devexpress asp.net pdf viewer : Extract page from pdf reader application Library utility html asp.net azure visual studio AppleShellScripting-201434-part685

Thisappendixcontainshistoricalfootnotesextractedfromelsewhereinthedocumenttoimprovereadability.
Theyappearinthisappendixbecausealthoughtheymaybeofsomeinterest,theyarenotcriticaltoageneral
understandingofthesubject.
HistoricalStringParsing
InsomeearlyBourne-compatibleshells,thesecondstatementbelowdoesnotdowhatyoumightinitially
suspect:
STRING1="This is a test"
STRING2=$STRING1
MostmodernBourneshellsparsetherightsideoftheassignmentstatementfirst(includinganysplittingon
spaces),thenexpandthevariable
$STRING1
,thuscopyingthecompletevalueof
STRING1
into
STRING2
.
Note:  Thispre-splittingbehaviorisspecifictotherightsideofassignmentstatements.Allother
statementsaresplitafter variablesareexpanded.
Someoldershells,however,maydothespacesplittingafterexpandingthevariable.Suchshellsinterpretthe
secondstatementasthoughyouhadtypedthefollowing:
STRING2=This is a test
asatwo-partstatement:anassignmentstatement(
FIRST_ARGUMENT=This
)followedbyacommand(
is
)
withtwoarguments(
a
and
test
).
Becausethereisnosemicolonbetweentheassignmentandthecommand,theshelltreatsthisassignment
statementasanattempttomodifytheenvironmentpassedtothe
is
command(atechniquedescribedin
OverridingEnvironmentVariablesforChildProcesses(BourneShell) (page 30)).Thisisclearlynotwhatyou
intendedtodo.
Formaximumcompatibility,youshouldalwayswritesuchassignmentstatementslikethis:
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341
Historical Footnotes and Arcana
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STRING1="This is a test"
STRING2="$STRING1"
InanyBourneshell,thisisinterpretedcorrectlyas:
STRING2="This is a test"
Compatibility Note:  Thisbehaviorwasfirstintroducedby
zsh
becausethiswasacommon
programmermistakethatcausederrors.
Whenrunas
/bin/sh
,someearlyversionsof
zsh
emulatethepreviousBourneshellbehaviorfor
compatibility.Thus,inascriptthatstartswith
#!/bin/sh
,thestatementmayfailif
sh
isreally
zsh
.
Currentversionsof
zsh
obeythemodernsplittingrulesevenwhenrunas
/bin/sh
.
Similarly,inmodernshells,quotationmarksandotherspecialcharactersareparsedbeforeexpansion.Thus,
quotationmarksinsideavariabledonotaffectthesplittingbehavior.Forexample:
FOO="\"this is\" a test"
ls $FOO
isequivalentto:
ls \"this
ls is\"
ls a
ls test
InolderBourneshells,however,thismaybemisinterpretedas:
ls "this is"
ls a
ls test
Ingeneral,itisnotworththeefforttosupportshellswiththisbrokensplittingbehavior,anditisunlikelythat
youwillencounterthem;themodernsplittingbehaviorhasbeencommonsincethemid-1990s.
HistoricalFootnotesandArcana
HistoricalStringParsing
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342
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ThistabledescribesthechangestoShellScriptingPrimer.
Notes
Date
Updatedtoreflecttheremovalofsupportfortheenvironment.plistfile
inOSXv10.8.
2014-03-10
EnhancedtheShellScriptSecuritychapter.
2013-08-08
AddednoteaboutTextEditinOSXv10.7.3.
2012-07-23
IncorporatedCommandLinePrimer,fixedbrokenlink,andfixed
typographicalerrors.
2012-03-14
FixedtyposinCSHgetoptexample.
2011-07-27
AddedmoresecurityinformationandrewordeddescriptionoftheOSX
(Mach)console.
2011-06-21
Addedinformationaboutaliaspermanence.
2011-01-11
Fixedlinksthatpointedtothewrongsectionafterreorganizingcontent.
Fixeddescriptionofenclosingasinglequoteinsidesinglequotes.Added
descriptionofPerl'srenamecommand.
2010-10-01
Added"StartingPoints"scriptsforcreatingusersandgroups.
2010-09-01
Addedchapteronshellscriptsecurity.
2010-06-18
AddedanAWKexampleandimprovedwordinginafewspots.
2010-06-21
Mademinortypographicalfixes.
2009-11-17
Restructureddocumentforeasieraccess.Addedanexampleforthenc
(netcat)utility.
2009-10-19
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343
Document Revision History
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Notes
Date
AddednoteaboutcreatingplaintextfilesinTextEdit.
2009-08-25
Addedchapterdescribinghowtogettoashellpromptandpointingto
CommandLinePrimer.Addedanappendixofexamples.
2009-08-11
Addedcontentaboutlineendings.
2009-07-23
Addedinformationaboutusingregularexpressionsincontrolstatements.
2009-06-01
Addedaforwardlinkintheawksection.Addedafewminorcross-platform
portingnotes.AddedaCSHcompatibilitynoteaboutnumeric
comparisons.
2009-04-08
AddedAppleScript/osascriptsection.Addedportabilitynotesforhead
andtailcommands.
2009-03-04
Addedindex.
2009-01-06
ClarifiedtextaboutCshelllimitations,quotingarguments.Added
additionalcross-platformcompatibilityinformation.
2008-11-19
Fixedabuginanawkcodesample.
2008-04-08
Addedseveralusefulcommandstothe"OtherTools"chapter.
2008-02-08
UpdatedforOSXv10.5.Addedsomebasicinformationaboutcshand
additionalawksamples.
2007-12-11
Fixedatypoinanawkcodeexample.
2007-10-02
Addedchapteronperformanceoptimizationandadvancedscripting
techniques.Madeotherminorenhancements.
2007-04-03
Clarifiedbehaviorofvariableexports.Addedexplanationofevalcommand.
2006-12-05
Addedchaptersoncross-platformscriptingandawk.
2006-11-07
Addedasectiononjobcontrolinbashandzsh.
2006-10-03
DocumentRevisionHistory
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344
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Notes
Date
Fixedanumberoftypographicalerrors.
2006-06-28
Firstversion.
2006-05-23
DocumentRevisionHistory
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345
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AppleInc.
Copyright©2003,2014AppleInc.
Allrightsreserved.
Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,
storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inany
formorbyanymeans,mechanical,electronic,
photocopying,recording,orotherwise,without
priorwrittenpermissionofAppleInc.,withthe
followingexceptions:Anypersonishereby
authorizedtostoredocumentationonasingle
computerordeviceforpersonaluseonlyandto
printcopiesofdocumentationforpersonaluse
providedthatthedocumentationcontains
Apple’scopyrightnotice.
Nolicenses,expressorimplied,aregrantedwith
respecttoanyofthetechnologydescribedinthis
document.Appleretainsallintellectualproperty
rightsassociatedwiththetechnologydescribed
inthisdocument.Thisdocumentisintendedto
assistapplicationdeveloperstodevelop
applicationsonlyforApple-brandedproducts.
AppleInc.
1InfiniteLoop
Cupertino,CA95014
408-996-1010
Apple,theApplelogo,AppleScript,Finder,Mac,
Numbers,OSX,Pages,Spaces,andXcodeare
trademarksofAppleInc.,registeredintheU.S.
andothercountries.
AIXisatrademarkofIBMCorp.,registeredinthe
U.S.andothercountries,andisbeingusedunder
license.
JavaisaregisteredtrademarkofOracleand/or
itsaffiliates.
UNIXisaregisteredtrademarkofTheOpen
Group.
APPLEMAKESNOWARRANTYORREPRESENTATION,
EITHEREXPRESSORIMPLIED,WITHRESPECTTOTHIS
DOCUMENT,ITSQUALITY,ACCURACY,
MERCHANTABILITY,ORFITNESSFORAPARTICULAR
PURPOSE.ASARESULT,THISDOCUMENTISPROVIDED
“ASIS,”ANDYOU,THEREADER,AREASSUMINGTHE
ENTIRERISKASTOITSQUALITYANDACCURACY.
INNOEVENTWILLAPPLEBELIABLEFORDIRECT,
INDIRECT,SPECIAL,INCIDENTAL,ORCONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGESRESULTINGFROMANYDEFECT,ERROROR
INACCURACYINTHISDOCUMENT,evenifadvisedof
thepossibilityofsuchdamages.
Somejurisdictionsdonotallowtheexclusionof
impliedwarrantiesorliability,sotheaboveexclusion
maynotapplytoyou.
Symbols
!
operator 71,72
$
operator 64
inregularexpressions 103,109
$!
variable199,201,265
$#
variable 74,75,266
$$
variable 74–76,265,266
$(( ... ))
operator 94–95
$()
operator68
$*
variable 74–76,266
$-
variable 266
$?
variable 71,265
$@
variable 74–76,265,266
'
and
"
operators 64,65
(
and
)
operators 64
inregularexpressions 108,112–115,119
*
operator 64
inregularexpressions 105
*?
operator(inPerlregularexpressions) 119
+
operator(inregularexpressions)105
+?
operator(inPerlregularexpressions) 119
.
builtin89–92
.
operator(inregularexpressions)104
$0
variable 91
>
operator 41
>&
operator 41,212–216
>>
operator 41
?
operator 64
inregularexpressions 105
&
operator 198
and
expr
60
&&
operator 71
?:
operator
inPerlregularexpressions 119
$HOME
variable265
$IFS
variable265
andCshell37
and
read
35
<<
operator 37
$PATH
variable265
$PPID
variable265
$PWD
variable266
$status
variable 71
$UID
variable265
$USER
variable266
[
and
]
operators 64
inregularexpressions 108
[
command48
\
operator 64,65
^
operator
aspositionalanchorinregularexpressions 103
inregularexpressioncharacterclasses 108
$_
variable 74–76,265,266
`
operator 64,65,68
{
and
}
operators 64,84,85
|
operator
andcase55
and
expr
59
andregularexpressions 109
inregularexpressions 103,109
|&
operator(Cshell) 44
||
operator 71,72
A
absolutepath,obtainingfromrelativepath91
accesscontrollists 150,247–250
2014-03-10   |   Copyright © 2003, 2014 Apple Inc. All Rights Reserved.
347
Index
alias
builtin16
anonymoussubroutines 84
ANSIescapesequences 180–191
and
echo
(terminfo)182
and
printf
(terminfo)182
and
tput
(terminfo)181
clearingpartsofthescreen190
colormanipulation188–189
cursorandscrollingmanipulation183–186
resetterminal 190
tabstopmanipulation190,191
textattributemanipulation186–188
appendoperator41
AppleScript(using
osascript
)204–211
apropos
command 272
argumenthandling74
arrays
inAWK133–140
simulatingwith
eval
171
asteriskoperator 64
authentication241–242
AWK122–142
arrays 133–140
basicsyntax 123
BEGIN
and
END
patterns 127–128
case-insensitivematching128
commonmistakes 133,135,140
conditionalfilterrules 124–129
conditionalpatternmatching128–129
controlstatements 130–133
expressionranges 126
fieldseparators 129–130
fileinputandoutput 140–142
functions 133
inputandoutput 124
ordinalranking328–329
recordseparators 129–130
regularexpressions 125–126
relationalexpressions 126–127
runningascript 123
skippingrecordsandfiles 132–133
specialvariables 123
splittingstringsintoarrays 136–137
awk
command 152,268,328
B
backgroundexecution198
backtickoperator68
bash
command22
BASH
exportingbehaviorof 29
extended
for
loopsyntax 54
mathsupportextension 94
substringexpansionextension 180
windowsizevariablebehavior 184
basicscript 24
bc
command99,267,330
bg
command197
braces 64,84,85
brackets 48,64
inregularexpressions 108
break
statement 51,52,53,54
built-incommands 264
builtins
.
89–92
alias
16
echo
24
export
29
getopts
77–80
jobs
199
setenv
31
shift
76–77
source
89–92
trap
174
unset
32,34
unsetenv
(Cshell)32
wait
198
bunzip2
command 271
Index
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348
bzip2
command271
C
Cshelllimitations
comparisonoperators 96
controlstatements 52,54
inlineexecution69
inputandoutput 37,63,212
jobandprocessmanagement 201
orderofoperations74
subroutines84,86
case
statement 55
cat
command 37,260
cd
command260,269
chainingexecution71–74
characterclasses
regularexpressionsyntax 106
shellglobbingsyntax 64
chflags
command 246,269
chgrp
command244–245,269
chmod
command245–246,247–250,269
chown
command153,244–245,269
colorescapesequences(ANSI)188–189
command-linetools,compatibility151–167
commands,shellscripting.Seeindividual
commands.
commonmistakes
inAWK133,135,140
infileredirection 44
inmathoperations 95–97
inprocessmanagement 265
inregularexpressions 102,109,114,118
insubroutines 84
regularexpressions 102
compatibility
>&
behavior 42
accesscontrollists 150,250
AWK
length
function139
BASHextensions90,147,180
bc
command99
command-linetools 151–167
deviceI/O149
diskmanagementandpartitioning 151
fieldseparatorbehavior63
filesystemhierarchy149
GNU
getopt
81
legacymodeand
compat
manualpage166
locales 331
managingusersandgroups 150
mathsyntax 94
source
builtin90
specialvariables 75
ZSHextensions 90,147
_POSIX2_VERSION
and
compat
manualpage 162
compress
command271
concurrentexecution201
continue
statement 51,52,53,54
controlstatements 46–61
countinglinesinafile 203
cp
command153,260
csh
command.SeealsoCshell;specificstatements.
currentworkingdirectory256
cursorescapesequences(ANSI)183–186
cut
command 37,63
D
date
command153,260
dd
command327
defaultshell 255
delayloops 194
/dev/random
device327
dialects,ofshellscripts21,146
diskutil
command270
do
statement 50
dollarsignoperator 64
done
statement 50
double-quotationmark 64,65
Index
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349
E
echo
builtin 24,154
echo
command260
elif
statement 47
else
statement 47
env
command 33
environmentvariable.Seealsovariables.
environmentvariables 261
esac
statement 55
escapesequences.SeealsoANSIescapesequences.
eval
builtin 168–173
exitstatus
ofscripts 70
ofsubroutines 84
expansionofvariables61–66
expect
command267
export
builtin29
expr
command
andmath93–94
andregularexpressions 60
andstrings 58
defined267
F
false
command267
fg
command197
fi
statement 47
fieldseparators 35,62–63
FIFO212,214–216
file
command155
filedescriptors
openingandclosing212–216
redirecting43–44
files,readingandwriting 40
find
command269
floating-pointcomputation98–99,267
flowcontrol 258
for
loops
withlists52
withnumericalcomparison54
for
statement 52
inAWK131–132
foreach
statement(Cshell) 54
frequentlyusedinteractivecommands 259
fsck
commandandvariants 270
functions.Seesubroutines.
funzip
command271
G
GetFileInfo
command269
getopt
command77,80
getopts
builtin77–80
gettingstarted24
globbing64–66
grep
command69,103,156,268
gunzip
command271
gzcat
command271
gzip
command271
H
hdiutil
command 270
head
command156–158,268
homedirectory257
I
I/O
inAWK140–142
nonblocking191
using
read
35
usingredirection 40
withdevices 149
if
statement 46
Cshellglobbingextensions66
inAWK130–131
IFS
variable
and
$*
expansion 74
Index
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350
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