Citing
References
in
Footnotes
and
Endnotes
Customizing
Individual
Citations
Finding
and
Inserting
Citations
Finding
and
Inserting
from
Highlighted
Text
Forms
of
Citations
Including
Notes
in
the
List
of
References
Inserting
Citations
into
a
Formatted
Paper
Inserting
From
Multiple
Libraries
Inserting
Multiple
Citations
Inserting
Selected
Citations
Typing
Citations
into
Your
Paper
TypingCitationsintoYourPaper
TypingCitationsintoYourPaper
Therearemanywaystoinsertcitationsinyourpaper.Themostflexiblewayistomanuallytypetemporarycitationsdirectlyinto
yourpaper.
TherulesdescribedinthefollowingtopicsgovernhowEndNoterecognizesandinterpretstemporary(unformatted)citations.Use
theseruleswhentypingtemporarycitationsdirectlyintoyourdocument.
Note:Fornewdocumentsordocumentsthathaveneverbeenformatted,whenInstantFormattingisenabled,itisnottriggered
whenyoumanuallytypeareferenceintoadocument.YoumustusetheTools>EndNoteX6menutoeitherinsertanothercita-
tionorformatthecitationsandareferencelist.Ifadocumenthasbeensuccessfullyformatted,andyoumanuallytypeinatem-
porarycitation,thatcitationisinstantlyformatted.
l
Notes
About
Temporary
Citations
l
Components
of
a
Temporary
Citation
l
Omitting
Authors
or
Years
from
Citations
l
Citation
Prefixes
l
Citation
Suffixes
l
Including
Semicolons
&
Other
Citation
Delimiters
in
a
Citation
l
Examples
of
Modified
Citations
RelatedTopics:
Finding
and
Inserting
Citations
Forms
of
Citations
Including
Notes
in
the
List
of
References
Inserting
Citations
into
a
Formatted
Paper
Inserting
From
Multiple
Libraries
Inserting
Multiple
Citations
Inserting
Selected
Citations
Instant
Formatting
Notes
About
Temporary
Citations
Overview
of
the
Cite
While
You
Write
Process
Using
Drag-
and-
Drop
or
Copy
and
Paste
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NotesAboutTemporaryCitations
l
Eachcitationmustmatchonlyonereferenceinthelibrary.
l
WhenInstantFormattingisturnedoff,atemporarycitationisenclosedincitationdelimiters
1
andtypicallyincludesthe
firstauthor’slastname,theyearofpublication,andtherecordnumberforthatreference:{Schwartz,1990#5}.
l
Withinonesetofcitationdelimitersyoucanhaveseveralcitationsseparatedbysemicolons:
{Schwartz,1990#5;Billoski,1992#28}.
l
Curlybraces("{"and"}")arethedefaulttemporarycitationdelimiters,althoughtheycanbechanged(seeTemporary
Cita-
tions
).EndNotelooksforthesemarkerstofindcitationsinyourwordprocessingdocuments.
l
Inadditiontothecitationdelimiters,thereareotherpossiblecomponents
toatemporarycitation:Author,Year,Record
Number,PrefixText,SuffixText,andanyothertextfoundintherecord.Youcanalsouseaspecialtagtoformatthecita-
tionasAuthor(Year).
l
Anypartofatemporarycitationcanbeomitted,aslongasenoughinformationremainstomatchjustonereferenceinthe
library.Ifyouomitanauthororyearfromatemporarycitation,thosecomponentsareomittedfromtheformattedcitation
aswell—althoughyoucanchangethispreference.SeeOmitting
Authors
or
Years
from
Citations
formoreinformation.
Additionally,youcanomittheentirecitationsothattheentryonlyappearsinthebibliography
.
RelatedTopics:
Citation
Prefixes
Citation
Suffixes
Citing
Specific
Page
Numbers
in
Footnotes
Examples
of
Modified
Citations
Including
Semicolons
and
Other
Citation
Delimiters
in
a
Citation
Notes
About
Temporary
Citations
Omitting
Authors
or
Years
from
Citations
Temporary
Citation
Preferences
Typing
Citations
into
Your
Paper
ComponentsofaTemporaryCitation
ThetypicalEndNotetemporary(unformatted)citationconsistsofanauthor’slastname,ayear,andarecordnumber,all
enclosedincitationdelimiters
2
.However,temporarycitationscantakeonvariousotherformats.
Temporarycitationsmustbeginandendwiththeopeningandclosingcitationdelimiters,buttheothercomponentsofatem-
porarycitationcanvary.
Youcantypeanystringoftextfoundinthereference,asin:
{dinosaurextinction}
1
Delimitersarepunctuationmarksthatseparatesonetermorfield(oranypieceofdata)fromanother.Delimitersareusedinthecon-
textoftemporarycitationmarkers(thecurlybracesaredefaultdelimitersthatidentifythetemporarycitationsinthebodyofyourtext)
andtermlists.
2
Delimitersarepunctuationmarksthatseparatesonetermorfield(oranypieceofdata)fromanother.Delimitersareusedinthecon-
textoftemporarycitationmarkers(thecurlybracesaredefaultdelimitersthatidentifythetemporarycitationsinthebodyofyourtext)
andtermlists.
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Or,youcantypeanyoftheseitemsinthisorder(commaplacementissignificant):
{Prefix\Author,Year#RecordNumberSuffix}
{Prefix\Author,Year,AnyText,Suffix}
Eachcomponentisbrieflydescribedbelow;moredetailedinformationfollows.
Author’sLastName:Onlythelastnameofoneauthorislistedinatemporarycitation.Itcanbeanyauthorassociatedwiththe
reference,andnotjustthefirstauthor.Includeacommaaftertheauthor’snametolimitthesearchonlytoauthorfields:
      {Schwartz,1990}
Year:Theyearshouldappearexactlyasitdoesinthereference,anditshouldbeprecededbyacomma.Evenifyouleaveout
theauthorname,includeacommabeforetheyeartolimitthesearchtotheYearfield:
      {,2001}
RecordNumber:TherecordnumberisEndNote’suniquenumberforareference.Itistheonlypartofatemporarycitationthat
youcancountontoalwaysidentifyjustonereferenceinyourlibrary.Therecordnumbermustbeprecededbyanumbersign:
      {Jones,1987#84}
AnyText:AnytextthatappearsinthereferencecanbeusedtohelpEndNotelocatethereferenceinthelibrary.Inorderforthis
tobehelpful,selectwordsthatareuniquetothatreference.Enterthespecifictextonly,orenterthetextinplaceoftherecord
numberpartofthetemporarycitationandafterasecondcomma:
{greenhouse}
{Schwartz,1990,
{Schwartz,,
Inthethirdexample,wherethedateisomitted,youmustinsertaspacebetweenthetwocommasorEndNotewillnotrecognize
anycitationmatches.
PrefixText:Toaddtexttoprintbeforetheformattedcitation,typethetextimmediatelyaftertheopeningbraceandthenaback-
slash"\"toseparateprefixtextfromthesearchtext:
{see\Jones,1987#84}
SuffixText:Toaddtexttoprintafteraformattedcitation,enterthesuffixtextimmediatelyaftertherecordnumberorenterathird
commaafterthesearchtextandthentypethesuffixtext:
{Smith,1995#98p.293}
{Smith,1995,dinosaur,p.293}
Author(Year)format:ToaddacitationthatisformattedasAuthor(Year)inyourtext,include@author-yearafterthepagesdes-
ignator:
{Hesse,2003#95@@author-year}or{Hesse,2003#95@p.237@author-year}
BibliographyOnlyformat:Toinsertacitationthatonlyappearsinthebibliography,include@@hidden,wherethefirst@is
neededasthepagesplaceholder:
{Smith,1995#98@@hidden}
Note:ForaneasywaytomodifyindividualCiteWhileYouWritecitationsoncetheyareformatted,seeEditing
Citations
.
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RelatedTopics:
Citation
Prefixes
Citation
Suffixes
Citing
Specific
Page
Numbers
in
Footnotes
Examples
of
Modified
Citations
Including
Semicolons
and
Other
Citation
Delimiters
in
a
Citation
Notes
About
Temporary
Citations
Omitting
Authors
or
Years
from
Citations
Temporary
Citation
Preferences
Typing
Citations
into
Your
Paper
OmittingAuthorsorYearsfromCitations
Whileyourstylemaynormallyincludetheauthor’snameanddateineachin-textcitation,youmaywanttoomittheauthorand/or
yearfromaparticularcitation.Thisisusefulifyouhavementionedtheauthororyearinthecontextofthesentenceanddonot
wanttorepeattheinformationinthecitation.
Toremovetheauthor’snameordatefromacitation,simplyleavethatinformationoutoftheunformattedcitation.
Toomittheauthor’sname,enter:
...Wyatt’srecentdiscovery{,1993#38}.
whichwillformatas:
...Wyatt’srecentdiscovery(1993).
Toomitthedate,enter:
...abouthis1993discovery{Wyatt,#38}.
whichwillformatas:
...abouthis1993discovery(Wyatt).
Note:Numberedcitationsdonotprinttheauthornameoryearinanycase,sothesesettingswouldbeignored.
Ifyouwantareferencetoappearinyourbibliography,butnotasacitationinyourpaper,youcanexcludeboththeauthorand
year,leavingonlytherecordnumber.Whenyouformatyourpaperwithastylethatformatsauthorsandyearsinthecitations,
thisparticularcitationwillnotdisplayintext,butwillbeincludedinthebibliography.
However,ifyouwouldratherhavetheauthorandyearappearintheformattedcitationregardlessofwhetherornottheyareinthe
temporarycitation,selectPreferencesfromEndNote’sEndNotemenu,selecttheFormattingoption,anduncheckthesettingto
OmitAuthorand/orYearfromformattedcitationifremovedfromtemporarycitation.Withthissettingturnedoff,youmayenter
justtherecordnumber{#34}asatemporarycitation,andstillformatthepaperaccuratelywithastylethatrequiresauthorsand
yearsinthein-textcitations.
Note:ForaneasywaytomodifyindividualCiteWhileYouWritecitationsoncetheyareinserted,seeEditing
Citations
.
RelatedTopics:
Citation
Prefixes
Citation
Suffixes
Citing
Specific
Page
Numbers
in
Footnotes
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Components
of
a
Temporary
Citation
Examples
of
Modified
Citations
Including
Semicolons
and
Other
Citation
Delimiters
in
a
Citation
Notes
About
Temporary
Citations
Typing
Citations
into
Your
Paper
CitationPrefixes
Youcantypeaprefixinfrontofanyunformattedin-textcitation,usingabackslashtoseparatetheprefixtextfromthereference.
Forexample,anin-textcitationsuchas:
 {seealso\Hall,1988#77}
formattedintheAPAstylewouldbe:
(seealsoHall,1988)
Whenthereisonlyoneprefixinamultiplecitationanditisatthebeginningofthecitation,itwillstaythereregardlessofhowthe
citationsaresorted.Forexample,thiscitation:
{e.g.\Hall,1988#77;Argus,1991#11}
 afterbeingformattedintheAPAstylewillappearas:
(e.g.Argus,1991;Hall,1988)
Iftheprefixisnotatthebeginningofthemultiplecitation,orifthereismorethanoneprefixinamultiplecitation,theprefixtext
remainswiththereferenceitprecedes.Forexample,thiscitation:
{Argus,1984#11;especially\Hall,1988#77}
formattedintheAuthor-Datestylewillbe:
(Argus,1984;especiallyHall,1988)
ChangingtheCitationPrefixMarker
YoucanchangetheprefixmarkerfromabackslashtoanothercharacterbyselectingPreferencesfromEndNote’sEndNote
menu,selectingtheTemporaryCitationsoption,andchangingthecharacterinthe"CitationPrefixMarker"box.Useacharacter
thatisnototherwiseusedinthecitations.Letters,numbers,semicolons,"@"andcommascannotbeprefixmarkers.SeeTem-
porary
Citations
.
RelatedTopics:
Citation
Suffixes
Citing
Specific
Page
Numbers
in
Footnotes
Components
of
a
Temporary
Citation
Examples
of
Modified
Citations
Including
Semicolons
and
Other
Citation
Delimiters
in
a
Citation
CitationSuffixes
Texttypedaftertherecordnumberorsearchtextinanunformattedcitationappearsimmediatelyafterthecitationwhenitisfor-
matted.Forexample,thesecitations:
 {Hall,1988#77,p.5}
 {Smith,1995,dinosaur,,p.293}
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 afterbeingformattedintheAPAstylewillappearas:
(Hall,1988,p.5)
(Smith,1995,p.293)
Inmultiplecitations,thesuffixtextremainswiththecitationthatitfollows,evenifthecitationsaresorteddifferentlyduringthe
formattingprocess.Forexample,thiscitation:
{Hall,1988#77p.5;Argus,1991#11}
formattedintheAuthor-Datestylewillbe:
(Argus,1991;Hall,1988p.5)
RelatedTopics:
Citation
Prefixes
Citing
Specific
Page
Numbers
in
Footnotes
Components
of
a
Temporary
Citation
Examples
of
Modified
Citations
Including
Semicolons
and
Other
Citation
Delimiters
in
a
Citation
IncludingSemicolonsandOtherCitationDelimitersinaCitation
Inordertoprintanactualsemicolonortheprefixmarker(\)aspartofacitation,typeanaccentgrave(`)beforethecharacter.The
accentgravetellsEndNotetotreatthefollowingcharacterasregulartext,andnotasasignificantcharacterforparsingthecita-
tion.Forexample,tocreateacitationthatisformattedas:
(seeFigure1;Jackson,1994)
theunformattedcitationmustlooklikethis:
{seeFigure1`;\Jackson,1994#28}
The`characterbeforethesemicolontellsEndNotenottotreatthesemicolonasaseparatorbetweencitations.
RelatedTopics:
Citation
Prefixes
Citation
Suffixes
Citing
Specific
Page
Numbers
in
Footnotes
Components
of
a
Temporary
Citation
Examples
of
Modified
Citations
Notes
About
Temporary
Citations
Omitting
Authors
or
Years
from
Citations
Typing
Citations
into
Your
Paper
CitingSpecificPageNumbersinFootnotes
Whencitingfullreferencesinfootnotes,youmightwanttoincludespecificpagenumbers.EndNoteprovidesawaytodothis
wherethepagenumbersthatyoutypeintoatemporarycitationcanbemanipulatedbytheEndNotestylejustlikeafieldinyour
EndNotereference.Youcanaddspecificpagestothetemporarycitation,andhavetheEndNotestyleincludethemwherever
theyneedtobeintheformattedcitation.Thestylecanalsoapplyspecialpagesformatting,likedecidingwhethertoadd"p."or
"pp.beforethepagenumbers,andhowtolisttherangeofpages.
TheeasiestwaytoaddcitedpagesistousetheEdit
Citation
dialog.
Tomanuallyincludespecificpagenumberstoareferenceinanunformattedfootnotecitation,simplyenterthepagenumberpre-
cededby"@"attheendofthetemporarycitation:
 {Smith,1999#24@145-6}
Alltextthatfollowsthe@symbol(uptothenextspace)isconsideredthe"CitedPages."YoumustalsoconfiguretheEndNote
styleusedtoformatthepapertouse"CitedPages"inthefootnotetemplate.MostEndNotestylesthatrequireaspecialformat
forcitationsinfootnotesarealreadyconfiguredthisway.
WhenEndNoteformatsthecitation,thecitedpages("145-6"intheexampleabove)areinsertedinthecorrectlocationandfor-
mattedasappropriateforthestyle.
Note:Ifyouenterpagenumbersattheendofthetemporarycitationwithoutthe"@"character,theywillstillappearinafor-
mattedin-textcitation,butEndNotewillnotbeabletomanipulatethembychangingthepageformatorbymovingthemtoadif-
ferentpositionintheformattedcitation.Theywillsimplyappear,asentered,attheendoftheformattedin-textcitation.Thisisa
perfectlyacceptablewaytoenterpagenumbersforin-textcitations(orforfootnotesformattedjustlikeyourin-textcitations).
SeeCitation
Suffixes
 toseehowthisworks.Thismethodwillnotworkforcitationsinfootnotesthatareformattedasfullbib-
liographicreferencesorwithaspecialfootnoteformat.Forthosecases,youmustusethe@symboltoidentifythecitedpages
inthetemporarycitation.
RelatedTopics:
Citation
Prefixes
Citation
Suffixes
Components
of
a
Temporary
Citation
Including
Semicolons
and
Other
Citation
Delimiters
in
a
Citation
Notes
About
Temporary
Citations
Omitting
Authors
or
Years
from
Citations
Typing
Citations
into
Your
Paper
ExamplesofModifiedCitations
Thefollowingexamplesdemonstratehowdifferentmodificationstoatemporarycitationaffectitsformattedcitationineitheran
author/yearornumberedstyle.Inthefirstcolumnisanexampleofamodifiedtemporarycitationbeforeformatting,andtothe
rightaretwoexamplesofthatcitationformattedindifferentstyles.
ExamplesofModifiedCitations
Unformatted
Citation
Formatted
withAuthor-
Date
Formatted
withNum-
bered
Comments
{Hall,#77}
(Hall)
[1]
Toremovetheyearfromthefor-
mattedcitation,simplydeleteitfrom
theunformattedcitation.
{,1988#77}
(1998)
[1]
Toremovetheauthorfromthefor-
mattedcitation,deletejustthe
author’snamefromtheunformatted
citation.Notethatthecomma
remainsinthetemporarycitationto
indicatetheomis-sionoftheauthor.
{#77}
Nocitation
appears
[1]
Thistemporarycitationremovesthe
authorandtheyearfromthefor-
mattedcitation.Whenformattedwith
anauthor-datestyle,thein-textcita-
tioniseliminated,butthereference
stillappearsinthebibliography.Num-
beredcitationsappearasusual.
{Hall,1988
#77p.4}
(Hall1988p.4)
[1p.4]
Toaddtextaftertheformattedcita-
tion,additaftertherecordnumberin
theunformattedcitation.Withthis
temporarycita-tion,thetextafterthe
recordnumber,includingspacesand
punctuation,isaddedtothefor-
mattedcitation.
{see\Hall,
1988#77}
(seeHall1988)
[see1]
Toaddtextbeforetheformattedcita-
tion,typethetextimme-diatelyafter
theopeningcurlybrace,andtypea
backslash"\"toseparatethetext
fromtheauthor’sname.(SeeCita-
tion
Prefixes
.
{Hall,#77,
p.4}
(Hall,p.4)
[1,p.4]
Thistemporarycitationeliminates
theyearfromtheformattedcitation,
butaddstheadditionaltext",p.4".
Typeadditionaltextaftertherecord
numberorafterathirdcommawhen
usingadditionalsearchtext.
ModifiedCitationsTable
RelatedTopics:
Citation
Prefixes
Citation
Suffixes
Citing
Specific
Page
Numbers
in
Footnotes
Components
of
a
Temporary
Citation
Including
Semicolons
and
Other
Citation
Delimiters
in
a
Citation
Notes
About
Temporary
Citations
Omitting
Authors
or
Years
from
Citations
Typing
Citations
into
Your
Paper
ChangingExistingCitations
EditingCitations(MicrosoftWord)
Onceyouhaveinsertedandformattedacitation,youshouldnotedititdirectly(althoughyoucandoso).Directeditsarelostthe
nexttimeEndNoteformatsthebibliography.
YoucanalmostalwaysgetEndNotetoformatyourcitationsexactlytoyourspecificationsbyeditingthestyle,theEndNoteref-
erence,orthecitation(asdescribedhere).
Note:AneasywaytoomittheAuthororDatefromanindividualcitationistoselectthecitation,Control+clickwithyourmouse,
selectEditCitation(s)andthenExcludeAuthororExcludeYear.
Tosafelyeditaformattedcitation:
1. Clickonthecitationyouwishtochange.
2. FromWord’sToolsmenu,gototheEndNoteX6submenu,andselectEditCitation(s)todisplaytheEndNoteEditCitation
dialog.
Allofthecitedreferencesinthedocumentarelistedintheleftcolumnofthedialog.Anellipsesshowswhereacitation
appearswithintext.Thelinebelowshowsthecitedreference(s).
3. Selecttheappropriatecitationfromthelistattheleftofthedialog(youcanscrollthroughallcitationsinthedocument)and
makeanyofthefollowingchangestothehighlightedcitation:
DefaultFormat:Selectthismenuoptiontodisplaythecitationandformatitasdefinedbythecurrentlyselectedoutput
style.
Displayas:Author(Year): Selectthismenuoptiontodisplayboththeauthornameandtheyearinthehighlightedcita-
tion.
Thisfeaturedoesnotapplywheneditingacitationinafootnote.
ExcludeAuthor:Selectthistoomittheauthornamefromtheformattedcitation.
ExcludeYear:Selectthistoomitthedatefromtheformattedcitation.
ShowOnlyinBibliography:Selectthisoptiontodisplaytheselectedcitationonlyinthebibliography,notinthebodyof
thepaper.
Prefix:Entertextheretoprintimmediatelybeforethecitationtext(spacesaresignificant).
Suffix:Entertextheretoprintafterthecitationtext(spacesaresignificant).
Pages:EnterpagenumbersheretoprintasCitedPages.Toprint,theCitedPagesfieldmustbelistedinthecitationtem-
plateorfootnotetemplateoftheoutputstyle.
4. Youcanaddorremovecitationsfromamultiplecitationorchangetheorderofcitations.
Insert:Usethistoaddanothercitationwithinthesamesetofdelimiters.
Remove:HighlightacitationandclickRemovetodeleteitfromthein-textcitation.
UpandDownArrows:Highlightareferenceandusethearrowstochangetheorderofdisplay.  (IfaCitationSortOrder
isappliedbythecurrentoutputstyle,usingthisdialogtochangetheorderofcitationsinamultiplecitationhasnoeffect.)
5. ClickOKtoimplementyourchange(s).
Aftermakingchanges,selectFormatBibliographyto(re)formatthenewormodifiedcitationsandregeneratethebibliography.
RelatedTopics:
Citation
Prefixes
Citation
Suffixes
Citing
Specific
Page
Numbers
in
Footnotes
Customizing
Individual
Citations
Deleting
Citations
Examples
of
Modified
Citations
Including
Semicolons
&
Other
Citation
Delimiters
in
a
Citation
Moving
or
Copying
Citations
Omitting
Authors
or
Years
from
Citations
Typing
Citations
into
Your
Paper
Unformatting
Citations
UnformattingCitations (MicrosoftWord)
Unformattingrevertsformattedcitationstotemporarycitations,removesthebibliography,andturnsoffinstantformatting.
Ifyourcitationsareformattedinanumberedstyle,youcanunformatyourpapertoeasilyidentifycitationsasyouwork.Youcan
Format
Bibliography
againlater.
Note:Unlikeformattedcitations,unformattedcitationsrequirethatyouhavethecorrespondingEndNotelibraryopeninorderto
formatthepaperagain.UnformattingremovestheTraveling
Library
.
Tounformatcitations:
1. Determinewhichcitationsyouwanttounformat:
l
Tounformataparticularcitation,highlightonlythatcitation.
l
Ifthecitationyouwanttounformatispartofamultiplecitation,highlightthemultiplecitation.Allcitationswithinthedelim-
iters
1
willbeunformatted.
l
Tounformatasectionofthedocument,highlightthatsection.
l
Tounformattheentiredocument,eitherselectnothingorhighlighttheentiredocument.
2. FromWord’sToolsmenu,gototheEndNoteX6submenuandUnformatCitation(s).
Youcantellwhenapaperisunformattedbecausethecitationsappearinthetemporarycitationformat(suchas"{Smith,1999
#25}").
Unformattedcitationsaretemporaryplaceholdersthatdonotreflectfinaloutput.Youcanformatthepaperagainatanytime.To
savetheformattedpaperastext,seeRemoving
Field
Codes
.
Note:Whenyouunformatcitations,Instant
Formatting
isdisabled.Toformatyourpaper,gototheToolsmenu,thentheEnd-
NoteX6submenu,andselectFormatBibliography.FromtheFormatBibliographydialog,youcanenableInstantFormatting
againontheInstantFormattingtab.
RelatedTopics:
1
Delimitersarepunctuationmarksthatseparatesonetermorfield(oranypieceofdata)fromanother.Delimitersareusedinthecon-
textoftemporarycitationmarkers(thecurlybracesaredefaultdelimitersthatidentifythetemporarycitationsinthebodyofyourtext)
andtermlists.
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