying, direct-reporting unit to the U.S. Army Reserve Command with the mission to organize,
train, equip, monitor the readiness of, validate, and prepare assigned Active Army and U.S. Army Reserve
CA forces for deployment. These forces conduct worldwide CA operations in support of civil-military
operations, across the spectrum of operations, and in support of the geographic combatant commanders,
U.S. Ambassadors, and other agencies as directed by the U.S. Army Special Operations Command.
10-13. The geographic combatant commander organizes the staff to orchestrate joint operations with
multinational and interagency activities. Geographic combatant commanders plan, support, and conduct
CA activities. They designate a staff element within the headquarters that has the responsibility for
coordinating CA activities; combatant commanders receive CA support from the Commander U.S. Special
Operations Command. The civil-military operations staff element on the theater echelon staff plays an
integral part in this organization. The civil-military operations staff cell of the Theater Special Operations
Command provides deliberate and contingency planning, maintenance of existing plans, assessments, and
support to the geographic combatant commander. The CA commander supporting each geographic
combatant commander serves as the geographic combatant commander’s senior CA advisor and as the
focal point for civil-military operations, coordination, collaboration, and consensus.
10-14. Normally, C2 of special operations forces is executed within the special operations forces chain of
command. The identification of a C2 organizational structure for special operations forces depends on
specific objectives, security requirements, and the OE. The Theater Special Operations Command is the
joint special operations command through which the geographic combatant commander normally exercises
operational control of special operations forces within the area of responsibility (the exceptions are the U.S.
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Central Command and U.S. European Command areas of responsibility where the Theater Special
Operations Command exercises operational control of CA forces).
10-15. Civil-military operations (assistant chief of staff, civil affairs operations [G-9]/civil affairs staff
officer [S-9]) staff elements are typically embedded within the echelon staffs requiring CA support. These
staff elements will normally be provided to brigade level, based on specific mission variables and
requirements. The civil-military operations staff officer/planner (G-9/S-9) is the principal staff officer for
all civil-military operations matters and conducts the initial assessment that determines CA force
augmentation. The relationship between the G-9/S-9 primary staff officer to the supporting CA unit is the
same relationship as the G-2 to a supporting MI unit. The G-9/S-9 enhances the relationship between
military forces and civilian authorities and personnel in the AO to ensure mission success. Responsibilities
and functions of the G-9 and S-9 differ due to the operational echelon. The G-9 has staff planning and
Manage assigned and attached CA forces.
Coordinate all aspects of the relationship between the military force and the civil component in
the environment of the supported commander.
Advise the commander on the effect of military operations on the civilian populations.
Minimize civilian interference with operations. This includes monitoring resettlement operation
curfew, and movement restrictions or deconflicting civilian and military activities with due
regard for the safety and rights of refugees and internally displaced persons.
Advise the commander on legal and moral obligations incurred from the long- and short-term
effects (economic, environmental, health) of military operations on civilian populations.
Coordinate, synchronizing, and integrating civil-military plans, programs, and policies with
national and combatant command strategic objectives.
Advise on the prioritizing and monitoring expenditures of allocated overseas humanitarian
disaster and civic aid, commanders emergency response plan, payroll, and other funds dedicated
to civil-military operations. The G-9 ensures that subordinate units understand the movement,
security, and control of funds. The G-9 coordinates with the funds controlling authority/financial
manager to meet the commander’s objectives.
Coordinate and integrating deliberate planning for civil-military operations-related products.
Augmenting civil-military operations staff.
Coordinate and integrating area assessments and area studies in support of civil-military
Support emergency defense and civic-action projects.
Support the protection of culturally significant sites.
Support foreign humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.
Support emergency food, shelter, clothing, and fuel for local civilians.
Support public order and safety applicable to military operations.
10-16. The functions of the brigade S-9 are to—
Serve as the staff proponent for the organization, use, and integration of attached CA forces.
Develop plans, policies, and programs to further the relationship between the brigade and the
civil component in the brigade AO.
Serve as the primary advisor to the brigade commander on the effect of brigade populations on
Assist in the development of plans, policies, and programs to deconflict civilian activities with
military operations within the brigade area of responsibility. This includes resettlement
operations, curfews, and movement restrictions.
Advise the brigade commander on legal and moral obligations incurred from the long- and
short-term effects (economic, environmental, health) of brigade operations on civilian
Coordinate, synchronize, and integrate civil-military plans, programs, and policies with
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Advise on the prioritizing and monitoring of expenditures of allocated funds that are dedicated to
civil-military operations and facilitates movement, security, and control of funds to subordinate
units. The S-9 coordinates with the funds controlling authority/financial manager to meet the
Conduct, coordinate, and integrate deliberate planning for civil-military operations in support of
Coordinate and integrate area assessments and area studies in support of civil-military
Advise the brigade commander and staff on the protection of culturally significant sites.
Facilitate the integration of civil inputs to the brigade common operational picture.
Advise the brigade commander on the use of military units and assets that can perform
civil-military operation missions.
10-17. Under the umbrella of civil-military operations, CA forces perform the following activities:
Foreign nation support.
Support to civil administrations.
Population and resource control.
10-18. Military police units may be deployed and employed in support of civil-military operations
anywhere in the world. Military police who are supporting civil-military operations must be briefed and
understand the intent of these operations. Police intelligence operations are significant enablers during
civil-military operations as is the proper treatment of all categories of detainees and DCs. Having a proper
mind set and good situational awareness is critical. U.S. armed forces may be called upon to relieve human
suffering (such as that encountered after a natural disaster), and appropriate discipline measures and
controls are enacted to meet each situation.
10-19. MI units obtain CA-relevant information gathered in interrogations, and they provide information
of intelligence value that is gained from passive collection by CA personnel. Police information and
intelligence are also integrated.
10-20. The expertise of CA forces in working crisis situations (conduct of assessments, transition
planning, and skills in functions that are normally civil in nature) and their ability to operate with civilian
organizations may make them ideal for civil support operations. CA forces should never be considered as a
substitute for other U.S. armed forces.
10-21. The information that friendly, adversary, and neutral parties provide has a significant effect on the
ability of civil-military operations planners’ ability to establish and maintain relations between joint forces;
civil authorities; and the general population, resources, and institutions in friendly, neutral, or hostile areas.
10-22. CA forces have the inherent responsibility of population and resource control due to the impact on
the civilian population and movement of HN assets and personnel. Population and resource control is
conducted through the coordination and synchronization of the activities of multiple civilian agencies and
military organizations, to include extensive military police operations. Successfully coordinated and
executed population and resource control operations—
Provide security for the population.
Deny personnel and material to the enemy.
Mobilize population and material resources.
Detect and reduce the effectiveness of enemy agents.
10-23. Population control measures include curfews, movement restrictions, travel permits, registration
cards, and resettlement operations. Resource control measures include licensing, regulations or guidelines,
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checkpoints, ration controls, amnesty programs, and facility inspections. Most military operations employ
some type of population and resource control measures. Resettlement operations are often conducted under
the auspices of population and resource control.
10-24. Organizations supporting resettlement operations include numerous participants (military and
nonmilitary) with divergent missions. Agencies involved in resettlement operations typically come from the
joint community, interagency organizations, NGOs, international organizations, and HN/multinational
organizations. The environment exists for potential duplication of effort. Achieving a unified effort requires
close coordination, liaison, and common purpose for mission success. (See appendix E for more
10-25. The planning scope for resettlement operations and the actual task implementation typically differ
depending on the command level, and vary depend on the type and nature of detainee operation being
performed and other relevant aspects of the OE. Military police must have a basic understanding of the
planning CA units conduct for resettlement operations. Except as specifically noted, planning
considerations discussed are applicable to all tactical scenarios.
10-26. Based on national policy directives and other political efforts, the theater commander provides
directives on the care, control, and disposition of DCs. The resettlement operation plan—
Includes migration and evacuation procedures.
Establishes minimum standards of care.
Defines the status and disposition of DCs.
Designates routes and movement control measures.
Identifies cultural and dietary considerations.
Includes information on DC plans, routes, and areas of concentration.
Provides measures to relieve suffering.
Establishes proper order and discipline measures within the facility for the security and safety of
DCs and Soldiers.
Provides an aggressive information program by using support agencies and DC leadership.
10-27. Resettlement operations may require large groups of civilians to be quartered temporarily (less
than 6 months) or semipermanently (more than 6 months). Military police may be tasked to set up,
administer, and operate facilities in close coordination with CA forces, HN or U.S. governmental agencies,
PSYOP units, NGOs, international humanitarian organizations, international organizations, and other
interested organizations. A military police unit commander typically becomes the facility commander
(although there may be exceptions to this in the case of resettlement operations conducted as part of civil
10-28. When possible, facilities are modified or constructed using local agencies, local or supporting
governmental employees, and selected DCs as appropriate. The supporting command’s logistic and
transportation assets acquire and transport materials to build or modify existing facilities, and local sources
may provide materials within legal limitations. The supporting command also furnishes medical,
subsistence, and other supporting assets to establish resettlement facilities. Engineer support and military
construction materials will be necessary in situations where new facilities are established and may be
necessary when resettlement facilities are set up in areas where local facilities are unavailable; for example,
hotels, schools, halls, theaters, vacant warehouses, and factories identified for use as holding sites for DCs.
(See chapter 6 and appendix J.)
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested