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Animal Farm
George Orwell
1945
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I
Mr. Jones, of the Manor Farm, had lockedthe hen-housesfor the night, but
wastoo drunk to remember to shut the popholes. Withthe ring of light from
hislanterndancingfrom sidetoside,helurchedacrosstheyard,kickedohis
bootsat the back door,drewhimselfalastglassofbeer from thebarrelinthe
scullery,andmade hiswayuptobed,whereMrs. Joneswasalreadysnoring.
As soon as the light in the bedroom went out there was a stirring and a
utteringallthroughthefarm buildings. Wordhadgoneroundduringthe day
thatoldMajor,theprize Middle Whiteboar, hadhadastrangedreamonthe
previousnightandwishedtocommunicateittotheotheranimals. Ithadbeen
agreedthattheyshouldallmeetinthebigbarnassoonasMr. Joneswassafely
out of the way. Old Major (so he wasalways called, though the name under
whichhehadbeenexhibitedwasWillingdonBeauty)wassohighlyregardedon
thefarm thateveryonewasquiteready tolose anhour’ssleepinorder tohear
what hehadtosay.
Atone endof the bigbarn,onasortofraisedplatform,Majorwasalready
ensconcedonhisbedofstraw,underalanternwhichhungfromabeam. Hewas
twelveyearsoldandhadlately grownrather stout,but hewasstillamajestic-
lookingpig,withawiseandbenevolent appearanceinspiteofthefactthathis
tushes hadnever beencut. Beforelong the other animalsbeganto arrive and
makethemselvescomfortableaftertheirdierentfashions. Firstcamethethree
dogs,Bluebell,Jessie,andPincher,andthenthepigs, who settleddowninthe
straw immediately infront of the platform. The hensperched themselveson
thewindow-sills,thepigeons uttereduptotherafters,thesheepandcowslay
downbehindthe pigsandbeganto chew the cud. The twocart-horses, Boxer
and Clover,came intogether, walking veryslowly andsetting downtheir vast
hairyhoofswithgreatcarelestthereshouldbesomesmallanimalconcealedin
thestraw. Clover wasastoutmotherlymareapproachingmiddle life,whohad
never quite got her gure back after her fourth foal. Boxer was an enormous
beast,nearlyeighteenhandshigh,andasstrongasanytwoordinaryhorsesput
together. Awhitestripedownhisnosegavehimasomewhatstupidappearance,
andinfacthewasnotofrst-rateintelligence,buthewasuniversallyrespected
forhissteadinessofcharacterandtremendouspowersofwork. Afterthehorses
came Muriel, the white goat, and Benjamin, the donkey. Benjamin was the
oldest animal on the farm, and the worst tempered. He seldom talked, and
when he did, it wasusually to make some cynical remark |for instance, he
wouldsaythat Godhadgivenhimatailtokeepthe ieso,butthathewould
soonerhavehadnotail andno ies. Alone amongthe animalsonthefarm he
never laughed. If asked why, he would say that he saw nothing to laugh at.
Nevertheless, without openly admitting it, he wasdevoted to Boxer; the two
1
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of them usuallyspent theirSundaystogetherinthesmallpaddock beyondthe
orchard,grazingside byside andnever speaking.
Thetwohorseshadjustlaindownwhenabroodofducklings,whichhadlost
their mother, ledinto the barn, cheeping feebly and wandering from side to
sidetondsomeplacewheretheywouldnotbetroddenon. Clovermadeasort
ofwallroundthemwithhergreatforeleg,andtheducklingsnestleddowninside
itandpromptlyfellasleep. AtthelastmomentMollie,thefoolish,prettywhite
mare whodrewMr. Jones’strap,camemincingdaintily in,chewingat alump
of sugar. She took a place near the front and began  irting her white mane,
hopingtodrawattentiontotheredribbonsitwasplaitedwith. Lastofallcame
thecat,wholookedround,asusual,forthewarmestplace,andnallysqueezed
herself inbetweenBoxer andClover; there she purredcontentedly throughout
Major’sspeechwithout listeningtoawordofwhathewassaying.
Allthe animalswere now present except Moses, the tame raven, whoslept
on a perch behind the back door. When Major saw that they had all made
themselvescomfortable andwerewaitingattentively,heclearedhisthroat and
began:
‘Comrades,youhaveheardalreadyabout thestrangedream thatIhadlast
night. But Iwillcometothe dreamlater. Ihavesomethingelsetosay rst. I
donot think,comrades, that Ishallbe withyoufor many monthslonger, and
beforeIdie,Ifeelit mydutytopassontoyousuchwisdomasIhaveacquired.
Ihavehad a long life, I have hadmuchtime for thought asI lay alone in my
stall,andIthinkImaysay thatIunderstandthenatureoflifeonthisearthas
wellasany animalnowliving. It isaboutthisthat Iwishto speaktoyou.
‘Now,comrades, what isthenature ofthislife of ours? Let usface it: our
livesaremiserable,laborious,andshort. Weareborn,wearegivenjustsomuch
food aswill keepthe breathinour bodies,andthose of uswho arecapable of
itareforcedtoworktothelastatomofourstrength;andtheveryinstantthat
our usefulnesshascometo anendwe are slaughteredwithhideouscruelty. No
animalinEnglandknowsthemeaningof happinessorleisure after he isayear
old. NoanimalinEnglandisfree. Thelifeofananimal ismisery andslavery:
thatistheplaintruth.
‘But is this simply part of the order of nature? Is it because this land of
oursis sopoor that it cannot aord adecent life tothose whodwell uponit?
No, comrades, athousandtimes no! The soil of England isfertile, itsclimate
isgood, it iscapable of aordingfood inabundanceto anenormously greater
numberofanimalsthannowinhabitit. Thissinglefarm ofourswouldsupport
adozenhorses, twenty cows, hundredsof sheep |andallof them living in a
comfort and a dignity that are now almost beyondour imagining. Why then
do we continue in thismiserable condition? Because nearly the whole of the
produceof our labour isstolenfrom usby humanbeings. There, comrades,is
theanswer toallourproblems. Itissummedupinasingleword|Man. Man
istheonlyrealenemywehave. RemoveManfromthescene,andtherootcause
of hungerandoverwork isabolishedfor ever.
‘Man is the only creature that consumeswithout producing. He doesnot
give milk, he does not lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the plough, he cannot
runfastenoughtocatchrabbits. Yetheislordofalltheanimals. Hesetsthem
towork,he givesbacktothemthebare minimum that willpreventthemfrom
starving, andtherest he keepsfor himself. Our labour tillsthe soil,our dung
fertilisesit, andyet there is not one of usthat ownsmore than hisbare skin.
2
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You cows that I see before me, how many thousands of gallons of milk have
yougiven during this last year? Andwhat has happened to that milk which
shouldhave beenbreeding up sturdy calves? Every drop of it hasgone down
thethroatsofour enemies. Andyouhens,howmanyeggshaveyoulaidinthis
last year, and how many of those eggs ever hatched into chickens? The rest
have all gone to market to bring in money for Jonesand his men. And you,
Clover,wherearethosefour foalsyoubore,who shouldhavebeenthe support
andpleasure of your oldage? Eachwassoldatayear old|youwillneversee
one of themagain. Inreturnfor yourfour connementsandallyourlabour in
theelds,whathave youever hadexceptyour barerationsandastall?
