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Forcitationsinan(Author,Year)format,EndNotecanaddalettertotheyeartomakecitationsfromthesameauthorpublishedin
thesameyeardistinguishablefromeachother.Theletterappendedtotheyearwillappearinboththein-textcitationsandref-
erencesinthebibliography.
(Smith1995a)
(Smith1995b)
RelatedTopics:
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Modifying
Style
Templates
NumberingCitations
ThesettingsinthecitationNumberingpanelapplyonlywhen"BibliographyNumber"isusedintheCitation
Template
.This
createsuniquelynumberedcitationsinthetextofthepaper;thenumberscorrespondtoentriesinthebibliography.Forpapersfor-
mattedwithanumberedstyle,theseoptionsarerelevanttomultiplecitationsgroupedwithinonesetofcitationdelimiters
1
.
Whenunformatted,amultiplecitationlookslikethis:
{Keys,1998#93;Jen,1996#88;
UseNumberRangesforConsecutiveCitations
Whenthisoptionischecked,consecutivebibliographynumbersappearinginamultiplecitationarejoinedbyasinglehyphen,for
example:
…asshownbytheBerkeleystudiesconductedin19873-6and19891,7.
GroupedReferences
TheGroupedReferenceoptionallowsyoutocitewithonenumberanyreferencesthatalwaysappeartogetherinthepaperas
multiplecitations.Thecitationsarenotgiventheirownnumbers,butratheronenumberisusedbothinthetextandthebib-
liographytoidentifythewholegroupofcitations.Withthissetting,youalsohavetheoptiontospecifyhowthegroupedref-
erencesinthebibliographyshouldbeseparated.
Thisoptionshowsasemicolonandaspaceasaseparator:
1. McCormick,MP,GeophysicalResearchLetters(1999)15,907;
CompositeCitations
Withingroupedreferences,youcandifferentiateindividualcitationswithletters.
Todefineacompositecitation:
1. Selecttheboxto“Useletterstoseparategroupedreferences.”
2. Usethe“Presentlettersin”listtoselectLowercaseorUppercaseletters.
1
Delimitersarepunctuationmarksthatseparatesonetermorfield(oranypieceofdata)fromanother.Delimitersareusedinthecon-
textoftemporarycitationmarkers(thecurlybracesaredefaultdelimitersthatidentifythetemporarycitationsinthebodyofyourtext)
andtermlists.
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3. Selecttheappropriateletterformatforin-textformattedcitations.Theexamplesillustratehowlettersandnumbersappear
forconsecutivecitationsandranges.
l
(1a,1b),(1a,1b,2a-c)
Thenumberalwaysappearswithastand-aloneletterorwiththefirstletterofarange.Thisisthedefaultsetting.
l
(1a,b),(1a,b,2a-c)
Onlytheletterofthefirstcitationofthecompositeisprecededwiththenumber.
l
(1a,b),(1a,1b,2a-c)
Theletterofthefirstcitationofthecompositeisprecededwithanumber;additionallettersincludeanumberonlyifthere
couldbeambiguity.
l
(1a,1b),(1a,1b,2a-2c)
Lettersarealwaysprecededbyanumber.
4. Usethe“Precedeby”and“Followby”boxestoenteranycharacter(s)thatyouwanttosurroundtheletterinthebib-
liography.
RelatedTopics:
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Modifying
Style
Templates
CitationAuthorLists
IfthestyleyouareusingliststheauthornamesintheCitationtemplateoftheStylewindow,youcanusetheAuthorListoptions
(aswellastheAuthorNamespanel)tocontrolhowtheauthorsappearinyourin-textcitations.Ifyourcitationsdonotincludethe
authornames,ignoretheAuthorListpanel.
SeparatorsBetweenAuthorNames
Inthe"AuthorSeparators"box,enteranypunctuationandspacesthatseparatetheindividualauthornamesinacitation.Inref-
erenceswithmultipleauthors,itisstandardtoseparatethenameswithacommaandaspace.
l
Usethe"between"boxtoenteracommaandaspace,oranyotherrequiredpunctuation.
l
Inthe"beforelast"box,entertheseparatorthatappearsbeforethelastauthorinareference.Sometimesthisissomething
otherthanacommaandaspace,suchas",and"oranampersand(&)followedbyaspace.
l
Inthe"beforelastinformat:Author(Year)"box,entertheseparatorthatappearsbeforethelastauthorintheAuthor(Year)for-
mat.Thebehaviorofthisoptionisthesameasthe"beforelast"box.Thisallowsyoutomeetthespecificationsofsomestyles
thatrequiredifferentformatsdependingonwhethertheformatusedisthedefaultformatortheAuthor(Year)format.Byenter-
ingavalueinthisfield,youdonothavetoediteachofthecitations,references,orfootnotes.
NormallyonlythefirstrowintheAuthorSeparatorsboxisused(withtherangeofauthorssetat"1to100")sothattheseparators
inthatrowapplytoalloftheauthorscitedinareference.However,therearestylesinwhichtwoauthorsarelistedas"Smithand
Jones"(withoutacomma),andmorethantwoarelistedas"Smith,Jones,andJohnson"(withacommabeforetheword"and").
Inthiscase,make"and"the"Separatorbeforelastauthor"whenthereareonlytwoauthors;andenter",and"whenthereare3
ormoreauthors.
Note:Includespacesaftercommasaswellasbeforeandaftertheword"and".
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AbbreviatingtheAuthorList,FirstAppearance
Somejournalsrequirethatyouabbreviatethelistofauthors,using"etal."oranequivalent,afteracertainnumberofauthors.The
AbbreviatedAuthorListsectionoftheAuthorListspanelallowsyoutospecifythenumberofauthorsneededtotriggerthisabbre-
viation,howmanyauthorstoincludeintheformattedreference,andwhattheabbreviationshouldbe.
Listallauthornames
Selectthisoptionifyoudonotwanttoabbreviatetheauthorlists.
If___ormoreauthors,listthefirst___author(s)
Selectthisoptionandfillintheblankswiththeappropriatenumbersifyouwouldlikethelistofauthorsabbreviated.
andabbreviatewith
Enteranabbreviationsuchas",etal."Youcanitalicizetheabbreviationbyselectingthe"Italic"checkboxinthedialog.
AbbreviatingtheAuthorList,SubsequentAppearances
Insomebibliographicstyles,ifareferenceiscitedmorethanonceinyourpaperthefirstappearanceofitinanin-textcitationis
formatteddifferentlyfromsubsequentcitations.Forexample,thefirstcitationmightlistallauthors,whilesubsequentcitations
listonlythefirstauthorfollowedby"etal."
UsetheFirstAppearanceauthorlistsettingstospecifythewaytheauthorsappearthefirsttimethereferenceiscited.Usethe
SubsequentAppearancesoptionstoformatauthorsinallotherappearancesofthecitation.
RelatedTopics:
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Author
List
(Bibliography
and
Footnotes)
Citation
Author
Names
Modifying
Style
Templates
CitationAuthorNames
NameFormat
TheNameFormatsectionallowsyoutospecifyhowtheauthornamesshouldlook—whetherthefirstorlastnameshouldcome
first,andwhetherthereshouldbeacommaafterthelastname.
FirstAuthor/OtherAuthors:Usingthelistfor"FirstAuthor"and"OtherAuthors",youcanhavethefirstauthorappeardif-
ferentlyfromtheotherauthorsinareference.Fromtheselists,selecttheexamplethatshowsthenameintheorderthatyou
wouldlikeittobeinthecitation.Ifthein-textcitationsuseonlythelastname,thissettingisnotimportant.
Capitalization:Specifyhowyouwouldliketheauthornamestoappear.
l
AsIs  (asenteredinthereference)
l
Normal   (firstletterofeachnameiscapitalized)
l
ALLUPPERCASE
l
SmallCaps (thesemayormaynotbesupportedbyyourwordprocessor)
Ifyouapplyacapitalizationoptiontoauthornames,buthaveaspecificnamethatyoudonotwantchanged,youcanusethe
ChangeCasepreferencetoleavethatnameasentered.SeeChange
Case
Preferences
.
Initials:Selectfromtheavailableoptionsinthelisttospecifyhowtheinitialsshouldlookinthecitations.SelectLastOnlyifyou
onlyneedthelastnameoftheauthorstoappearinthecitations.
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"Useinitialsonlyforprimaryauthorswiththesamename"
Thisoptionallowsforinitialstobeusedonlywhenthereareprimaryauthorswiththesamelastnameincludedinthebibliography.
Regardlessofwhetherornottheresultingcitationsareambiguous(thatis,theycouldbefromdifferentyears),EndNotewilladd
theinitialstothosecitationstoclarifythattheyarefromdifferentauthorswhohappentohavethesamesurname.
ConsecutiveCitationsbytheSameAuthor
Ifamultiplecitationincludesworksbythesameauthor,somestylesrequestthatyounotrepeattheauthorname.Checktheset-
tingto"omitrepeatedauthors"andEndNotewillomittheauthornamefromthecitationafteritfirstappears.Inorderforthisset-
tingtobeused,thecitationsmustallbegroupedtogetherinamultiplecitation,andthecitationsbythesameauthormustappear
onerightaftertheother.
Forexample,areferencesuchasthis:
(Smith,1993;Smith,1999;Wyatt,2000)
wouldbechangedtolooklikethis:
(Smith,1993,1999;Wyatt,2000)
Youhavetheadditionaloptioninthiscasetochoosetheseparatortousebetweenthesecitations.Noticeintheexampleabove,
thestylenormallyusesasemicolontoseparatemultiplecitations.Butwhenthereareaseriesofcitationsbythesameauthor,
therepeatedauthornamesaredroppedandtheyearsareseparatedbycommas.Inthiscase,acommaandaspaceshouldbe
enteredasthepunctuationwithwhichtoseparatetheconsecutivecitationsbythesameauthor.
Ifyouhaveenteredcitationswithsuffixesandyouwouldlikethosecitationsexcludedfromthisformatting,check"Don’tomit
authorsfromcitationswithsuffixes.Forexample,iftworeferencesbythesameauthorincludedpagenumbers:
(Smith,1993p24;Smith,1999p5;Wyatt,2000)
somestylesrequestthatyoudoleavetheauthornameinthesecondcitationforclarity.
RelatedTopics:
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Author
Names
(Bibliography
and
Footnotes)
Citation
Author
Lists
Modifying
Style
Templates
AuthorLists(BibliographyandFootnotes)
TheAuthorListspanelsundertheBibliographyandFootnotesheadingsletyouspecifyexactlyhowtheauthorsaretoappearin
theformattedbibliographicreferencesorinyourfootnotes.Youcanformatauthornamesdifferentlyinthefootnotesandbib-
liography,sobesurethatyouchecktheAuthorListssettingsunderboththeBibliographyandtheFootnotesheadingstoadjust
settings.Thesettingsinthesepanelsapplytoallreferencetypesformattedwiththecurrentstyle.
SeparatorsBetweenAuthorNames
Inthe"AuthorSeparators"box,enteranypunctuationandspacesthatseparatetheindividualauthornamesinabibliographicref-
erence.Inreferenceswithmultipleauthors,itisstandardtoseparatethenameswithacommaandaspace.
l
Usethe"between"boxtoenteracommaandaspaceoranyotherrequiredpunctuation.
l
Usethe"beforelast"boxtoentertheseparatorthatappearsbeforethelastauthorinareference.Sometimesthisis
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somethingotherthanacommaandaspace,suchas",and"oranampersand(&)followedbyaspace.
l
Usethe"beforelastinformat:Author(Year)"boxtoentertheseparatorthatappearsbeforethelastauthorwhenusingthe
Author(Year)bibliographicformat.Byenteringavalueinthisbox,youdonothavetoediteachofthecitationsandfoot-
notes.
NormallyonlythefirstrowintheAuthorSeparatorsboxisused(withtherangeofauthorssetat"1to100")sothattheseparators
inthatrowapplytoalloftheauthorscitedinareference.However,therearestylesinwhichtwoauthorsarelistedas"Smithand
Jones"(withoutacomma),andmorethantwoarelistedas"Smith,Jones,andJohnson"(withacommabeforetheword"and").
Inthiscase,make"and"the"beforelast"separatorwhenthereareonlytwoauthors;andenter",and"whenthereare3ormore
authors.
Note:Includespacesaftercommasaswellasbeforeandaftertheword"and".
APA6thSettings
TheAPA
6th
settingsallowsyoutodisplaythefirstsixauthors(oreditors)followedbythetext(presetto“,...”)followedbythe
lastauthor(oreditor).Selecttheradiobuttonthatsays:
"Ifeightormoreauthors,listthefirst6authors,insert,...andaddthelastauthor'sname."
Whenthissettingisselected,itoverrideswhateversettingsareintheAuthorSeparatorsandEditorSeparatorssettingsatthe
topofthepanels.
Note:Thedefaultvalueis",..."Youcan,however,changethisvalue-forexample,youcansetthisvalueto"etal."orwhatever
styleyouchoose.
AbbreviatingtheAuthorList
Somejournalsrequirethatyouabbreviatethelistofauthors,using"etal."oranequivalent,afteracertainnumberofauthors.The
AbbreviatedAuthorListsectionoftheAuthorListpanelallowsyoutospecifythenumberofauthorsneededtotriggerthisabbre-
viation,howmanyauthorstoincludeintheformattedreference,andwhattheabbreviationshouldbe.
Listallauthornames
Selectthisoptionifyoudonotwanttoabbreviatetheauthorlists.
If___ormoreauthors,listthefirst___author(s)
Selectthisoptionandfillintheblankswiththeappropriatenumbersifyouwouldlikethelistofauthorsabbreviated.
andabbreviatewith
Enteranabbreviationsuchas"etal."Youcanitalicizetheabbreviationbyselectingthe"Italic"checkboxinthedialog.
ForSubsequentWorksbytheSameAuthor
Insomebibliographicstyles,ifathereismorethanoneworkbyanauthor(orgroupofauthors),thefirstappearanceofthatauthor
nameisformatteddifferentlyfromsubsequentworks.Forexample,thefirstreferencemightlistthefullauthorname,whilesub-
sequentreferencesdisplayalineofdashesinplaceoftheauthorname.
Youcanprinttheentireauthorlistforeachreference,completelyleaveouttheauthorlistforsubsequentworks,orreplace
repeatedauthorlistswithatextstring.
AbbreviatedAuthorList-ShortForm(forfootnotesonly)
Listallauthornames
Selectthisoptionifyoudonotwanttoabbreviatetheauthorlists.
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If___ormoreauthors,listthefirst___author(s)
Selectthisoptionandfillintheblankswiththeappropriatenumbersifyouwouldlikethelistofauthorsabbreviated.
andabbreviatewith
Enteranabbreviationsuchas "etal." Youcanitalicizetheabbreviationbyselectingthe"Italic"checkboxinthedialog.
WhenyouarefinisheddefiningyourshortformAuthorListsfootnotestyles:
1. FromtheFilemenu,clickSaveAs.
2. Giveyourupdatedsettingsaname(forexample,"MyChicago15thAuthorLists"),andthenclickSave.
RelatedTopics:
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Author
Names
(Bibliography
and
Footnotes)
Citation
Author
Lists
Modifying
Style
Templates
AuthorNames(BibliographyandFootnotes)
NameFormat
ThereisanAuthorNamespanelforbibliographiesandfootnotes,aswellasforcitations.Somestylesrequestthatauthornames
areformatteddifferentlyinallthreecases.BesurethatyouselecttheAuthorNamespanelfromundertheappropriateheading.
TheauthornamesformatforcitationsisdescribedinCitation
Author
Names
.Thistopicdescribestheoptionsthatareavailable
forboththefootnoteandbibliographyAuthorNamespanel.
Thesesettingsareforchoosinghowauthornamesshouldlook—forexample,whetherthefirstorlastnameshouldcomefirst,
whetherthereshouldbeacommaafterthelastname,andhowthenamesshouldbecapitalized.
FirstAuthor/OtherAuthors:UsingthelistforFirstAuthorandOtherAuthors,youcanhavethefirstauthorappeardifferently
fromtheotherauthorsinareference.Fromtheselists,selecttheexamplethatshowsthenameintheorderthatyouwantinthe
reference.
Capitalization:Specifyhowauthornamesshouldappear.
l
AsIs   (asenteredinthereference)
l
Normal   (firstletterofeachnameiscapitalized)
l
ALLUPPERCASE
l
SmallCaps(thesemayormaynotbesupportedbyyourwordprocessor)
Ifyouapplyacapitalizationoptiontoauthornames,buthaveaspecificnamethatyoudonotwantchanged,youcanusethe
ChangeCasepreferencetoleavethatnameasentered.SeeChange
Case
Preferences
.
Initials:Selectfromtheavailableoptionsinthelisttospecifyhowtheinitialsshouldappearintheformattedreferences.Click
theInitialslisttochoosehowtheauthors’firstandmiddlenamesshouldbeformatted.Ifyouhavenotenteredthefullfirstnames
andyouselecttheFullNamesoption,EndNoteusesthenamesasyouhaveenteredthemintothereference.SelectLastOnlyto
showjustthelastname,withnofirstormiddleinitials.
Note:InitialsenteredintoanEndNotereferencemustbeseparatedbyaperiodoraspace(suchasM.J.SteinorMJStein).
Twoletterstogether(suchasMJStein)willnotbeinterpretedastwoinitials,butinsteadasatwo-letterfirstname.
NameFormat-ShortForm
ThereisanAuthorNamespanelfordisplayingfootnotesinshortform.
FirstAuthor/OtherAuthors:UsingthelistforFirstAuthorandOtherAuthors,youcanhavethefirstauthorappeardifferently
fromtheotherauthorsinafootnote.Fromtheselists,selecttheexamplethatshowsthenameintheorderthatyouwantinthe
footnote.
l
JaneSmith
l
Smith,Jane
l
SmithJane
Capitalization:Specifyhowauthornamesshouldappear.Forexample:
l
AsIs
l
Normal
l
AllUppercase
l
SmallCaps
Initials:Selectfromtheavailableoptionsinthelisttospecifyhowtheinitialsshouldappearintheformattedfootnote.Forexam-
ple:
l
FullName
l
LastName
l
A.B.
l
A.B.
l
AB
l
AB
WhenyouarefinisheddefiningyourshortformAuthorNamefootnotestyles:
1.  FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs.
2. Giveyourupdatedsettingsaname(forexample,"MyChicago15thAuthors"),andthenclickSave.
RelatedTopics:
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Author
List
(Bibliography
and
Footnotes)
Citation
Author
Names
Modifying
Style
Templates
EditorListandEditorNames
Tospecifyhowtheeditors’namesaretobeformatted,selectEditorListorEditorNamefromundertheBibliographyorFootnote
heading.Inthosepanelsyouwillfindsomeofthesamesettingsthathavebeendescribedforformattingauthornames.
TheEditorListsettingsapplytothegenericSecondaryAuthor,TertiaryAuthor,andSubsidiaryAuthorfields.Thesefields
includes"Editor"intheBookSectionandConferenceProceedingsreferencetypes,and"SeriesEditor"intheBookandEdited
Bookreferencetypes.
TheinstructionsfortheEditorListpanelareidenticaltothosedescribedfortheAuthor
List
panel.Similarly,theNameFormat
optionsintheEditorNamepanelarethesameasthoseforAuthor
Names
.
