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# /*!
#
@abstract Checks to see if a group long name is reasonable.
#
@discussion
#
Checking for non-empty strings is good enough for now,
#
but ideally, this should also check for duplicates.
#
The code doesn't do this because there's no good way
#
that doesn't involve a huge file and grep.
#
*/
valid_longname()
{
local NAME="$1"
if [ "$NAME" = "" ] ; then
return 1;
fi
return 0;
}
# /*!
#
@abstract Checks to see if a group name is reasonable.
#
@discussion Ideally, this should do more checks.
#
*/
valid_groupname()
{
local NAME="$1"
if [ "$NAME" = "" ] ; then
return 1;
fi
return 0
}
# /*!
StartingPoints
UserandGroupManagement
2014-03-10   |   Copyright © 2003, 2014 Apple Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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#
@abstract Checks to see if a (numeric) group ID is reasonable.
#
*/
valid_gid()
{
local NEWGID="$1"
# Empty primary GID means "choose one for me"
if [ "$NEWGID" = "" ] ; then
return 0;
fi
local NEWGIDSTR="$(printf "%d" "$NEWGID" 2> /dev/null)"
if [ "$NEWGIDSTR" != "$NEWGID" ] ; then
return 1;
fi
return 0;
}
# /*!
#
@abstract Creates an associative pseudo-array for GID to username mapping.
#
*/
initGIDMap()
{
local SKIPGROUP="$1"
# GROUPS is BASH reserved word
local ALLGROUPS="$(dscl "$DOMAIN" -list /Groups)"
for i in $ALLGROUPS ; do
if [ "$i" != "$SKIPGROUP" ] ; then
eval "GID_$(dscl "$DOMAIN" -read /Groups/"$i" PrimaryGroupID 2>/dev/null
| sed 's/PrimaryGroupID: //' | sed 's/-/MINUS/')=\"$i\""
StartingPoints
UserandGroupManagement
2014-03-10   |   Copyright © 2003, 2014 Apple Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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fi
done
}
# /*!
#
@abstract Looks up a GID in the pseudo-array and maps it to a group name
#
*/
gidToName()
{
local CHECKGID="$1"
local CHECKGID_ENCODED="$(echo "$CHECKGID" | sed 's/-/MINUS/')"
eval echo '$GID_'$CHECKGID_ENCODED
}
# /*!
#
@abstract Finds the next unused UID.
#
*/
assignGID()
{
initGIDMap
# An error here means somebody screwed up MINGID.
local POS=$MINGID
while true ; do
# echo "Trying $POS" 1>&2
local TEMPNAME="$(gidToName $POS)"
if [ "$TEMPNAME" = "" ] ; then
echo $POS
return;
fi
StartingPoints
UserandGroupManagement
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POS="$(expr $POS '+' 1)"
done
}
# /*!
#
@abstract Returns success if no other group has the chosen GID.
#
*/
gid_not_conflicting()
{
local NEWGID="$1"
local NEWGROUP="$2"
initGIDMap "$NEWGROUP"
local TEMPNAME="$(gidToName "$NEWGID")"
if [ "$TEMPNAME" != "" ] ; then
return 1;
fi
return 0
}
while ! valid_groupname "$GROUPNAME" ; do
printf "Enter group name: "
read GROUPNAME
done
while ! valid_gid
"$NEWGID" ; do
printf "Invalid or no group ID specified.
Enter desired GID: "
read NEWGID
done
StartingPoints
UserandGroupManagement
2014-03-10   |   Copyright © 2003, 2014 Apple Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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while ! valid_longname "$LONGNAME" ; do
printf "Invalid long name specified.
Enter desired long name: "
read LONGNAME
done
# Test code
# echo "GID Conflict check:"
# gid_not_conflicting "80" "admin" # Test this first or else.
# echo "$? should be 0"
# gid_not_conflicting "80" "Schlomo"
# echo "$? should be 1"
echo "First free GID is $(assignGID)"
dscl $DOMAIN -read /Groups/"$GROUPNAME" > /dev/null 2>&1
if [ $? = 0 ] ; then
echo "Failed.
A group with that name already exists.." 1>&2
exit -1
fi
dscl $DOMAIN -create /Groups/"$GROUPNAME"
if [ $? != 0 ] ; then
echo "Failed.
Group could not be created." 1>&2
exit -1
fi
dscl $DOMAIN -create /Groups/"$GROUPNAME" RealName "$LONGNAME"
if [ "$NEWGID" = "" ] ; then
NEWGID="$(assignGID)"
fi
dscl $DOMAIN -create /Groups/"$GROUPNAME" PrimaryGroupID $NEWGID
while ! gid_not_conflicting "$NEWGID" "$GROUPNAME"; do
StartingPoints
UserandGroupManagement
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echo "A user with ID $NEWGID exists already.
Assigning a new GID." 1>&2
OLDGID="$NEWGID"
NEWGID="$(assignGID)"
dscl $DOMAIN -change /Groups/"$GROUPNAME" PrimaryGroupID "$OLDGID" "$NEWGID"
done
UUID="$(/usr/bin/uuidgen)"
dscl $DOMAIN -create /Groups/"$GROUPNAME" GeneratedUID "$UUID";
# Legacy UNIX group password
dscl $DOMAIN -create /Groups/"$GROUPNAME" Password "*"
echo "Added $GROUPNAME with ID $NEWGID and UUID $UUID.
Please remember to set a
password for the user."
StartingPoints
UserandGroupManagement
2014-03-10   |   Copyright © 2003, 2014 Apple Inc. All Rights Reserved.
326
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TheMonteCarlomethodforcalculatingPiisacommonexampleprogramusedincomputersciencecurricula.
MostCSprofessorsdonotforcetheirstudentstowriteitusingashellscript,however,anddoingsoposesa
numberofchallenges.
TheMonteCarlomethodisfairlystraightforward.Youtakeaunitcircleandplaceitinsidea2x2squareand
randomlythrowdartsatit.Foranydartthathitswithinthecircle,youaddonetothe"inside"counterandthe
"total"counter.Foranydartthathitsoutsidethecircle,youjustaddonetothe"total"counter.Whenyou
dividethenumberofhitsinsidethecirclebythenumberoftotalthrows,yougetanumberthat(givenan
infinitenumberofsufficientlyrandomthrows)willconvergetowardsπ/4(onefourthofpi).
AcommonsimplificationoftheMonteCarlomethod(whichisusedinthisexample)istoreducethesquare
toasingleunitinsize,andtoreducetheunitcircletoonlyaquartercircle.Thus,thecirclemeetstwocorners
ofthesquareandhasitscenteratthethirdcorner..
Thecomputerversionofthisproblem,insteadofthrowingdarts,usesarandomnumbergeneratortogenerate
arandompointwithinacertainsetofbounds.Inthiscase,thecodeusesintegersfrom0-65,535forboththe
xandycoordinatesofthepoint.Itthencalculatesthedistancefromthepoint(0,0)to(x,y)usingthepythagorean
theorem(thehypotenuseofarighttrianglewithedgesoflengthsxandy).Ifthisdistanceisgreaterthanthe
unitcircle(65,535,inthiscase),thepointfallsoutsidethe"circle".Otherwise,itfallsinsidethe"circle".
Obtaining RandomNumbers
Toobtainrandomnumbers,thiscodeexampleusesthe
dd
commandtoreadonebyteatatimefrom
/dev/random
.Then,itmustcalculatethenumericequivalentofthesenumbers.Thatprocessisdescribedin
FindingTheOrdinalRankofaCharacter (page 328).
Thefollowingexampleshowshowtoreadabyteusing
dd
:
# Read four random bytes.
RAWVAL1="$(dd if=/dev/random bs=1 count=1 2> /dev/null)"
RAWVAL2="$(dd if=/dev/random bs=1 count=1 2> /dev/null)"
RAWVAL3="$(dd if=/dev/random bs=1 count=1 2> /dev/null)"
RAWVAL4="$(dd if=/dev/random bs=1 count=1 2> /dev/null)"
2014-03-10   |   Copyright © 2003, 2014 Apple Inc. All Rights Reserved.
327
An Extreme Example: The Monte Carlo (Bourne)
Method for Pi
# Calculate the ordinality of the bytes.
XVAL0=$(ord "$RAWVAL1") # more on this subroutine later
XVAL1=$(ord "$RAWVAL2") # more on this subroutine later
YVAL0=$(ord "$RAWVAL3") # more on this subroutine later
YVAL1=$(ord "$RAWVAL4") # more on this subroutine later
# We basically want to get an unsigned 16-bit number out of
# two raw bytes. Earlier, we got the ord() of each byte.
# Now, we figure out what that unsigned value would be by
# multiplying the high order byte by 256 and adding the
# low order byte.
We don't really care which byte is which,
# since they're just random numbers.
XVAL=$(( ($XVAL0 * 256) + $XVAL1 ))
# use expr for older shells.
YVAL=$(( ($YVAL0 * 256) + $YVAL1 ))
# use expr for older shells.
Finding TheOrdinal Rank ofa Character
Therearemanywaystocalculatetheordinalrankofacharacter.Thisexamplepresentsthreeofthose:inline
Perl,inlineAWK,andamorepurist(read"slow")versionusingonly
sed
and
tr
.
FindingOrdinalRankUsingPerl
TheeasiestwaytofindtheordinalrankofacharacterinashellscriptisbyusinginlinePerlcode.Inthefollowing
example,therawcharacterisechoedtothe
perl
interpreter'sstandardinput.(Seethe
perl
manualpagefor
moreinformationaboutPerl.)
TheshortPerlscriptsetstherecordseparatortoundefined,thenreadsdatauntilEOF,finallyprintingthe
ordinalvalueofthecharacterthatitretrievesusingthe
ord
subroutine.
YVAL1=$(echo $RAWVAL4 | perl -e '$/ = undef; my $val = <STDIN>; print ord($val);')
FindingOrdinalRankUsingAWK
Thesecondmethodforobtainingtheordinalrankofacharacterisslightlymorecomplicated,butstillrelatively
fast.PerformanceisonlyslightlyslowerthanthePerlexample.
AnExtremeExample:TheMonteCarlo(Bourne)MethodforPi
FindingTheOrdinalRankofaCharacter
2014-03-10   |   Copyright © 2003, 2014 Apple Inc. All Rights Reserved.
328
YVAL0=$(echo $RAWVAL3 | awk '{
RS="\n"; ch=$0;
# print "CH IS ";
# print ch;
if (!length(ch)) { # must be the record separator.
ch="\n"
};
s="";
for (i=1; i<256; i++) {
l=sprintf("%c", i);
ns = (s l); s = ns;
};
pos = index(s, ch); printf("%d", pos)
}')
Inthisexample,therawcharacterisechoedtoanAWKscript.(Seethe
awk
manualpageandHow
AWK-ward (page 122)formoreinformationaboutAWK.)Thatscriptiteratesthroughthenumbers1-255,
concatenatingthecharacter(
l
)whoseASCIIvalueisthatnumber(
i
)ontoastring(
ns
).Itthenasksforthe
locationofthatcharacterinthestring.Ifnovalueisfound,indexwillreturnzero(0),whichisconvenient,as
NULL
(character0)isexcludedfromthestring.
Thesurprisingthingisthatthiscode,whileseeminglyfarmorecomplicatedthanthePerlequivalent,performs
almostaswell(lessthanhalfasecondslowerper100iterations).
FindingOrdinalRankUsingtr Andsed
Thisexamplewaswrittenlessoutofadesiretoactuallyusesuchamethodandmoreoutofadesiretoprove
thatsuchcodeispossible.Itis,byfar,themostroundaboutwaytocalculatetheordinalrankofacharacter
thatyouarelikelytoeverencounter.Itbehavesmuchlikethe
awk
programdescribedinFindingOrdinalRank
UsingAWK (page 328),butwithoutusinganyotherprogramminglanguagesotherthanBourneshellscripts.
Thefirstpartofthisexampleisasmallcodesnippettoconvertanintegerintoitsoctalequivalent.Thiswillbe
importantlater.
ListingE-1
AnIntegertoOctalConversionsubroutine
# Convert an int to an octal value.
inttooct()
AnExtremeExample:TheMonteCarlo(Bourne)MethodforPi
FindingTheOrdinalRankofaCharacter
2014-03-10   |   Copyright © 2003, 2014 Apple Inc. All Rights Reserved.
329
{
echo $(echo "obase=8; $1" | bc)
}
Thiscodeisrelativelystraightforward.Ittellsthebasiccalculator,
bc
,toprintthespecifiednumber,converting
theoutputtobase8(octal).
ThenextpartofthisexampleisthecodetoinitializeastringcontainingalistofallofthepossibleASCII
charactersexcept
NULL
(character0)inorder.Thissubroutineiscalledonlyonceatprograminitialization;the
shellversionofthiscodeisveryslowasitis,andcallingthissubroutineeachtimeyoutrytofindtheordinal
rankofacharacterwouldmakethiscodecompletelyunusable.
# Initializer for the scary shell ord subroutine.
ord_init()
{
I=1
ORDSTRING=""
while [ $I -lt 256 ] ; do
# local HEX=$(inttohex $I);
local OCT=$(inttooct $I);
# The following should work with GNU sed, but
# OS X's sed doesn't support \x.
# local CH=$(echo ' ' | sed "s/ /\\x$HEX/")
# How about this?
# local CH=$(perl -e
"\$/=undef; \$x = ' '; \$x =~ s/ /\x$HEX/g; print
\$x;")
# Yes, that works, but it's cheating.
Here's a better one.
local CH=$(echo ' ' | tr ' ' "\\$OCT");
ORDSTRING=$ORDSTRING$CH
I=$(($I + 1)) # or I=$(expr $I '+' 1)
# echo "ORDSTRING: $ORDSTRING"
done
}
AnExtremeExample:TheMonteCarlo(Bourne)MethodforPi
FindingTheOrdinalRankofaCharacter
2014-03-10   |   Copyright © 2003, 2014 Apple Inc. All Rights Reserved.
330
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