‘Andeventhemiserable livesweleadarenot allowedtoreachtheirnatural
span. FormyselfI donotgrumble,for Iamoneoftheluckyones. Iamtwelve
yearsold andhave hadover four hundredchildren. Suchisthe naturallife of
a pig. But no animal escapesthe cruel knife in the end. You young porkers
whoaresittinginfrontofme,everyoneofyouwillscreamyourlivesoutatthe
blockwithinayear. Tothathorrorweallmustcome|cows,pigs,hens,sheep,
everyone. Eventhe horsesand the dogshave no better fate. You, Boxer, the
very day that those great musclesof yourslosetheir power,Joneswill sell you
tothe knacker,whowill cut your throat andboilyoudownfor the foxhounds.
As for the dogs, when they grow old and toothless, Jones ties a brick round
theirnecksanddrownsthem inthenearest pond.
‘Isit notcrystalclear, then,comrades, that all the evilsof thislifeof ours
springfromthetyrannyofhumanbeings? OnlygetridofMan,andtheproduce
of our labour wouldbe our own. A1most overnight wecouldbecomerichand
free. Whatthenmust wedo? Why,worknightandday,bodyandsoul,for the
overthrowofthehumanrace! Thatismymessagetoyou,comrades: Rebellion!
I do not know when that Rebellion will come, it might be in a week or in a
hundredyears, but Iknow,assurely asIseethisstraw beneathmy feet, that
soonerorlaterjusticewillbedone. Fixyoureyesonthat,comrades,throughout
theshortremainderofyourlives! Andaboveall,passonthismessageofmineto
thosewhocomeafter you,sothatfuturegenerationsshallcarryonthestruggle
untilit isvictorious.
‘Andremember,comrades,your resolutionmust never falter. Noargument
mustleadyouastray. NeverlistenwhentheytellyouthatManandtheanimals
haveacommoninterest,that the prosperityoftheone istheprosperity of the
others. It is all lies. Man serves the interests of no creature except himself.
And among usanimalslet there be perfect unity, perfect comradeshipin the
struggle. All menareenemies. Allanimalsare comrades.’
Atthismomenttherewasatremendousuproar. WhileMajor wasspeaking
fourlargeratshadcreptoutoftheirholesandweresittingontheirhindquarters,
listening tohim. Thedogshadsuddenly caught sightofthem,andit wasonly
by aswift dashfor their holesthat theratssaved their lives. Major raisedhis
trotterfor silence.
‘Comrades,’hesaid,‘hereisapointthatmustbesettled. Thewildcreatures,
suchasratsand rabbits|are they our friendsor our enemies? Let usputit
tothevote. I propose thisquestiontothemeeting: Areratscomrades?’
Thevotewastakenatonce,anditwasagreedbyanoverwhelmingmajority
thatratswerecomrades. Therewere only fourdissentients,the three dogsand
the cat, who was afterwards discovered to have voted on both sides. Major
continued:
3
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‘I have little more to say. I merely repeat, remember always your duty of
enmitytowardsManandallhisways. Whatevergoesupontwolegsisanenemy.
Whatever goesupon four legs, or haswings, is a friend. And remember also
that in ghting against Man, we must not come to resemble him. Evenwhen
youhave conqueredhim, do not adopt hisvices. No animal must ever live in
ahouse,or sleepinabed, or wearclothes, or drinkalcohol,orsmoketobacco,
ortouchmoney,orengageintrade. AllthehabitsofManareevil. And,above
all, no animal must ever tyrannise over hisown kind. Weak or strong, clever
or simple,weare allbrothers. Noanimal must ever killanyotheranimal. All
animalsareequal.
‘Andnow, comrades,Iwilltellyouaboutmydream oflastnight. Icannot
describethat dreamtoyou. It wasadream oftheearthasit willbewhenMan
hasvanished. ButitremindedmeofsomethingthatIhadlongforgotten. Many
yearsago,whenI wasalittlepig, my mother and the other sowsusedtosing
anoldsongofwhichtheyknewonlythetune andthe rstthree words. I had
knownthat tune inmy infancy, but it hadlongsince passedout of my mind.
Lastnight, however, it came back tome inmydream. Andwhat ismore, the
wordsof the song also came back |words,I am certain,which were sungby
the animals of long ago and have beenlost to memory for generations. I will
singyouthat songnow,comrades. Iamoldandmyvoice ishoarse, but when
Ihave taught youthe tune, you can sing it better for yourselves. It iscalled
Beastsof England.’
Old Major cleared histhroat andbegan to sing. Ashe had said, his voice
was hoarse, but he sang well enough, and it was a stirring tune, something
betweenClementine andLa Cucaracha. The wordsran:
Beastsof England, beastsof Ireland,
Beastsof everylandand clime,
Hearkento myjoyfultidings
Of the goldenfuture time.
Soonorlate the day iscoming,
TyrantManshallbe o’erthrown,
Andthe fruitfuleldsof England
Shallbe trodbybeastsalone.
Ringsshallvanishfrom ournoses,
Andthe harness from ourback,
Bitand spur shallrustforever,
Cruelwhipsno more shallcrack.
Richesmore thanmind canpicture,
Wheatand barley,oatsand hay,
Clover, beans, andmangel-wurzels
Shallbe oursuponthatday.
Brightwillshine theeldsof England,
Purershallitswatersbe,
Sweeteryetshallblowitsbreezes
Onthe daythatsetsusfree.
Forthat daywe allmust labour,
Thoughwe die before itbreak;
4
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Cowsand horses, geese andturkeys,
Allmusttoilforfreedom’ssake.
Beastsof England, beastsof Ireland,
Beastsof everylandand clime,
Hearkenwelland spread my tidings
Of the goldenfuture time.
The singing of this song threw the animals into the wildest excitement.
AlmostbeforeMajor hadreachedthe end,theyhadbegunsingingitforthem-
selves. Eventhestupidest of themhadalreadypickedupthe tuneandafewof
the words, andasfor the clever ones, suchasthe pigsanddogs,they hadthe
entire songby heart within afew minutes. Andthen, after a fewpreliminary
tries, the whole farm burst out into Beasts of England in tremendousunison.
Thecowslowedit,thedogswhinedit,thesheepbleatedit,thehorseswhinnied
it, the ducksquackedit. They were sodelighted withthesongthat theysang
itrightthroughvetimesinsuccession,andmighthavecontinuedsingingitall
night if they hadnotbeeninterrupted.
Unfortunately,theuproar awokeMr. Jones,whosprangoutofbed,making
surethattherewasafoxintheyard. Heseizedthegunwhichalwaysstoodina
corner ofhisbedroom,andlet  yachargeofnumber6shotintothe darkness.
The pellets buried themselves in the wall of the barn and the meeting broke
uphurriedly. Everyone  edto hisownsleeping-place. Thebirdsjumpedonto
their perches, the animals settleddown in the straw, andthe whole farm was
asleepinamoment.
5
II
Three nightslater oldMajor diedpeacefully inhissleep. Hisbody wasburied
at thefoot of the orchard.
This was early in March. During the next three months there was much
secretactivity. Major’sspeechhadgiventothemoreintelligentanimalsonthe
farm acompletely newoutlookonlife. Theydidnot knowwhentheRebellion
predicted by Major would take place, they had no reason for thinking that
it would be within their own lifetime, but they saw clearly that it was their
duty to prepare for it. The work of teaching and organising the others fell
naturallyuponthepigs,whoweregenerallyrecognisedasbeingthecleverest of
theanimals. Pre-eminentamongthepigsweretwoyoungboarsnamedSnowball
andNapoleon,whomMr. Joneswasbreedingupforsale. Napoleonwasalarge,
rathererce-looking Berkshireboar,theonly Berkshireonthefarm, notmuch
ofatalker,butwithareputationforgettinghisownway. Snowballwasamore
vivacious pig than Napoleon, quicker in speech and more inventive, but was
not considered to have the same depth of character. All the other male pigs
on the farm were porkers. The best known among them was a small fat pig
named Squealer, with very round cheeks, twinkling eyes, nimble movements,
and a shrill voice. He was a brilliant talker, and when he was arguing some
dicult point hehadaway of skippingfrom side toside andwhiskinghistail
whichwassomehowverypersuasive. Theotherssaidof Squealerthat hecould
turnblack intowhite.
ThesethreehadelaboratedoldMajor’steachingsintoacompletesystem of
thought,towhichtheygavethenameofAnimalism. Severalnightsaweek,after
Mr. Joneswasasleep,theyheldsecretmeetingsinthebarnandexpoundedthe
principlesof Animalism to the others. At the beginning they met withmuch
stupidity andapathy. Someof the animalstalkedof thedutyof loyalty toMr.
Jones,whomtheyreferredtoas‘Master,’ or madeelementaryremarkssuchas
‘Mr. Jonesfeedsus. Ifhewere gone, weshouldstarve todeath.’ Othersasked
suchquestionsas‘Whyshouldwecarewhathappensafterwe are dead?’ or ‘If
thisRebellion is to happen anyway, what dierence does it make whether we
work for itor not?’, andthe pigshadgreat diculty inmaking them see that
thiswascontrarytothespiritofAnimalism. Thestupidestquestionsofallwere
asked by Mollie, the white mare. The very rst question she asked Snowball
was: ‘Willthere stillbe sugarafter theRebellion? ’
‘No,’saidSnowballrmly. ‘Wehavenomeansofmakingsugaronthisfarm.
Besides,youdonotneedsugar. Youwillhavealltheoatsandhayyouwant.’
‘AndshallIstillbeallowedtowearribbonsinmymane?’ askedMollie.
‘Comrade,’ said Snowball, ‘those ribbons that you are so devoted to are
the badgeof slavery. Canyounot understandthatliberty isworthmore than
6
ribbons?’
Mollieagreed,but she didnot soundvery convinced.
The pigs had an evenharder struggle to counteract the lies put about by
Moses, the tame raven. Moses, who wasMr. Jones’sespecial pet, was a spy
and a tale-bearer, but he wasalso a clever talker. He claimed to know of the
existence of a mysterious country called Sugarcandy Mountain, to which all
animalswent whentheydied. Itwassituatedsomewhere upinthesky,alittle
distancebeyondtheclouds,Mosessaid. InSugarcandyMountainitwasSunday
sevendaysaweek,cloverwasinseasonalltheyear round,andlumpsugarand
linseedcakegrewonthehedges. TheanimalshatedMosesbecausehetoldtales
anddidnowork,butsome of them believedinSugarcandy Mountain,andthe
pigshadtoargueveryhardtopersuadethemthat there wasnosuchplace.
Their most faithful disciples were the two cart-horses, Boxer and Clover.
These two had great diculty in thinking anything out for themselves, but
havingonce acceptedthepigsastheir teachers,they absorbedeverythingthat
they were told, and passed it on to the other animals by simple arguments.
Theywereunfailingintheirattendanceat thesecret meetingsinthebarn,and
ledthe singingof Beastsof England,withwhichthemeetingsalwaysended.
Now, as it turned out, the Rebellionwas achieved much earlier and more
easily than anyone had expected. In past years Mr. Jones, although a hard
master,had been acapable farmer,but of late he hadfallenonevildays. He
hadbecomemuchdisheartenedafter losingmoney ina lawsuit,andhadtaken
todrinking more than wasgoodfor him. For whole days at a time he would
lounge inhis Windsor chair in the kitchen, readingthe newspapers, drinking,
andoccasionallyfeedingMosesoncrustsofbreadsoakedinbeer. Hismenwere
idle and dishonest,the elds were full of weeds, thebuildingswantedroong,
thehedgeswere neglected,andtheanimalswere underfed.
Junecameandthehaywasalmostreadyforcutting. OnMidsummer’sEve,
which was a Saturday, Mr. Jones went into Willingdon and got so drunk at
the RedLionthat he didnot come backtillmidday onSunday. The menhad
milkedthecowsintheearlymorningandthenhadgoneoutrabbiting,without
bothering tofeedtheanimals. WhenMr. Jonesgot back heimmediatelywent
to sleep on the drawing-room sofa with the News of the World over hisface,
so that when evening came, the animals were still unfed. At last they could
stand it no longer. One of the cows broke in the door of the store-shedwith
her horn and all the animals beganto helpthemselves from the bins. It was
just then that Mr. Jones woke up. The next moment he and his four men
were inthe store-shedwithwhipsintheir hands, lashingout inalldirections.
Thiswasmore thanthehungry animalscouldbear. Withoneaccord, though
nothingof the kindhadbeenplannedbeforehand, they  ungthemselvesupon
their tormentors. Jones andhis men suddenly foundthemselvesbeing butted
and kickedfrom all sides. The situation wasquite out of their control. They
had never seen animals behave like this before, and this sudden uprising of
creatureswhomtheywereusedtothrashingandmaltreatingjustastheychose,
frightenedthemalmostoutoftheirwits. Afteronlyamomentortwotheygave
uptrying todefendthemselvesand took totheirheels. A minutelater allve
of them were infull ight downthe cart-trackthat ledto the mainroad,with
theanimalspursuingthem intriumph.
Mrs. Joneslooked out of the bedroom window, saw what was happening,
hurriedly ungafewpossessionsintoacarpetbag,andslippedout of thefarm
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by another way. Moses sprang o his perch and  apped after her, croaking
loudly. Meanwhile the animals had chased Jones and his men out on to the
road and slammed the ve-barred gate behind them. And so, almost before
they knew what was happening, the Rebellion had been successfully carried
through: Joneswasexpelled,andthe Manor Farm wastheirs.
For the rst few minutes the animals could hardly believe in their good
fortune. Their rst act was to gallop in a body right round the boundaries
of the farm, as though to make quite sure that no human being was hiding
anywhere uponit; thenthey racedback to the farmbuildingstowipe out the
last tracesof Jones’s hatedreign. The harness-room at the endof the stables
wasbrokenopen;the bits,thenose-rings,thedog-chains,thecruelkniveswith
whichMr. Joneshadbeenused tocastrate thepigsandlambs, were all  ung
down the well. The reins, the halters, the blinkers, the degrading nosebags,
werethrownontothe rubbishrewhichwasburningintheyard. Sowerethe
whips. Alltheanimalscaperedwithjoy whentheysawthewhipsgoing upin
ames. Snowballalso threw onto the re the ribbonswith whichthe horses’
manesandtailshadusually beendecoratedonmarketdays.
‘Ribbons,’he said, ‘shouldbeconsidered asclothes, whichare the mark of
ahumanbeing. Allanimalsshouldgonaked.’
When Boxer heard this he fetched the small straw hat which he wore in
summertokeepthe iesoutofhisears,and ungitontotherewiththerest.
In a very little while the animalshad destroyed everything that reminded
themof Mr. Jones. Napoleonthenledthembacktothestore-shedandserved
out adouble rationof corntoeverybody,withtwobiscuitsfor eachdog. Then
they sang Beasts of England from end to end seventimes running, andafter
thattheysettleddownforthenightandslept astheyhadneverslept before.
But they woke at dawn as usual, and suddenly remembering the glorious
thingthat hadhappened,they allracedoutintothepasture together. A little
way down the pasture there was a knoll that commanded a view of most of
the farm. The animals rushed to the top of it and gazed round them in the
clear morning light. Yes, it was theirs | everything that they could see was
theirs! In the ecstasy of that thought they gambolled round and round, they
hurledthemselves into the air in great leaps of excitement.They rolledin the
dew,theycroppedmouthfulsofthesweetsummergrass,theykickedupclodsof
theblack earthandsnueditsrichscent. Thentheymadeatour of inspection
ofthewholefarmandsurveyedwithspeechlessadmirationtheploughland,the
hayeld, the orchard, the pool, the spinney. It was as thoughthey hadnever
seenthesethingsbefore,andevennowtheycouldhardlybelievethatitwasall
theirown.
Then they led back to the farm buildings and halted in silence outside
the door of the farmhouse. That was theirs too, but they were frightenedto
go inside. After a moment,however, Snowball andNapoleonbutted the door
openwiththeir shoulders andthe animals enteredinsingle le, walkingwith
the utmost care for fear of disturbing anything. They tiptoed from room to
room, afraid to speak above a whisper andgazing with a kind of awe at the
unbelievable luxury, at the beds with their feather mattresses, the looking-
glasses,thehorsehairsofa,theBrusselscarpet,thelithographofQueenVictoria
over the drawing-room mantelpiece. They were lust coming down the stairs
whenMolliewasdiscoveredtobemissing. Goingback,theothersfoundthatshe
hadremainedbehindinthebestbedroom. Shehadtakenapieceofblueribbon
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from Mrs. Jones’s dressing-table, andwasholding it against her shoulder and
admiring herself in the glassin avery foolish manner. The othersreproached
her sharply, and they went outside. Some hams hanging in the kitchen were
taken out for burial, and the barrel of beer in the scullery was stove inwith
a kick from Boxer’s hoof, | otherwise nothing in the house was touched. A
unanimous resolution was passed on the spot that the farmhouse should be
preservedasamuseum. Allwere agreedthatnoanimalmusteverlive there.
The animals had their breakfast, and then Snowball and Napoleon called
themtogether again.
‘Comrades,’saidSnowball,‘it ishalf-pastsixandwehavealongdaybefore
us. Todaywe beginthehayharvest. But thereisanother matterthat must be
attendedtorst.’
The pigsnowrevealed that during the past three monthsthey hadtaught
themselvestoreadandwritefromanoldspellingbook whichhadbelongedto
Mr. Jones’schildrenandwhichhadbeenthrownontherubbishheap. Napoleon
sentfor potsofblack andwhitepaintandledthe way downtotheve-barred
gatethatgaveontothemainroad. ThenSnowball(foritwasSnowballwhowas
bestatwriting)tookabrushbetweenthetwoknucklesofhistrotter,paintedout
MANORFARM fromthetopbarofthegateandinitsplacepaintedANIMAL
FARM. This was to be the name of the farm from now onwards. After this
they went back to the farm buildings, where Snowball and Napoleon sent for
a ladder which they caused to be set against the end wall of the big barn.
They explained that by their studies of the past three months the pigs had
succeeded in reducing the principles of Animalism to Seven Commandments.
These SevenCommandmentswould now beinscribedonthe wall; they would
formanunalterablelawbywhichalltheanimalsonAnimalFarmmustlivefor
everafter. Withsomediculty(foritisnoteasyforapigtobalancehimselfon
aladder)Snowballclimbedupandsettowork,withSquealerafewrungsbelow
himholdingthepaint-pot. TheCommandmentswerewrittenonthetarredwall
ingreat whitelettersthatcouldbe readthirtyyardsaway. Theyranthus:
THESEVENCOMMANDMENTS
1. Whatevergoesupontwolegsisanenemy.
2. Whatevergoesuponfour legs,or haswings,isafriend.
3. Noanimalshallwear clothes.
4. Noanimalshallsleepinabed.
5. Noanimalshalldrinkalcohol.
6. Noanimalshallkillany otheranimal.
7. Allanimalsareequal.
It wasveryneatlywritten,andexceptthat ‘friend’waswritten‘freind’and
one of the ‘S’s’wasthewrong way round,the spellingwascorrect all the way
through. Snowball readit aloudfor the benet of the others. All the animals
noddedincompleteagreement,andtheclevereronesatoncebegantolearnthe
Commandmentsbyheart.
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