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Typical plant species: Labrador tea, bog- cranberry/
laurel/rosemary, creeping snowberry, sundew, cloudberry,
black spruce, shore pine.
ɷ Fens − peatlands with water table at or above the substrate
surface, some shrubs, few trees, covered with brown-moss
peat, sedges, grasses, and reeds.
Typical plant species: water sedge, marsh cinquefoil,
hardhack, willow, sweet gale, golden fuzzy, fen moss.
ɷ Ponds − shallow-water wetlands where at least 75% of the total
area is open water during the summer, and depth is less than
2 m. Also called pools, shallow lakes, oxbows.
Typical plant species: milfoils, pond-lilies, pondweeds,
ɷ Marshes - periodically flooded wetlands with standing or slow-
moving water that fluctuates in level seasonally, edged by
grassy meadows and narrow bands of trees and shrubs.
Typical plant species: emergent vegetation such as
cattails, bulrushes, grasses, horsetail.
3.8.3 Hydraulic Type
These categories help to define the dominant hydraulic type of each
Beaver ponds are areas of water impounded by a beaver dam (see Section
3.10.3, Beaver Dam). They typically contain standing water.
Wetlands may or may not have visible surface water. When present,
surface water may appear to be standing (i.e., swamps, ponds, bogs,
marshes), or may show a slight flow (i.e., fens; see Section 3.10.1,
Water flows sluggishly or slowly through an area of low swampy ground.
A zero-gradient area where water is present, but there is no apparent