Module 2 - 22
1:5,000 maps that are specified for British Columbia Geographic System of
Mapping (BCGS). The resulting topography will be a hybrid of moderate-quality
TRIM data suitable for 1:20,000 scale, and rectified planimetry. Care should be
used when interpreting vertical elevation data. Although the longitudinal
elevation profile of watercourses are important, SHIM methods focus on
horizontal position of watercourse. Detailed elevation surveys to create
longitudinal profiles often involve other survey techniques see 2.9.1.
Watercourses which have been interpreted as a portion of the base map, can also
be displayed as an independent layer overlain on the orthophoto. Watercourses
which have not been clearly mapped or interpreted, may be visible on the base
map and orthophoto. Often a watercourses’ approximate channel position can
identified based on other clues including the riparian vegetation corridor even
when the stream channel is not clear in the photograph.
At the office project stage, the interim base map can be either hardcopy or
electronic; although transforming paper records to a digital information base
map as Geographic Information System (GIS) layers is an important task. The
project will need the appropriate computer hardware and software to maintain
data standards and distribute final information products from the project.
The main criterion used to obtain a suitable base map is scale and the accurate
representation of the stream network. These attributes are needed to interpret
UTM coordinates, stream reach breaks and other watercourse features.
Topography (elevation) is also helpful when deriving the longitudinal elevation
profile of the watercourse between reaches and the watershed boundary.
Base maps at 1:5,000 scale are not universally available for urban areas in British
Columbia. One source is using enlarged digital orthophotos. Recent digital
orthophotos (less than five years old) are available for eastern Vancouver Island
(black and white), Clayoquot Sound (colour), Capital Regional District and the
Fraser Valley (colour). Topography is not included with the digital orthophotos,
although TRIM elevation data can be overlain and used for topography.
Interpreted stream channel locations are available for many watercourses in the
Greater Vancouver Regional District, Fraser Valley and east Vancouver Island and
can be overlain on orthophotos (Sensitive Habitat Atlas series 1995 to 2000).
The map base available from TRIM maps or the Sensitive Habitat Atlas series do
not usually extend beyond municipal boundaries. Watersheds that extend into
crown land or private forest lands, on eastern Vancouver Island, may be only
partly covered by these maps. TRIM maps are acceptable for mapping boundaries
and defining the stream networks in the upper portions of these watersheds.
TRIM maps are also acceptable for initially defining watershed boundaries,
longitudinal elevation profiles, and a preliminary identification of the stream
network, where watersheds are greater than 10 km
(1,000 hectares) in area.
In the western part of the lower Fraser Valley, most municipalities and cities will
be able to provide a suitable base map and they may also have available
additional study or interpretive information, such as stormwater management
plans or drainage maps that also display the stream network of the watershed. In
other areas of the Province, little or no information may be available from these
Various other 1:5,000 map products are also available. British Columbia
Geographic System of Mapping (BCGS) 1:5,000 maps may be available from the
local municipality or regional district. They can be used as base maps although
VB Imaging - VB Code 128 Generation Guide
the created Code 128 barcode graphics separately or together 96 'set rotation barcode.Rotate = Rotate.Rotate0 barcode Create Code 128 on PDF, Multi-Page TIFF pdf rotate single page reader; pdf reverse page order online
Module 2 - 23
use of this information should be cautioned given the level interpretation of
hydrographic map features. The
BC Specifications and Guidelines for Geomatics:
(Surveys and Resource Mapping Branch, 1990) describes these
interpretative standards. Some municipalities may provide 1:5,000 cadastral
maps (property boundaries, sub-division lines). For streams within a larger
watershed, 1:20,000 TRIM maps may be acceptable as base maps at the Pre-field
stage, until a larger scale map can be obtained.
Note: Cadastal maps should be used with caution. These maps and plans have
been principally derived from legal land surveys for very specific sites, are often
older and seldom illustrate small stream channels and their positions. In many
municipalities and regional districts, cadastral maps are not projected in UTM’s
and will need revision for projection in this coordinate system.
2.5 Develop a Base Map
The procedures needed to develop a base map are outlined below. If an
appropriate base map is not available for a given watercourse, it will be
necessary to follow these procedures. Field surveys can be used in conjunction
with less expensive photographic interpretation methods. These procedures
ɷ Select and review appropriate air photograph(s). It may become
apparent that the stream is too small or overgrown by riparian
vegetation to be visible and therefore easily mapped. Stream channels
not visible or easily identified from photograph interpretation need to
be field inspected. Air photographs should be used in the field to
mark stream channel positions.
ɷ Identify and map selected features along the watercourse using the
air photos. For example the following features are commonly
identified from photographs and used on 1:5,000 base maps:
ɷ Right and left channel boundaries and water lines;
ɷ The boundaries of vegetation within the channel (islands
covered by reasonably mature vegetation), as well as those
parts of islands or bars covered by successional vegetation
(usually shrubs), and the boundaries of attached bars;
ɷ The position of bedrock outcrops and organic debris (mapped
either as individual pieces or jams); and
ɷ The features near the watercourse such as roads, trails,
bridges, houses or other structures, overhead cables, and
2.6 Delineating the Watershed and its Stream Network
Watershed features should be delineated using 1:50,000 NTS maps, 1:20,000
TRIM maps and recent and historic air photographs (SHIM Module 4). Historic air
photographs can used to interpret changes in watercourses and channels over
time. Historic photographs can be purchased or viewed at Maps-BC, Victoria.
C# Imaging - UPC-A Barcode Generator
A barcode can be processed separately on target Resolution = 96;// set resolution barcode.Rotate = Rotate.Rotate0;// set to document files, like PDF, TIFF, MS how to rotate one pdf page; rotate pdf page by page
Module 2 - 24
2.6.1 Preliminary Identification of the Stream
Network on the Base Map
To create a 1:5,000 base map, first review local Stormwater Management
Maps (municipal) or other information maps or plans to identify stream
channel and tributary positions. Use any existing mapped channels to
draw the approximate centre line of the stream channel on a transparent
overlay of a 1:5,000 base map (or a layer in a GIS or a drafting program),
as a line along the approximate centre of the stream channel. Where both
stream banks can be identified (>5-10m channel widths on 1:5,000 scale
photos), each bank should be clearly drawn.
Some streams may be clearly visible on the base map and their course
can be marked with confidence. In other instances, the position of the
stream can be roughly interpreted from:
ɷ patterns of contours (up-hill pointing V-shapes indicate the
position of a stream course in a gully or small valley);
ɷ the presence of gullies or narrow valleys that can be identified
on the base map or air photographs;
ɷ strips of riparian vegetation that mark the approximate stream
ɷ drainage ditches;
ɷ wetlands, open water areas, riparian edges;
ɷ ponds or other hydrographic features; or
ɷ culverts and bridges.
Watercourse presence, location, tributaries and other features are
intended to be ground truthed through a field inspection following base
mapping and air photographic interpretation. Stream positions should be
corrected, and new tributaries sketched on your base map. In most urban
areas, locating and inspecting stream crossings at road intersections may
be sufficient to identify streams whose channels are not found on
existing maps or air photographs. Where roads and crossing are few, a
helicopter over-flight can be used as an initial watercourse survey. An
over-flight survey can also be to assess hillslope/bank sediment sources
or other features in upper watersheds which impact location and function
of downstream stream channels. Typically, over-flight survey should be
combined with video recording or low-level air photographs. Details of
video survey procedures can be found in
Aerial Photography and
Videography Standards: Applications for Stream Inventory and
2.6.2 Assessing Field Mapping Requirements
The next stage needed is the assessment of field mapping requirements
based on the preliminary comparisons between base maps and the actual
stream channel and watercourse network. This comparison is based on a
“minimal accuracy standard” for representing the position of stream
courses on 1:5,000 maps.
Module 2 - 25
This minimum standard is that:
(A) ninety percent (90%) of all well-
defined features will be within
(0.5mm at map scale) of their true
It is expected that relatively few field inspected stream courses
will meet this minimal standard. Stream channels should also be
classified relative to two additional levels of accuracy including: (B)
2.5 to 10m
(0.5 to 2mm at map scale)
, or (C)
(>2mm at map scale).
Watercourses and channels should be marked on your existing base map
to display this level of accuracy based on the above standards. Stream
channels and other watercourses which are interpreted based on riparian
vegetation position or other indicators will likely be the least accurate (>
10m). These stream channels and watercourses will be priority sites for
field mapping (SHIM Modules 3 & 5). Stream channels and watercourses
which are identified with moderate levels of position and accuracy (2.5 to
10m) should also be prioritised for mapping.
2.6.3 Watershed Boundaries
The overall watershed boundary from height of land to the watercourse/
stream mouth should be included on your base map. This boundary
should be based on elevation contours to enclose the entire area of the
stream/watercourse drainage basin. For additional details consult
Reconnaissance (1:20,000) Fish and Fish Habitat Inventory Manual (RIC,
1997), BC Forest Practices Code Guidebooks on (a) Fish-Stream
Identification, (b) Coastal Watershed Assessment Procedures, and (c)
Channel Assessment Procedures. In low-elevation or low-relief areas, it
may be difficult to accurately define the watershed boundary from map
based contours. Three additional approaches can be used including:
stereo-viewing of current air photographs, field reviews (as above), and
review of existing local plans or management maps (i.e. Stormwater).
The final task is the measurement of watershed and sub-basin area (km
or hectares). Hand drawn maps can be measured using a planimeter and
digital maps can be measured using available GIS tools. All information
should be tabulated on a Basin Classification Sheet including stream
order to the mouth, tributary names, Interim Locational Point (ILP), map
number and ILP number (see Section 2.8 below).
2.7 Watershed and Waterbody Referencing
The 1:50,000 digital Watershed Atlas provides watershed/waterbody identifiers
as a means to assist in habitat management, analysis, and data sharing. The
Resource Inventory Committee (RIC) requires that all lakes and streams in each
inventory project be identified with the unique code used in the hierarchical
system of the Watershed Atlas. Most of the watersheds and streams considered
for fish and fish habitat inventory projects are often too small to be displayed in
the Watershed Atlas due to scale. As a result, watershed/waterbody identifiers
must be generated for individual inventory projects.
All streams on your base map must have an assigned unique identifier. Where
watershed codes do not exist, interim identifiers must be used. Interim
BMP to Word Converter | Convert Bitmap to Word, Convert Word to
Apply resize, rotate, flip, mirror, contrast, brightness and Convert all pages or certain pages chosen by users; Save original and converted images separately; how to rotate a single page in a pdf document; how to rotate pdf pages and save permanently
Module 2 - 26
Locational Points (ILP’s) need to be replaced with proper codes prior to
submitting the final database. Required watershed and waterbody information
(see sub sections below) includes: 2.7.1 Map Reference; 2.7.2 Gazetted Name;
2.7.3 Alias (Local Name); 2.7.4 Watershed/Waterbody Identifier; 2.7.5 Interim
Locational Points; 2.7.6 Geo-referenced Co-ordinate; 2.7.7 Final Watershed/
2.7.1 Map Reference
In the British Columbia Geographic System (BCGS), maps are referred to
by their NTS block number, which is divided into 100 parts for the
1:20,000 map reference number. The 1:20,000 sheets are divided into 16
parts (quartered twice) for 1:5,000 maps, so that a typical map number
would be “82F.035.2.2”. The 1:5,000 map sheet covers 3 minutes of
longitude and 1’30” of latitude.
2.7.2 Gazetted Name
The gazetted name is the official name of the lake, stream or wetland, as
listed in the
Gazetteer of Canada for British Columbia
(Anon, 1985) or as
shown on TRIM 1:20,000 maps or 1:50,000 NTS maps. Feature names
since 1985 can be identified through the Geographic Names Unit of
http://home.gdbc.gov.bc.ca, or through a CD-ROM that can be purchased
from the GDBC. If the waterbody is not gazetted, it may be referred to as
2.7.3 Alias (Local Name)
“Alias” is an unofficial or locally used name for a lake, stream or wetland,
and is often derived from local sources or experts, such as landowners,
fishers, municipal or regional district offices. An alias may also be exist in
MWLAP or DFO records or derived from regional agency staff.
2.7.4 Watershed/Waterbody Identifier System
The Watershed/Waterbody Identifier System is a computer-generated
coding system that uniquely identifies watersheds and waterbodies for all
British Columbia. It is a component of the 1:50,000 BC Watershed Atlas.
The Identifier has 2 parts, a watershed code and a waterbody identifier.
Depending on whether a watershed or waterbody is identified, one or
both coding parts are used. For streams, only the watershed code is
required for reconnaissance inventory purposes. For lakes, both
watershed code and waterbody identifier are required.
ɷ Watershed Code is a 45 digit, 12 set array that uniquely
identifies watersheds. The watershed code is a requirement
for all aquatic data collections.
Module 2 - 27
ɷ Waterbody Identifier is an alphanumeric, 9 character string
that uniquely identifies a waterbody within a watershed. It
consists of 5 digits followed by a four-letter acronym of the
parent watershed group. For the purpose of fish and fish
habitat inventories, the waterbody identifier is used for lakes
and wetlands only.
Further information on watershed/waterbody identifiers can be found in
User's Guide to the British Columbia Watershed/Waterbody Identifier
System, Revision 2.1
(Government of BC, 1997) or on the MELP Fisheries
Inventory web site at:
2.7.5 Interim Locational Points (ILPs)
Where a watershed/waterbody identifier has not been assigned, an
Interim Locational Point (ILP) is used in place of the watershed/waterbody
identifier until one can be generated.
Requirements for generating watershed codes and waterbody identifiers
from ILPs are described in the
User's Guide to the British Columbia
Watershed/Waterbody Identifier System, Revision 2.1
(Government of BC,
1997). Key requirements include a 1:5,000 map linked by the attributes
included on the ILP Data Sheet. The ILP Data Sheet must include the
ɷ Project Code: the inventory project code obtained from the
MELP Fisheries Inventory Specialist at the start of the project.
ɷ ILP Map Number: the number of the map used to assign ILP
ɷ ILP Number: a user-defined number unique to any particular
point on the map sheet.
ɷ UTM coordinate: taken at the mouth of the subject
watercourse (Northing and Easting coordinates). The
of Stream Mapping Procedures for Streamkeepers in Coastal
provides a discussion of how to identify and
mark the mouth of a stream.
ɷ Watershed Code: the code of the subject watershed, or the
next highest watershed if the subject watershed’s code is not
2.7.6 Geo-referenced Co-ordinate
A UTM co-ordinate is used to identify the location of the lake, stream or
wetland, and/or the sampling site. UTM co-ordinates are recorded as
three sets of numbers: Zone - Easting - Northing, separated by periods
(e.g., 10.69751.598461). UTM co-ordinates can be obtained from a geo-
referenced 1:5,000 map sheet (either interpreted from the digital
database by the appropriate software, or scaled from a hard copy of the
map) or from a survey of the stream course. The UTM co-ordinates should
Module 2 - 28
be expressed to 1m, although it is unlikely that this point is accurate
relative to true co-ordinates.
For streams, the UTM co-ordinate of the upstream reach break is used for
location referencing. For sampling sites in stream reaches, the UTM co-
ordinate of the downstream end of the site is used. For lakes, the UTM
co-ordinate of the outlet stream on the lake is used. If more than one lake
outlet exists, the main outlet is used for referencing, and in cases where
no outlet is present, the UTM of the geographic centre of the lake is used.
For sampling sites in lakes, the UTM co-ordinate from the approximate
centre of the site.
Note: that UTM refers to the 1927 North American Datum (NAD) which
are found on 1:50,000 NTS maps and can be converted to the NAD 1983
datum in use on TRIM maps via the
Canadian National Transformation,
2.7.7 Final Watershed/Waterbody Code
Interim Locational Points (ILP’s) used in place of watershed/waterbody
identifiers must be replaced with watershed codes prior to providing data
to the standard provincial inventory databases (i.e. FISS).
The procedure for using and replacing ILPs includes:
1. Create 2, 1:5,000 maps of the project area and stream with ILPs. One
copy is kept for the project and the second is used to generate a
2. Create 2 ILP Data Sheets for stream and lakes. Careful transcriptions
between ILP data sheets and maps is required. The ILP Data Sheet is used
to generate the waterbody identifier and for ongoing use in the project.
Note: streams - UTM co-ordinates in the ILP Data Sheet (Streams) refers to
outlet location (use the ILP as you would the watershed code).
3. Send the ILP Map and Data Sheet to the Ministry contact for watershed
code assignment. This task should be completed during the Information
Review stage of the project. Hard copy and digital files (spreadsheet)
should be attached. Note: that the ILP Data Sheets must be completed
entirely, including UTM co-ordinates for all ILPs.
4. ILPs assigned at later stages of the inventory are recorded and a
second watershed/waterbody identifier request should be completed and
2.8 Designating Preliminary Reach Breaks
The purpose of this section is to identify and describe stream reaches and their
location within the watershed. This task should be completed as a planning
component for field reconnaissance and fish and fish habitat sampling.
Module 2 - 29
2.8.1 The Longitudinal (Long) Elevation Profile
Long profiles or changes in elevation and channel gradient should be
used to help select reach breaks for the main channel and the major
tributaries (stream channel one stream order less than the main channel),
plus any other tributaries that have already been identified. An elevation
(long) profile is often not essential for selecting reach breaks and this
module step may be passed if elevation data is not available. TRIM maps
can provide elevation data to help interpret reach breaks.
If topography (elevation contours) is available, the stream profile can be
constructed using a 1:5,000 hardcopy basemap and/or a digital GIS
query. The following steps can be helpful:
1. Mark the mouth of the stream on the base map and interpolate its
elevation from the contour crossings of the larger streams that it joins or
assign a geodetic elevation of zero (0m) if it flows directly into the ocean;
2. Measure the distance upstream from the mouth to the first contour
crossing of the stream along the centreline of the channel with a chart
measurer (opisometer). The map scale can be entered in modern chart
wheels so that the distance is reported in ground distance in metres or
kilometres. Otherwise, record the distance in millimetres or centimetres
and adjust it to ground distance with the scale factor;
3. Record the distance to the first contour crossing and the elevation of
4. Continue to the next contour and record distance and elevation points
along the main channel. Also mark distances to the outlet and inlet of
culverts or bridges that are shown or can be identified;
5. Measure up the main tributaries, starting the first point as the distance
along the main channel to the tributary mouth and then interpolated at
the tributary mouth; and,
6. When data for the main stream and tributaries has been recorded plot
separate graphs using MS Excel (Provincial Government standard).
2.8.2 Identification of Stream Reaches
Reaches are stream segments or lengths where hydrological, geological,
and adjacent watershed surface conditions remain sufficiently uniform
that a reasonably homogeneous channel morphology can be identified.
As a reference, the characteristics of a stream channel can then be
expected to change wherever its surrounding watershed conditions
change, such as at major tributaries, sediment sources, elevation and
changes in the stream valley.
Information that must be collected for reaches is outlined in Table 2.1.
For the purposes of the Fish and Fish Habitat Inventory Standard for
Urban Watersheds, reach lengths must be at least 25 m in length (5 mm
at 1:5,000 map scale). As an alternative to creating very short reaches,
specific habitats can be recorded as a specific section or feature. We
Module 2 - 30
anticipate that most preliminary reaches will be much longer than the
Recent, large-scale air photographs are an important tool needed to
identify reach breaks or boundaries. The long profile constructed in the
previous section of this module is particularly useful in assessing
changes in gradient that are significant enough to constitute reach
breaks. Historic air photographs should also be used; particularly as an
aid to help identify human disturbance on watercourses.
The preliminary reach division in this module is similar to that discussed
in the Forest Practices Code
Channel Assessment Procedure Guidebook
(FPC, 1996). Useful guidelines to identify reach breaks include use of:
ɷ Tributary confluences (at least second order streams; always
at entry points for major tributaries, as previously defined);
ɷ Significant gradient changes from one reach to the next, or
waterfalls or other steps in the profile, that are too short to be
a reach (<25m) but affect the channel;
ɷ Changes in stream channel confinement, such as from a wide
floodplain to a confined canyon;
ɷ Changes in the coupling of the stream channel with its valley
flat or hillslopes (see Appendix 2 of the
ɷ Entry of coarse or fine sediment from a major source, such as
a construction site or high eroding bank;
ɷ Changes in stream channel form, from straight to sinuous, or
single channel to a braided channel. These changes often
result from varying slope, sediment supply or changes in the
valley and local geological materials.
ɷ A lake or wetland is treated as a separate reach.
ɷ Changes in riparian vegetation are not to be considered when
setting reach breaks.
Reach breaks must be marked directly onto a copy of the base map,
verified using the air photographs, and then transferred to the long
profile. Review the position of reach breaks along the long profile to
ensure that gradients are reasonably constant over the reach. Add
additional breaks if gradients suggest a significant change from the
bottom to top of a particular reach.
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested