Moen, P., Elder, G., & Luscher, K. (Eds.). (1995). Examining lives in context: Perspectives on the ecology
of human development. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Ex: Book chapter in book retrieved from archival database. – See APA manual (6th ed.),
pp. 192, 204, # 25, information about subscription databases on p. 207, 7.05
Price, J. (1934). Bret Easton Ellis: Overview. In S. W. Brown (Ed.), Contemporary novelists (DX Reader
version). Retrieved from Literature Resources from Gale database.
Provide the subscription database instead of the home page or entry page URL of the
publisher or other primary publishing channels, if the book is available from an archival
- Ex: Introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword.
Author of section being cited. (Year). Name of section. In author of book, Title of book (p. or pp.
page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher. Take note: The section author is listed differently
than the author(s) of the whole book.
Jeffrey, I. (2008). Introduction. In B. Saveley, Secret city: Photographs from Peru (pp. 8-12).
New York, NY: Thames and Hudson.
- Ex: Edition other than the first.
Author's name. (Year). Title of book (Number of edition). Place of publication: Publisher.
Hoff, R. (1992). I can see you naked : A new revised edition of the national bestseller on making fearless
presentations (New rev. ed.). Kansas City, MO: Andrews and McMeel.
Pasachoff, J. (1999). Field guide to the stars and planets (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
- Ex: Work in an anthology.
Author's name. (Year). Title of selection. In Editor’s name (Ed.), Title of anthology (Vol. volume
number, then if appropriate, pp. page#s). Place of publication: Publisher.
Updike, J. (2005). Reading Trends. In M. Meyer (Ed.), The Bedford introduction to literature: Reading,
thinking and writing (Vol. 1, p. 307). New York, NY: Greenwood Press.
- Ex: Entry in an online encyclopedia or dictionary with no date.
Author's name. (n.d. for no date). Entry heading or title. In Title of encyclopedia (if there is not
volume number or page numbers of selection, use the edition information). Retrieved from URL
or home page URL of book publisher (NOTE: Do not end URL with a period.) See APA
manual (6th ed.), p. 205, #30
Tavris, C. (n.d.). Queen bee syndrome. In Women’s studies encyclopedia(Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved
- Ex: Entry in a print encyclopedia or dictionary, no author or editor.
Entry heading or title. (Year). In Title of encyclopedia (Vol. volume number, then if appropriate, pp.
page#s). Place of publication: Publisher.
Eschatology. (1982). In Webster’s new world dictionary of the American language (2nd ed.).
New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
- Ex: Multivolume work.
Author's name. (Year). Title of multivolume work (Vol. volume number-s). Place of publication:
Publisher. See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 204, #23
Schlager, N. (Ed.). (2000-2004). How products are made: An illustrated guide to product manufacturing
(Vols. 1-4). Detroit, MI: Gale Research.
Mills, L. (1996). Architecture of the Old South (Vols. 1-2). Savannah, GA: Beehive Foundation.
- Ex: Limited circulation book or monograph from the electronic database (ERIC).
Notice that no location or publisher was included because the monograph was retrieved
electronically. See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 204, #22 – No ERIC ED accession number was
included for this example, and the ERIC URL was provided. However, in #62 on page 212, the
accession number was included and the name of the database was used in the retrieval statement.
Mead, J. V. (Ed.). (2002). Citation analysis: Investigating the quality of doctoral reference lists
[Monograph]. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov
- Ex: Electronic version of republished book
Author. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from URL (Original work published in XXXX) See APA
manual (6th ed.), p. 203, #21
Freud, S. (1933). An autobiographical study. New York, NY: Knopf. Retrieved from
http://books.google.com/books (Original work published 1900)
- Ex.: Electronic version of print book, title translated into English, book translated -- See
See APA manual (6th ed.), pp. 205, #28 If the online version refers to a print edition, include the
edition number after the title. See p. 205, #30.
Freud, S. (1911). The interpretation of dreams (3rd ed.). (A. A. Brill, Trans.). Retrieved from
If the non-English work is used as the source, give the title in the original language and put the
translated title in English. For example,
Die traumdeteun. [
The interpretation of dreams].
the above example, the book was translated into English so the title in German was not
included. See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 205, #28.
Periodicals – Journal, Magazine, and Newsletter Articles
General notes about periodical articles and documents: Names are listed last name, then
initials, if name(s) is the first element of the citation. Separate names with a comma, and an
ampersand (&) before the last author. If there is no author, then the title of the article is first.
Dates– Daily newspapers & newsletters: Use (Year, Month Day). Monthly newspapers &
magazines with no volume number: Use (Year, Month). Journals: Use (Year)
Titles– Article titles: capitalize first word in titles and subtitles, and any proper names.
Journal titles– Capitalize all words except articles and prepositions
Volume numbers and issue numbers – Do not use vol. for volume or no. for issue number.
The volume number is italicized while the issue number is not. The issue number is enclosed in
parentheses and follows immediately after the volume number with no space. Follow the
parentheses with a comma.
Pages– Newspapers: use p. for one page, pp. for two or more pages. However, for magazines
and journals, Do not use p. or pp. before page numbers. Follow the page number(s) with a
Article in a journal or magazine. See APA manual (6th ed.), pp. 199-202.
Author's name. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal or journal, volume number(issue number), page
- Ex: Journal article with DOI assigned.
Include the DOI or Digital Object Identifier if available. See APA manual (6th ed.), pp. 187-192,
199 #3. When you do not have a DOI assigned and the reference is retrieved online, give the
URL of the exact URL if available. If not, use the journal home page. No retrieval date is
included. If the journal article was not retrieved online, end the citation with the period after the
Gerry, R.. (2000). Tempo training for freestyle. Journal of Swimming Technique, 34(1), 40-42.
- Ex: Journal article with DOI assigned, advance online publication. See APA manual (6th
ed.), p. 199, #5
Cox, C. (2006). An analysis of the impact of federated search products on library instruction using
the ACRL standards. Portal: Libraries and the academy, 6(3), 253-267. Advance online publication.
- If you are citing an advance release version of the article, insert Advance online
publication before the retrieval statement or DOI
- Ex: Journal article with no DOI, retrieved from open-access URL, more than seven
authors. If there is no DOI number, then include the URL for open-access journals when
available. When there are more than seven authors, use the ellipses for the authors after the sixth
and before the last author. See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 199, #2-3
Jones, H. M., McKay, J., Alvarado, F., Plath, E., Jordan, A., Porter, M., . . . Allsop, S. (2005).
The attractions of stupidity. The St. Croix e-Review, 30(2), 6-10. Retrieved from
- Ex: Journal article with no DOI, retrieved from a subscription database. If there is no
DOI number and the article was retrieved from a subscription database instead of an open-access
URL, then APA says to locate and provide the home page URL for the journal. See APA manual
(6th ed.), p. 191. Since chances are that the article cannot be retrieved free, chances are that most
instructors would be OK with just providing the basic citation without any retrieval information.
Getweed, R.-J., Jr. (2007). Information literacy for distance students. Journal of Library
Administration, 34(1), 40-42. Retrieved from http://www.jla.org/
- Ex: In-press article in a preprint archive. See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 200, #6 for in press
Watson, J. D., & Jones, F. H. (in press). A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature. Retrieved
The exact URL is provided because the article is informally published and not yet indexed on
a journal website. The article version was posted online in an outside repository or preprint
- Ex: Journal article retrieved from difficult source to locate online -- JSTOR
Jennings, B. (1913). Lessons learned in the trenches: The experiences of an urban middle
principal. Leadership, 4, 12. Retrieved from JSTOR database.
- Some archival documents can only be found in electronic databases such as ERIC and JSTOR.
When the document is not easily located through its primary publishing channels, give the home
or entry page URL for the online archive or the subscription database if it is only available in that
format. Note that the example above has the article was published in 1913. See APA manual (6th
ed.), p. 192.
- Ex.: Online newsletter article, no author – See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 200, #9
Upward mobility in third world nations. (2009, spring). Portals of the world: Newsletter of the Florida
Virtual University. Retrieved from http://wwww.fvu.edu/portalsoftheworld
The month and day or season is provided for newsletters.
No volume, issue, and page numbers was provided in this online newsletter.
The exact URL is helpful here because newsletter articles can be difficult to locate on the
university home page.
Alphabetize works with no author by the first significant word in the title.
In text, use a short title or the full title if it is short by enclosing it in quotation marks for
the parenthetical citation: (“Upward Mobility,” 2009).
Break the URL before most symbols.
- Ex.: No page numbers for online newsletter article. See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 200, #9.
Rosenberg, S. (1999, June 2). What is to be done about Microsoft? Salon.. Retrieved from
The month and day are included for newsletters and newspapers.
Website–magazine, journal or newspaper article. See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 200, #8
Cite as you would a printed source, followed by a retrieval statement that includes the Internet
address or URL of the article. Start it with the word Retrieved and end with the Internet
address/URL. E.g.: Retrieved from [http://…]
Reed, M. L. (2000). Algebraic structure of genetic inheritance. Bulletin of the American
Mathematical Society, 34, 107-130. Retrieved from http://www.ams.org/bull/1997-34-02
Unpublished manuscript with a university cited. Retrieved from institutional website, no
date. See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 211, #58 Author. (Year, or use n.d. if no date). Title of web
document. Retrieved from [Institution Name, program or department] website: [URL]
Colman, W. C. (n.d.). Comparisons of grade point averages between men who join fraternities and men who
do not join fraternities at Shady Rock University. Unpublished manuscript. Programs for Higher
Education, Nova Southeastern University. Retrieved from
Computer programs, software, and programming languages. See APA manual (6th ed.), pp.
210-211, # 56 Software programs like Word, PowerPoint, SPSS, SAS, Java, Photoshop, and
Adobe Acrobat that are considered standard, off-the-shelf software do not need reference entries.
However, you do need to provide reference entries for specialized software or computer
programs with limited distribution. Author. (Date). Title of software or computer program
(Version number) [Any identifier]. City, state: Name of producer.. Retrieved from URL
Jones, D. F. (2002). The citation analyzer (Version 3.2) [Computer software].
Fort Lauderdale, FL: Nova Southeastern University. Retrieved from http://www.buros.com/
The name of the software is not italicized, and the important words are not capitalized.
The type of resource is identified in brackets.
Only list an author if that individual has proprietary rights to the software.
The information about how to obtain this software of computer program of limited
distribution is provided statement that starts with Retrieved from http://...
Data set. See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 211, #54. The title for data sets gets italicized.
National Center of Educational Statistics. (2009). IPED report: Nova Southeastern
University [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.nces.org/datasets/
Measurement instrument. See APA manual, p. 211, #55.
Tunon, J., & Brydges, B. (2008). Subjective rubric [Software and training videos].
Unpublished instrument. Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/
Dissertations, Theses, and Practicums
Dissertations done by students attending Nova before 1994 are from Nova University rather than
Nova Southeastern University
Doctoral dissertation retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database . See
APA manual (6th ed.), p. 207-208, #40 Author last name, first initial. (Year). Title of dissertation.
Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. xxxxxxx)
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested