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Description
Meaning
Command
Deletesthespecifiedfileorfiles.Youcanusepatternmatching
characters(suchastheasterisk)tomatchmorethanonefile.You
canalsoremovedirectorieswiththiscommand,althoughuseof
rmdir
ispreferred.
Remove
rm
Deletesadirectory.Thedirectorymustbeemptybeforeyoudelete
it.
Remove
Directory
rmdir
Sendsanabortsignaltothecurrentcommand.Inmostcasesthis
causesthecommandtoterminate,althoughcommandsmayinstall
signalhandlerstotrapthiscommandandresponddifferently.
Abort
Ctrl-C
SendstheSIGTSTPsignaltothecurrentcommand.Inmostcases
thiscausesthecommandtobesuspended,althoughcommands
mayinstallsignalhandlerstotrapthiscommandandrespond
differently.
Oncesuspended,youcanusethe
fg
builtintobringtheprocess
backtotheforegroundorthe
bg
builtintocontinuerunningitin
thebackground.
Suspend
Ctrl-Z
SendstheSIGQUITsignaltothecurrentcommand.Inmostcases
thiscausesthecommandtoterminate,althoughcommandsmay
installsignalhandlerstotrapthiscommandandresponddifferently.
Quit
Ctrl-\
EnvironmentVariables
Someprogramsrequiretheuseofenvironmentvariablesfortheirexecution.Environmentvariablesarevariables
inheritedbyallprogramsexecutedintheshell’scontext.Theshellitselfusesenvironmentvariablestostore
informationsuchasthenameofthecurrentuser,thenameofthehostcomputer,andthepathstoany
executableprograms.Youcanalsocreateenvironmentvariablesandusethemtocontrolthebehaviorofyour
programwithoutmodifyingtheprogramitself.Forexample,youmightuseanenvironmentvariabletotell
yourprogramtoprintdebuginformationtotheconsole.
Tosetthevalueofanenvironmentvariable,youusetheappropriateshellcommandtoassociateavariable
namewithavalue.Forexample,tosettheenvironmentvariable
MYFUNCTION
tothevalue
MyGetData
inthe
globalshellenvironmentyouwouldtypethefollowingcommandinaTerminalwindow:
# In n Bourne shell variants
export MYFUNCTION="MyGetData"
CommandLinePrimer
EnvironmentVariables
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Extract pages from pdf file - software Library project:C# PDF Page Extract Library: copy, paste, cut PDF pages in C#.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
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# In n C C shell l variants
setenv MYFUNCTION N "MyGetData"
Whenyoulaunchanapplicationfromashell,theapplicationinheritsmuchofitsparentshell’senvironment,
includinganyexportedenvironmentvariables.Thisformofinheritancecanbeausefulwaytoconfigurethe
applicationdynamically.Forexample,yourapplicationcancheckforthepresence(orvalue)ofanenvironment
variableandchangeitsbehavioraccordingly.Differentshellssupportdifferentsemanticsforexporting
environmentvariables,soseethemanpageforyourpreferredshellforfurtherinformation.
Childprocessesofashellinheritacopyoftheenvironmentofthatshell.Shellsdonotsharetheirenvironments
withoneanother.Thus,variablesyousetinoneTerminalwindowarenotsetinotherTerminalwindows.Once
youcloseaTerminalwindow,anyvariablesyousetinthatwindowaregone.
IfyouwantthevalueofavariabletopersistbetweensessionsandinallTerminalwindows,youmusteither
addittoaloginscriptoraddittoyourenvironmentpropertylist.SeeBeforeYouBegin (page 15)fordetails.
Similarly,environmentvariablessetbytoolsorsubshellsarelostwhenthosetoolsorsubshellsexit.
RunningUser-AddedCommands
Asmentionedpreviously,youcanrunmosttoolsbytypingtheirname.Thisisbecausethosetoolsarelocated
inspecificdirectoriesthattheshellsearcheswhenyoutypethenameofacommand.Theshellusesthe
PATH
environmentvariabletocontrolwhereitsearchesforthesetools.Itcontainsacolon-delimitedlistofpathsto
search—
/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin
,forexample.
Ifatoolisinanyotherdirectory,youmustprovideapathfortheprogramtotellitwheretofindthattool.(For
securityreasons,whenwritingscripts,youshouldalwaysspecifyacomplete,absolutepath.)
Forsecurityreasons,thecurrentworkingdirectoryisnotpartofthedefaultsearchpath(
PATH
),andshould
notbeaddedtoit.Ifitwere,thenanotheruseronamulti-usersystemcouldtrickyouintorunningacommand
byaddingamalicioustoolwiththesamenameasoneyouwouldtypicallyrun(suchasthe
ls
command)or
acommonmisspellingthereof.
Forthisreason,ifyouneedtorunatoolinthecurrentworkingdirectory,youmustexplicitlyspecifyitspath,
eitherasanabsolutepath(startingfrom
/
)orasarelativepathstartingwithadirectoryname(whichcanbe
the
.
directory).Forexample,torunthe
MyCommandLineProgram
toolinthecurrentdirectory,youcould
type
./MyCommandLineProgram
andpressReturn.
Withtheaforementionedsecuritycaveatsinmind,youcanaddnewparts(temporarily)tothevalueofthe
PATH
environmentvariablebydoingthefollowing:
CommandLinePrimer
RunningUser-AddedCommands
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echo "$PATH"
# In n Bourne shell variants
export PATH="$PATH:/my/new/path/part"
# In n C C shell l variants
setenv PATH H "$PATH:/my/new/path/part"
IfyouwanttheadditionalpathcomponentstopersistbetweensessionsandinallTerminalwindows,you
musteitheraddittoaloginscriptoraddittoyourenvironmentpropertylist.SeeBeforeYouBegin (page 15)
fordetails.
RunningApplications
Tolaunchanapplication,youcangenerallyeither:
Usethe
open
command.
open /path/to/MyApp.app
Runtheapplicationbinaryitself.
Typethepathnameoftheexecutablefileinsidethepackage.
/path/to/MyApp.app/Contents/MacOS/MyApp
CommandLinePrimer
RunningApplications
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263
software Library project:VB.NET PDF Text Extract Library: extract text content from PDF
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Add and Insert Blank Pages to PDF File in C#.NET. This C# demo explains how to insert empty pages to a specific location of current PDF file.
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Note:  Asageneralrule,ifyoulaunchaGUIapplicationfromascript,youshouldrunthatscriptonly
withinTerminaloranotherGUIapplication.YoucannotnecessarilylaunchanGUIapplicationwhen
loggedinremotely(usingSSH,forexample).Ingeneral,doingsoispossibleonlyifyouarealso
loggedinusingtheOSXGUI,andinsomeversionsofOSX,itisdisallowedentirely.
LearningAboutOtherCommands
Atthecommand-linelevel,mostdocumentationcomesintheformofmanpages(shortformanual).Man
pagesprovidereferenceinformationformanyshellcommands,programs,andPOSIX-levelconcepts.The
manualpage
manpages
describestheorganizationofmanual,andtheformatandsyntaxofindividualman
pages.
Toaccessamanpage,typethe
man
commandfollowedbythenameofthethingyouwanttolookup.For
example,tolookupinformationaboutthe
bash
shell,youwouldtype
man bash
.Themanpagesarealso
includedintheOSXDeveloperLibrary(OSXManPages).
Youcanalsosearchthemanualpagesbykeywordusingthe
apropos
command.
Note:  Notallcommandsandprogramshavemanpages.Foralistofavailablemanpages,lookin
the
/usr/share/man
directoryorseeOSXManPagesintheOSXDeveloperLibrary.
Mostshellshaveacommandormanpagethatdisplaysthelistofcommandsthatarebuiltintotheshell
(builtins).TableA-4liststheavailableshellsinOSXalongwiththewaysyoucanaccessthelistofbuiltinsfor
theshell.
TableA-4
Gettingalistofshellbuiltins
Command
Shell
help
or
bash
-chelp
bash
man sh
sh
builtins
csh
builtins
tcsh
man zshbuiltins
zsh
CommandLinePrimer
LearningAboutOtherCommands
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264
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note, PDF file will be divided from the previous page of your defined page number which starts from 0. For example, your original PDF file contains 4 pages.
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TheBourneshellhasanumberofspecial“automatic”variablesthatitmaintainsforinformationalpurposes.
ThesevariablesprovideinformationsuchastheprocessIDoftheshell,theexitstatusofthelastcommand,
andsoon.Thissectionprovidesalistofthesespecialvariables.Foradditionalvariablessupportedbyspecific
BourneshellvariantssuchasBASHandZSH,seethe
bash
and
zshparam
manualpages,respectively.
TableB-1
Specialshellvariables
Description
Variable
Processinformation
ProcessIDofshell
$$
ProcessIDofshell’sparentprocess.
QuirkWarning:Forsubshells,thevalueofPPIDisinheritedfromtheparentshell.Thus,
PPIDisonlytheparentoftheoutermostshellprocess.
$PPID
Exitstatusoflastcommand.
$?
Nameoflastcommand.
$_
ProcessIDoflastprocessruninthebackgroundusingampersand(&)operator.Thisis
commonlyusedinconjunctionwiththe
wait
builtin.
$!
Acolon-delimitedlistoflocationswheretrustedexecutablesareinstalled.Anyexecutable
inoneoftheselocationscanbeexecutedwithoutspecifyingacompletepath.
$PATH
Fieldandrecordparsing
InputFieldSeparators(usesareexplainedinVariableExpansionandFieldSeparators (page
62))
$IFS
Userinformation
Theuser’shomedirectory.
$HOME
Theuser’sID.
SecurityWarning:Thisvaluecanbemodifiedbythecallingscript,soitshouldnotbe
usedforauthenticationpurposes.
$UID
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265
SpecialShellVariables
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Description
Variable
Theuser’s(short)loginname.
SecurityWarning:Thisvaluecanbemodifiedbythecallingscript,soitshouldnotbe
usedforauthenticationpurposes.
$USER
MiscellaneousVariables
Numberofargumentspassedtotheshell.ThisvariableisdescribedfurtherinHandling
FlagsandArguments (page 74).
$#
Completelistofargumentspassedtotheshell,separatedbyspaces..Thisvariableis
describedfurtherinHandlingFlagsandArguments (page 74).
$@
Completelistofargumentspassedtotheshell,separatedbythefirstcharacterofthe
IFS
(inputfieldseparators)variable.ThisvariableisdescribedfurtherinHandlingFlags
andArguments (page 74).
$*
Alistofallshellflagscurrentlyenabled.
$-
Thecurrentworkingdirectory.Equivalenttoexecutingthe
pwd
command.
$PWD
SpecialShellVariables
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266
Thefinalpiecetounderstandingshellscripting(andtounderstandingotherpeople’sshellscripts)is
comprehendingtheuse(andabuse)ofcommand-linetools.Thescriptslistedinthissectionarecommonly
usedinshellscripts.
Eachofthesetoolshasitsownsyntaxanditsownquirks.Itisimpracticaltoexplainthemallindetail.However,
thischapterbrieflyhighlightssomecommontoolsandincludeslinkstotheirmanualpagesforfindingadditional
informationaboutthem.
GeneralTools
Thetoolsinthissectionaregeneraltoolsthatdon’tfitintoanybroadcategories.
TableC-1
Commonlyusedgeneralscriptingtools
Description
Tool
Shortfor“basiccalculator”,performsfloatingpointmathandvariousotherusefulcalculations
thatarenotpracticalwithbasicshellmathsupport.
bc
Usedtoworkwithhard-to-handlecommand-linetoolsthatrequiremorecomplexinteraction
thanispossiblewithasinglepipe.Forexample,youcouldusean
expect
scripttointeract
with
getty
overa
tty
orotherbidirectionalconnectiontologintoaremotecomputer.
Ingeneral,scriptingthatrequirestwo-wayinteractionbetweenthescriptandaprogram
ismosteasilydonewithan
expect
script.
expect
Evaluatesanumericalexpression.Thiscommandsupportsbasicintegermath,andis
frequentlyusedforincrementingaloopiterator.
expr
Returnsafailureexitstatus(nonzero).
false
Pausesexecutionforaperiodoftime(measuredinseconds).
sleep
Returnsasuccessfulexitstatus(
0
).
true
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OtherToolsandInformation
TextProcessingTools
Thetoolslistedinthissectionarecommonlyusedfortextprocessing.Unlessotherwisenoted,thesecommands
takeinputfromstandardinput(ifapplicable)andprinttheresulttostandardoutput.
Manyofthesecommandsuseregularexpressions.ThesyntaxofregularexpressionsisdescribedinRegular
ExpressionsUnfettered (page 100).Foradditionalusagenotesspecifictoindividualapplications,seethemanual
pageforthecommanditself.
TableC-2
Commonlyusedtextprocessingtools
Description
Tool
ShortforAho,Weinberger,andKernighan;aprogramminglanguageinitself,usedfortext
processingusingregularexpressions.ThistoolisdescribedfurtherinHowAWK-ward (page
122).
awk
ShortforGlobal[searchfor]RegularExpressionsandPrint;printslinesmatchinganinput
pattern(optionallywithaspecifiednumberoflinesofleadingand/ortrailingcontext).The
grep
commandcantakeinputfromstandardinputorfromfiles.
Commonvariantsinclude
agrep
(“approximategrep”fromtheUniv.ofAZ),
fgrep
,and
egrep
.
grep
Printsthefirstfewlinesfromafile(orstandardinput).Thenumberoflinescanbespecified
withthe
-n
flag.
head
Aprogramminglanguagewhosescriptscanbeeasilyembeddedinshellscriptsusingthe
-e
flag.Perl'sregularexpressionlanguageissomewhatricherthanbasicregularexpressions(and
easiertoreadthancharacterclassesinextendedregularexpressions),makingitpopularfor
textprocessinguse.
perl
Shortforstreameditor;performsmorecomplextextsubstitutionsusingregularexpressions.
sed
Sortsaseriesoflines.Bydefault,
sort
readstheselinesfromitsstandardinput.Afterits
standardinputisclosed,itsortsthemandprintstheresultstoitsstandardoutput.
sort
Printsthelastfewlinesfromofafile(orstandardinput).Thenumberoflinescanbespecified
withthe
-n
flag.Alternatively,youcanspecifythestartingpositionasabyteorlineoffset
fromeitherthestartorendofthefile.
tail
Copiesstandardinputtostandardoutput,savingacopyintoafile(ormultiplefiles).
tee
Replacesonecharacterwithanother.
tr
Filtersoutadjacentlinesthatmatch.
uniq
OtherToolsandInformation
TextProcessingTools
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268
FileCommands
Thesecommandsareusedtomanipulatefiles,includingrenaming,moving,anddeletingfiles,changing
permissions,creatingdirectories,listingfiles,andsoon.
TableC-3
Commonlyusedfilemanipulationtools
Description
Tool
Changesthecurrentworkingdirectory.Thecommand
cd ..
movesupa
directory,forexample.
cd
Changesflagsonafileordirectory.Mostoftheseflagsarerelativelyobscure.
Forchangingpermissionsflags,use
chmod
instead.
chflags
ChangesthegroupIDassociatedwithafileordirectory.
chgrp
Changesmodes(permissionbits)oraccesscontrollists(ACLs)onafileor
directory.
chmod
Changestheownershipoffilesordirectories.Thiscommandcanalsochange
thegroupifdesired.
chown
Listsorsearchesforfilesinadirectoryanditssubdirectories.
find
Createssymboliclinksandhardlinkstofilesordirectories.
ln
Liststhefilesinthecurrentdirectory.
ls
Createsnewdirectories.
mkdir
Createsnamedpipesforcommunication.Thistoolisusefulinsituationswhere
pipescannotbeestablishedwhileexecutingthecommands,suchasconnecting
twotoolsinacircularfashion.
mkfifo
Movesorrenamesfilesanddirectories.
mv
Removesfilesanddirectories
rm
and
rmdir
Printsdetailedfilestatusinformation,suchasthetypeoffile,lastmodification
date,andsoon.
stat
Thesetools,installedaspartoftheDeveloperToolsinstallation,areusefulfor
gettingandmanipulatingthingslikeextendedattributes.
Beawarethatifyouwriteascriptthatdependsonthese,itwillrequirethe
DeveloperToolstobeinstalled.
GetFileInfo
and
SetFile
OtherToolsandInformation
FileCommands
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269
DiskCommands
Thetoolslistedinthissectionperformoperationsondisks,filesystems,partitiontables,anddiskimages.
TableC-4
Commonlyuseddisk-relatedandpartition-relatedtools
Description
Tool
Mountsandunmountsvolumesanddisks,checksdisksfor
consistency,erasesopticaldisks,wipesdiskswithasecurity
wipe,partitionsdisks,manipulatesRAIDsets,andsoon.
Thisutilityisthecommand-linecounterparttotheDiskUtility
application.
diskutil
Checksafilesystemforconsistency.
fsck
,
fsck_msdos
,
fsck_hfs
Createsandmanipulatesdiskimages,includingattachingdisk
imagesformounting.
hdiutil
Mountsandunmountsvolumes.
Ifyouunmountautomountedvolumesbehindthebackof
thediskarbitrationsystem,youcancausestrangebehavior
intheGUI.Usethesecommandswithcare,andifyouare
tryingtounmountanautomountedvolume,use
hdiutil
or
diskutil
instead.
mount
and
umount
(Also
mount_afp
,
mount_cd9660
,
mount_cddafs
,
mount_fdesc
,
mount_ftp
,
mount_hfs
,
mount_msdos
,
mount_nfs
,
mount_ntfs
,
mount_smbfs
,
mount_udf
,
mount_url
,and
mount_webdav
)
ArchivingandCompressionCommands
Thetoolsinthissectionallowyoutocreatearchivefilesthatcontaincopiesofmultiplefilesforeaseof
distribution,toextractthecontentsofarchivefiles,andcompressanddecompressfilestoreducediskspace
ornetworkutilization.
Thecompressiontoolscanalsogenerallybeusedwithpipestocompressdatawithoutstoringitinafile.The
archivetoolscangenerallyusestandardinputoroutputforreadingorwritingthearchiveitself,butnotthe
contentsthereof.The
funzip
variantoftheziparchivingtoolcanbeusedwithtwopipes,butcanonlyextract
thefirstfilefromanarchive.
OtherToolsandInformation
DiskCommands
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