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Volume·(Issue)
theparenthesesaround"Issue"onlyappearinaformattedreferenceifthereisanissuenumberforthereference.
Rule#2:ThePrecedingFieldTakesPrecedenceOvertheFollowingField
Whenpunctuationappearsbetweentwofieldswithnointerveningspaces,itisdependentontheprecedingfield.
Inthisexample,
Volume:Issue
thecolonisdependentontheVolumefield.Thismeans,ifthereisnovolumeinthereference,thecolonwillnotappear.Ifthereis
avolume,thecolonwillappear.
Note:Thisexampleshowsacasewheretherulesofdependencemightnotdowhatyouwant.Forexample,youmightwantto
havethecolononlyshowwhenthereisanissue.Thiscanbedoneusingthespecial
formatting
characters
.
Rule#3:TheFirstSpaceafteraFieldisDependentonthatField.AdditionalSpacesareIndependent.
Thefirstordinaryspacefollowingafieldisalwaysdependentonthatfield.Anyconsecutivespacesafterthatareindependent
andwillalwaysappearintheformattedreferences.
Forexample,ifEndNoteformatsananonymousbookusingatemplatethathastheAuthorfieldfollowedbyaspaceandtheTitle
field:
Author.·Title
thetitlewillnotbeprecededbyaspaceinthefinalformattedreferencebecausethespace,justliketheperiod,isdependenton
theAuthorfield.However,ifthestyleincludestwospacesbetweentheAuthorandtheTitle:
 Author.··Title
thetitlewillbeprecededbyonespaceforallanonymousreferences.Thefirstspace,beingdependentontheAuthorfield,dis-
appearswhenthereisnoauthor,howeverthesecondspaceisindependent,soitremainsintheformattedreference.
Independentspacescanbeforcedtobedependentonanadjacentfieldusingthespecial
formatting
characters
.
Rule#4:IndependentTextAlwaysAppearsintheBibliography.
Anytextorpunctuationthatisnotdependentonafieldnamealwaysappearsintheformattedreferences.Forexample,if:
Edition·
isenteredintoastyle’sBooktemplateusingonlyanordinaryspacetoseparatethetext"ed."andthefield"Edition",thetext"
ed."willappearinallBookreferences—regardlessofwhetherornotthereisaneditionforthatreference.
Note:Thenon-breakingspacecanbeusedinplaceofaregularspacetolinkindependenttexttoafield.SeeSpecial
Formatting
Characters
.
RelatedTopics:
Adding
and
Removing
Fields
in
a
Formatted
Reference
Adding
New
Reference
Types
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Bibliography
and
Footnote
Templates
Changing
the
Punctuation
in
a
Formatted
Reference
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EndNote
Cleans
Up
Fonts
and
Text
Styles
Modifying
Style
Templates
Special
Formatting
Characters
EndNoteCleansUp
Tooconfusedaboutalltheserules?Well,evenifyoudon’tgeteverythingquiterightaccordingtotherules,EndNotewilldoits
besttocleanuptheformattedreference.Obviousproblemsarefixedautomatically.
Normally,fieldtextisenteredintoEndNotewithoutendingpunctuation,sothattheselectedoutputstylecansupplypunctuation
asrequiredbythatparticularstyle.However,whenyoudownloadreferencesfromvarioussources,someinformationproviders
mayincludepunctuation.
Forexample,whenanoutputstyledirectsEndNotetoinsertaperiodafterafield,EndNotemustdeterminewhattodowithany
punctuationthatalreadyexistsattheendofthefieldinthereference.
Punctuationfound,pluspunctuation
addedbytheoutputstyle:
Replacedwith:
spaces,period
period
comma,period(,.)
period
semicolon,period(;.)
period
colon,period(:.)
period
doubleperiods(..)
singleperiod
questionmark,period(?.)
questionmark
exclamationpoint,period(!.)
exclamationpoint
EndNotetreatsotherformsofextrapunctuationlikethis:
Punctuationfound,pluspunctuation
addedbytheoutputstyle:
Replacedwith:
doublespaces
singlespace
doublecommas(,,)
singlecomma
doublesemicolons(;;)
singlesemicolon
doublequestionmarks(??)
singlequestionmark
doubleperiods(..)
singleperiod
comma,period(,.)
period
questionmark,period(?.)
questionmark
exclamationpoint,period(!.)
exclamationpoint
questionmark,exclamationpoint(?!)
questionmark
exclamationpoint,questionmark(!?)
exclamationpoint
Onesetofpunctuationthatisneverreplacedistheperiod,comma(.,)becauseitmaybeusedforabbreviationslikeed.,etal.,
etc.
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SpecialFormattingCharacters
EndNotehasspecialformattingcharactersthataddflexibilityandprecisiontothegroupingofpunctuationandfieldsinthestyle
templates.
LinkAdjacentText(UsingtheNon-breakingSpace)
Ifyoutype"Editioned."intoastyletemplateanduseanordinaryspacetoseparatethefieldname"Edition"fromtheabbreviation
"ed.",then"ed."willappearregardlessofwhetherornotthereferencehasanedition(seeRule#4).
Toavoidthisproblem,make"ed."dependentontheEditionfieldbylinking"ed."totheEditionfieldwithanon-breakingspace.
Thinkofanon-breakingspaceasbibliographicformattingglue.Itjoinstwoormoreitemstogethersotheyactasasingleunit.
Thus,anytextorpunctuation"glued"toafieldwilldropoutofthebibliographyifthatfieldisempty.
Youcaninsertanon-breakingspacebyselectingLinkAdjacentTextfromtheInsertFieldlistintheTemplatespanels.Youcan
alsoenteritbytypingOption+Space.Itappearsonthescreenasasmalldiamond.
Thenon-breakingspaceisconvertedtoanormalspaceintheformattingprocess.Commonusesofthenon-breakingspace
include(where"
"isusedasanon-breakingspace):
  p^pp◊Pages
  Edition◊ed.
  vol◊Volume
  Editor◊Ed.^
Thenon-breakingspaceisalsousedinconjunctionwiththeverticalbar(seebelow)tochangethedependencyofapunctuation
markfromonefieldtoanother. 
Volume|:◊Issue|.
Inthiscase,thecolon(:)islinkedtotheIssuefieldwithanon-breakingspace,soitdoesnotprintinthebibliographyiftheIssue
fieldisempty.
ForcedSeparation—UsingtheVerticalBar
Ifyou do notwanttextorpunctuationtobedependentontheprecedingorfollowingfield,usetheverticalbarcharacter(|),to
forceaseparationofthetextfromafield.Theverticalbarcanbefoundonthesamekeyasthebackslash(\).Itcanalsobe
insertedfromtheInsertFieldlistintheTemplatespanels.
Thinkofaverticalbarasbreakingdependence,orforcingseparationbetweentwodependentitems.(Theverticalbarworksin
exactlytheoppositewayasthenon-breakingspace.)
Forexample,theJournalArticletemplatesinsomestylesrequireaperiodbetweenthevolumeandissue.Atemplateforsucha
stylemightlooklikethis(where"·indicatesaspace):
JournalArticle
Author.·"Title."·Journal·Volume.Issue·(Year):·Pages.
However,whenthisstyleformatsajournalarticlethatdoesnotincludeanissuenumber,thebibliographyentrywillbeincorrect,
asinthefollowingexample:
Clark,H.andCarlson,T."HearersandSpeechActs."Language58.(1982):332-373.
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Noticethattheperiodusedtoseparatethevolumefromtheissueappearshereintheabsenceofanissuebecauseitisdepend-
entupontheVolume(Rule#2).Andthespaceseparatingthevolumeandtheyearislostbecausethatspaceisdependentupon
theIssuefield(Rule#3).
EndNotehasawayofavoidingtheseproblems.Theverticalbarcharacter(|)canbeusedtobreaktheautomaticgroupingof
spacesandpunctuationwithadjacentfields.
Ifyouinserttheverticalbarbeforetheperiodinourexample,theperiod’sdependencyswitchesfromtheVolumefieldtothe
Issuefield.AddanotherverticalbarbeforethespacethatfollowstheIssuefield,andthespacewillnolongerbedependenton
theIssuefield.Usetheverticalbarcharacterinconjunctionwiththenon-breakingspace.Withthesechangesthestylelookslike
this:
JournalArticle
Author.·"Title."·JournalVolume|.Issue|·(Year)|:·Pages|.
Andtheformattedreferencewithoutanissueiscorrect:
Clark,H.andCarlson,T."HearersandSpeechActs."Language58(1982):332-373.
Othercommonexamplesforusingtheverticalbarinclude:
Publisher|:◊City
Pages|.(tomakethefinalperiodindependent)
FieldNamesinBibliographies
SometimesyoumayneedtousetextinatemplatethatisalsoanEndNotefieldnameforthatreferencetype.Forexample,you
maywanttousetheword"Editor"aftertheeditor’sname:
Jones,V.R.,B.K.Marion,andR.L.Zeiss,TheTheoryofForaging,inAHistoryofForagingBehavior,B.J.Bloggs,
Editor.1976,SmithandBarnes:NewYork.
Normally,EndNoteinterpretstheword"Editor"asafieldnamewhenitappearsinabook’sstyletemplate.Thisiseventrueof
fieldnamesthatappearaspartofaword,suchas"Editors"or"Issued."Fieldnamesneednotbecapitalizedtoberecognized.
ToforceEndNotetointerpretawordasjusttextandnotasafieldnameinatemplate,putanaccentgravecharacterbeforeand
aftertheword:`Editor`.Theaccentgraveisfoundintheupperleftcornerofmostkeyboardsonthesamekeyasthetilde(~).
Remembertoalsousethenon-breakingspacetolinkthetext,`Editor`,totheEditorfield.
BookSection
Author,·Title|.◊in◊Book·Title|,◊Editor,◊`Editor`|.·Year,·Publisher|:◊City|,·p.◊Pages.
Singular/PluralTermSeparator(Caret^)
Youcanspecifybothsingularandpluralformsoflabelsforeditorsorpagesinaformattedreferencebyusingacaret(^)tosep-
aratetheterms.Forexample,somestylesput"Ed."afterasingleeditorand"Eds."followsseveraleditors’names.Or,similarly,
"p."mightprecedeasinglepage,while"pp."precedesmultiplepages.Thisfeaturecanbeappliedtoanyfieldthatcorrespondsto
theGenericfieldforAuthor, SecondaryAuthor,TertiaryAuthor,SubsidiaryAuthor,Pages,andCitedPages.
Inthestyletemplate,enterboththesingularandpluralformsofthelabelseparatedbyacaret(insertitfromtheInsertFieldlistor
typeShift+6).Anytextbeforethecaret,backtobutnotincludingtheprecedingspace,isusedforthesingularform;textafterthe
caret,uptothenextspace,isusedforthepluralform.Thesetermsmustalsobelinkedtotherelevantfieldusinganon-breaking
space.Forexample,astyletemplatemightlooklikethis:
EditedBook
Editor,◊ed.^eds.·Title.·Number·of·Volumes◊vols|.◊Vol.·Volume|,·SeriesTitle|.·City|:◊Publisher|,◊Year|.
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Orlikethis:
JournalArticle
Author.·"Title,"·JournalVolume|.·Issue|·(Year)|:p.^pp.·Pages|.
RelatedTopics:
Adding
and
Removing
Fields
in
a
Formatted
Reference
Adding
New
Reference
Types
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Bibliography
and
Footnote
Templates
Changing
the
Punctuation
in
a
Formatted
Reference
EndNote
Cleans
Up
Fonts
and
Text
Styles
Modifying
Style
Templates
Rules
for
Working
with
Style
Templates
AdditionalStyleFormattingOptions
AdditionalStyleFormattingOptions
Templates
determinethegenerallayoutoftheformattedreferencesandcitations.TheremainderofthepanelsintheStylewin-
dowcanbeusedtofine-tunecertainaspectsofabibliographicstyle:
l
Anonymous
Works
l
Page
Numbers
l
Journal
Names
l
Sections
(MicrosoftWordOnly)
l
Ambiguous
Citations
l
Numbering
l
Author
Lists
(BibliographyandFootnotes)
l
Author
Lists
(Citations)
l
Author
Names
(BibliographyandFootnotes)
l
Author
Names
(Citations)
l
Editor
Lists
and
Editor
Names
l
Layout
l
Sort
Order
l
Title
Capitalization
l
Repeated
Citations
(in
Footnotes)
l
Figure
and
Table
Placement
and
Captions
FieldSubstitutions(BibliographyandFootnotes)
TheFieldSubstitutionspanelsundertheBibliographyandFootnotesheadingsallowyoutosubstituteanotherfieldinthebib-
liographyandfootnotesofareferenceifoneofthefollowingfieldsisempty.
l
DOI
l
PMCID
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l
VolumeandPages
Youcanalsospecifywhichfieldtousewhentheeditorandtranslatorarethesame.Theeditorandtranslatoroptionisavailable
forallstyles.
ThevaluesthatcurrentlypopulatethefieldsontheFieldSubstitutionspanelsaredefaultvalues.Youcanchoosetoactivatefield
substitutionsbyselectingthecheckbox.Forexample,ifyouselectthe"IftheDOIfieldisempty,use"checkbox,EndNoteuses
theURLiftheDOIfieldisemptyinthebibliographyandfootnotesofareference;otherwise,EndNotedisplaystheDOIinfor-
mation.
YoucanalsoselectanotherfieldfromtheInsertFieldlistifyoudonotwanttousethedefaultvalue.
Tosubstitutefieldvaluesinabibliographyand/orfootnote:
1. OpentheStyleManagerbyselectingOutputStylesfromtheEditmenu,andthenselectingOpenStyleManager.
2. Selectthestylethatyouwouldliketoedit,andthenclicktheEditbutton.
3. AftertheStylewindowopens,selectFieldSubstitutionsfromundertheBibliographyorFootnotesheading.
4. Activatefieldsubstitutionbyselectingthecheckboxofeachfield.Thecurrentsubstitute(default)valuedisplaysifthe
fieldisempty.
Alternatively,youcanselectanotherfieldfromtheInsertFieldlist.
5. FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs.Inthedialogthatappears,enteranewnameforthismodifiedstyle,andthenclick
Save.
Examples
l
YouarecitingaprepressarticlethathasaDOInumberbutnotvolumeorpageinformation.Theguidelinesindicatethat
theDOIshouldbeincludedinareferencefortheprepressarticles.TheoutputstylethatyouselecttellsEndNotetouse
theDOIiftheVolumeandPagesfieldsareempty;otherwise,EndNotedisplaysvolumeandpageinformation.
l
YouarecitingaPubMedarticle,butithasnotyetbeenassignedaPMCID.TherecorddoeshaveaNIHMSID.Theguide-
linesindicatethattheNIHMSIDshouldbeusedasasubstitution. TheoutputstylethatyouselecttellsEndNotetouse
theNIHMSIDifthePMCIDfieldisempty;otherwise,EndNotedisplaysthePMCIDinformation.
AnonymousWorks
AnonymousworksaredefinedbyEndNoteasreferenceswheretheAuthorfieldisblank(not"Anonymous").Thesettingsinthe
AnonymousWorkspanelapplytoallsectionsofastyle(Citations,Bibliography,andFootnotes).
LeaveAuthorBlank:Theauthorsectionoftheformattedreferenceisleftempty.Ifthereferencesaretobesortedbyauthor
names,theanonymousworkswouldbesortedatthetopofthelistbecausetheyhavenoauthor.
UseTitleinPlaceofAuthor:Wheretheauthorwouldhaveappeared,thetitleisusedinstead.Ifthereferencesaresortedby
author,theanonymousreferenceswillbesortedasthoughthetitleweretheauthor.IfyouwouldpreferthatEndNoteusethecon-
tentsofthe"ShortTitle"fieldinplaceofthefulltitle(whereavailable),clickthe"UseShortTitle"checkbox.IfEndNote
encountersareferencethatdoesnothaveanythingenteredintotheShortTitlefield,itusesthecontentsoftheregularTitlefield
instead.
UseAPASpecifications:TheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationformat(usedbymanyjournals)requiresaspecialvariation
ofthe"UseTitleinPlaceofAuthor"option.
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InsertText:Thetextthatyouenterhereappearsintheauthor’splaceintheformattedreference,anditisusedforsortingpur-
posesifthereferencesaretobesortedbyauthornames.Commonlythistextwouldbesomethingliketheword"Anonymous"or
"Anon."
RelatedTopics:
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Modifying
Style
Templates
PageNumbers
ThePageNumberspanelallowsyoutospecifyhowthepagenumbersshouldbeformattedforyourreferences:
l
Don’tchangepagenumbers
ThecontentsofthePagesfieldareuseddirectlyintheformattedreference.Nochangesaremade.
l
Showonlyfirstpage
OnlythefirstcharactersinthePagesfieldupto,butnotincluding,thefirstdashorcommaareincludedinthebibliography.
Example:"123-125"inthePagesfieldbecomes"123"intheformattedreference.
l
Abbreviatelastpage
Anydigitsofthelastpagenumberthatarethesameasthefirstpagenumberareeliminated.Example:"123-125"inthe
Pagesfieldbecomes"123-5"intheformattedreference.
l
Abbreviatelastpage,keepingtwodigits
Anydigitsofthelastpagenumberthatarethesameasthefirstpagenumberareeliminated,downtoaminimumoftwodig-
its.Example:"123-125"inthePagesfieldbecomes"123-25"intheformattedreference.
l
Showrangeofpages
Leadingdigitsareaddedtothelastpagenumber,ifnecessary,sothefullpagerangeisused.Example:"123-5"inthePages
fieldbecomes"123-125"intheformattedreference.
l
ShowonlyfirstpageforJournalsandfullrangeforothers
Journalarticlesareformatteddifferentlyfromothertypesofreferences.
Note:Special
Formatting
Characters
describeshowtoinstructEndNotetoaddtextsuchas"p."vs."pp.",or"page"vs."pages"
totheformattedreferencesusingthecaret(^).
RelatedTopics:
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Modifying
Style
Templates
JournalNames
Differentjournalshavedifferentstandardsforabbreviatingjournalnames.Forexample,somestylesmayrequire"Proceedingsof
theNationalAcademyofScience"tobeabbreviatedas"Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci.,""P.N.A.S."or"PNAS."EndNote’sJournals
termlistprovidesawayforyoustoreuptofourvariationsofjournalnames(thefullnameandthreeformsofabbreviations)tobe
usedinyourbibliographies.
TheJournalstermlistthatiscreatedforeverylibraryisautomaticallylinkedtotheJournalandAlternateJournalfields,andthere-
foreitisreadytobeusedwiththeJournalNamesoptions.Yousimplyneedtobesurethatthenecessaryinformationisinthe
Journalstermlist,andthatyourstyleissetuptousethecorrectformofthejournalname.
IfyourJournalstermlistincludesthenameofthejournalasitisenteredinyourEndNotereferences,andtheformofthejournal
namethatyouwouldliketoappearinyourbibliographies,youmaysimplysetyourpreferenceinastyletohaveEndNotesub-
stituteaformofthenameintheJournalstermlistforwhatwasenteredintoyourreferences.
EndNoteprovidesseveraljournalabbreviationlistsfordifferentdisciplines(includingmedicine,chemistry,andhumanities).If
youareinterestedinusingoneoftheselists,youmayimportitintoyourJournalstermlist(seeLoading
Supplied
Journal
Abbre-
viations
)andsetupabibliographicstyletouseoneoftheabbreviationsfortheformattedbibliography.IfEndNotedoesnotpro-
videajournaltermlistthatappliestoyourareaofresearch,youmayalsoenterthejournalabbreviationsyourself.SeeImportant
Points
About
Entering
Journal
Names
.
TomodifyastyletousetheabbreviationsinaJournalstermlist:
1. FromtheEditmenu,selectOutputStyles,andthenselectOpenStyleManager.
2. SelectthestylethatyouwouldliketomodifyandclickEdit.
3. SelecttheJournalNamespanelfromthelistattheleftoftheStylewindowtoseetheavailableoptions:
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FullJournalName
Whencreatingabibliography,EndNotereplacestheJournalnameinthereferencewiththeformofthatnameinthefirst
columnoftheJournalstermlist.Thisfirstcolumnisnormallyusedforfullnames.
l
Abbreviation1
Abbreviation2
Abbreviation3
Inthebibliography,thejournalnameforeachreferenceisreplacedwiththeformofthatnameinthesecond,third,orfourth
columnoftheJournalstermlist,respectively.
l
Don’tReplace
Inthebibliography,EndNoteusesthejournalnameexactlyasitappearsinthereferenceintheEndNotelibrary.No
changesaremade.
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AbbreviateinJournalArticlesOnly
ThesubstitutionsmadewiththeJournalNamesoptioncanapplytoallSecondaryTitlefields,ortotheSecondaryTitle
fieldforonlytheJournalArticlereferencetype.Ifyouuncheckthisoptiontoapplythisfeaturetoallreferencetypes,End-
NotealsoabbreviatesfieldssuchasConferenceName,andthenamesofmagazinesandnewspapers.
l
RemovePeriods
SelectthisoptiontohaveEndNoteeliminatetheperiodsfromalljournalnamesinthebibliographythatitiscreating,
regardlessoftheabbreviationbeingused.ThisoptiondoesnotrequirethatthejournalnamesbeintheJournalstermlist.
Forexample,ifthejournalnamesareenteredintoyourreferencesusingperiods,andyoudonothaveaJournalstermlist
thatincludesthenameswithoutperiods,youcanstilljustcheckthisoptionandtheperiodswillbestrippedoutofthejour-
nalnameswhenEndNoteformatsabibliography.
IfajournalnameisnotfoundinthespecifiedcolumnoftheJournalstermlist,thestyleusesthejournalnameasitappearsinthe
Referencewindow.Noreplacementismadeforthatjournal.
IfnothingisenteredintheJournalstermlistorifthereisnospecialJournalstermlist,theJournalNamesoptionalwaysdefaults
toDon’tReplace,andEndNoteusesthejournalnameexactlyasitappearsintheoriginalreference.
Note:NoneofthesechangesactuallytakesplaceintheEndNotelibrary.Theseoptionsonlydeterminewhatinformationgoes
intothebibliographythatisgeneratedusingtheCopyFormatted,Print,Export,andFormatBibliographycommands.
RelatedTopics:
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Modifying
Style
Templates
Sections(MicrosoftWordOnly)
PreviousversionsofEndNotealwayscreatedasinglebibliographyattheendofyourwordprocessordocuments.Thatisstill
truewhenyouCiteWhileYouWriteinPages'09documentsorformatRTFfiles.However,EndNoteincludesadditionaloutput
styleoptionsspecificallyforMicrosoftWord.Youcanchooseto:
l
Createacompletebibliographyattheendofeachdocument(thedefaultsettingforalmostallofthesuppliedoutput
styles).
l
Createabibliographyforeachsectioninthedocument(asdefinedinthestylesAPA5th(sections)andChicago15thB
(sections)).
l
Createabibliographyforeachsectionandalsoacompletebibliographyattheendofthedocument.
FormoreinformationaboutusingsectionsinaMicrosoftWorddocument,seeCreating
Multiple
Bibliographies
in
a
Single
Doc-
ument
.
Note:TheSectionsportionofanoutputstyleisignoredbyPages'09,RTFfiles,andversionsofEndNotepriortoversionX6.
Createacompletebibliographyattheendofeachdocument
Thisdefaultsettingformatsasinglebibliographyattheendofadocument.Evenifyouhavebrokenthedocumentintomultiple
sections,asinglebibliographywillappearattheendofthedocument.
Createabibliographyforeachsectioninthedocument
Whenyouselectthisoption,abibliographyiscreatedattheendofeachsection,andincludesonlythecitationswithinasection.
Anadditionalcheckboxisavailableforsections:
Continuenumbering,orapplysettingsfordisambiguationandrepeatedcitationsacrosssections.
Whenthecheckboxisblank
Whenanumberedbibliographicstyleisselected,citationnumberingwillberestartedatthebeginningofeachsection.
Whenanon-numberedbibliographic styleisselected,ambiguouscitationsettingswillberestartedandappliedtoeachsection
individually.Formoreinformationaboutambiguouscitationsettings,seeAmbiguous
Citations
.
Whenthecheckboxisselected
Foranumberedstyle,selectingthecheckboxwillassurethatnumberingiscontinuedacrosssections.Forexample,ifcitations
inthefirstsectionarenumbered1to10,citationsinthenextsectionwillstartwithnumber11.
Foranon-numberedstyle,ambiguouscitationsettingswillapplyacrosstheentiredocument.Formoreinformationaboutambig-
uouscitationsettings,seeAmbiguous
Citations
.
Createabibliographyforeachsectionandacompletebibliographyattheendofthedocument.
Thisoptioncreatesabibliographyforeachsectionaswellasacompletebibliographyofallthecitationsinthedocument.
Fornumberedstyles,citationnumberingcontinuessequentiallyacrossallsections,withoutrestartingforeachsection.
Fornon-numberedstyles,ambiguouscitationsettingsareappliedacrosstheentiredocument,withoutrestartingforeachsec-
tion.
Ifadocumentisnotdividedintosections,EndNoteformatsasingle,completebibliographyattheendofthedocument.
RelatedTopics:
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Creating
Multiple
Bibliographies
in
a
Single
Document
Modifying
Style
Templates
AmbiguousCitations
Within-textcitationslike(Smith,1995)or(Smith246-9),referencescanhaveidenticalin-textcitationsiftheyarebythesame
authorortheauthorshavethesamelastname.Thisleadstoambiguityinthecitationsthatwouldmakeitimpossibleforthe
readerofyourpapertoknowwhichreferencetoSmithyouarereferring.EndNoteprovidesvariouswaystoavoidthissortofambi-
guityinyourcitations.
Anycombinationofthefollowingoptionsmaybeused.Clickinthecheckboxnexttoalloptionsthatapply.Notethattheseset-
tingsassumetheauthorisusedinthein-textcitation.Theyarenotrelevantforstylesthatusebibliographynumbersforthein-
textcitationsasitisnotpossibletohaveambiguouscitationswhentheyareuniquelynumbered.
Includeauthorinitialsincitation
CheckthisoptiontohaveEndNoteincludeinitialswithauthornamestodistinguishbetweencitationsbydifferentauthorsthat
happentohavethesamesurname.SelecthowtheinitialsshouldappearfromtheInitialsoptioninthesection.Forexample,the
MLAstyleusesjustauthornamesandpagenumbersincitations.InitialsareaddedtoclarifywhichSmithwrotethecitedref-
erence:
(S.Smith241-5)   and   (L.Smith12-20)
Listmoreauthorsuntilcitationisunique
Somestylesrequestthatonlyafixednumberofauthorsbelistedinthein-textcitation,andthen"etal."or"andothers"is
insertedtoindicatethattheauthorlistwasabbreviated.SelectthisoptionifyouwouldlikeEndNotetolistadditionalauthorsto
makethecitationunique.Forexample,ifthein-textcitationsweresettolistonly3authors,andyouhavetworeferencesin
whichthefirstthreeauthorsarethesame,EndNotewouldaddafourthauthortothecitations,andcontinueinthatmanneruntil
thelistofauthorswasdifferentbetweenthetwocitations.
Addthetitlefordifferentworksbythesameauthor(s)
Ifyouhavetwoworksbythesameauthor,itwon’thelptoaddinitialsorlistmoreauthorstodifferentiatethetwo.Inthiscase,
somestylesrequestthatthetitleofthereference(orashortenedformofthetitle)beaddedtothein-textcitation.Ifyouchoose
thisoptionandselecttheShortTitleoption,EndNoteincludesthecontentsoftheShortTitlefieldwhenavailable.Otherwise,it
usesthefulltitle.Theformatofthetitleistakendirectlyfromthebibliography.ThisisanexampleintheMLAstyle,whichnor-
mallyincludesonlytheauthorandpagenumberinacitation:
(Smith,HistoryofOurTimes35)
(Smith,LookingForward77)
Addaletteraftertheyear
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Documents you may be interested