"Editors"AreConsideredPrimaryAuthorsforEditedBookReferenceTypes
TheAuthorListandAuthorNamessettingsapplytotheprimaryauthorfieldofeachreferencetype.Therefore,AuthorListand
AuthorNamesapplytotheeditor’snameinanEditedBook.AndtheEditorListandEditorNamessettingsapplytotheSeries
Editor’snameinanEditedBookreferencetype.
NameFormat-ShortForm
Tospecifyhowtheeditors’namesandtheabbreviatededitors'listaretobeformattedinshortform,selectEditorListorEditor
NamefromundertheFootnoteheading.Inthosepanelsyouwillfindsomeofthesamesettingsthathavebeendescribedforfor-
mattingauthornames.
Usethemenustoselecthowyouwanttoformatthefollowinginfootnotes:
l
Firstauthor
l
Otherauthors
l
Capitalization
l
Initials
WhenyouarefinisheddefiningyourshortformEditorName/EditorListsfootnotestyles:
1.  FromtheFilemenu,selectSaveAs.
2. Giveyourupdatedsettingsaname(forexample,"MyChicago15thEditors"),andthenclickSave.
RelatedTopics:
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Modifying
Style
Templates
BibliographyLayout
UndertheBibliographyheadingthereisaLayoutoptionthatprovidesoptionsforinsertingtextbeforeandaftereachreferencein
abibliography,aswellasapplyinghangingindentstoyourreferences.
AddingTextBeforeEachReference
Inthe"Starteachreferencewith"section,youcanspecifywhatinformation,ifany,shouldappearbeforeeachreferenceinyour
bibliography.(Forinformationonhowtoaddaprefixbeforeacitation,seeTemporary
Citations
).
Acommonreferenceprefixisthebibliographynumber,whichisusedbyallnumberedstylestonumberthereferencesinabib-
liography.
Toaddabibliographynumberbeforeeachreference:
1. OpentheStyleManagerbyselectingOutputStylesfromtheEditmenu,andthenselectingOpenStyleManager.
2. Selectthestylethatyouwouldliketoedit,andthenclickEdit.
3. AftertheStylewindowopens,selectLayoutfromundertheBibliographyheading.
4. Clickinthetextboxbelowthe"Starteachreferencewith"section,andselectBibliographyNumberfromtheInsertField
list.
5. Typethenecessarypunctuationafterthebibliographynumber(suchasaperiodandaspace)orinsertatabfromtheInsert
Fieldlist.
Withastyleconfiguredinthisway,EndNotecreatesabibliographywithnumberedreferences,suchas:
1. Argus,M.V.NewpaleontologicalexcavationtechniquesNature19,234-237(1993).
Note:Tocreateahangingindent,wherethesecondandsubsequentlinesofareferenceareindented,seeHanging
Indents
below.
OtherReferencePrefixFields
OthercommonlyusedreferenceprefixesappearintheInsertFieldlist.
SomebibliographicstylesuseaLabelinthecitationandthebibliographytorefertoeachentrywithashortmnemoniccode,often
theauthor’snameandthelasttwodigitsoftheyear.Whenyouenterreferencesintoyourlibrary,youcantypethemnemonic
codedirectlyintotheLabelfield.WhenEndNotebuildsabibliography,itcanputthatcodebeforeeachreference.
SelectingCitationasareferenceprefixallowsyoutolabelthereferencesinthebibliographywiththein-textcitation.
ReferenceTypewillinsertthereferencetype(suchasJournalArticleorBook)beforeeachreference.
RecordNumberwillinserttherecordnumberbeforeeachreference.TherecordnumberisthenumberthatEndNoteassignsto
eachreferenceinthelibrary,anditisalsousedinthein-textcitations.AddRecordNumberasareferenceprefixinanystylein
ordertoprintallthereferencesinyourlibrarywiththeiruniqueEndNoterecordnumbers.
AddingTextAfterEachReference
Usethe"Endeachreferencewith"sectionoftheLayoutpaneltospecifywhatinformation,ifany,shouldfolloweachreferencein
yourbibliography.(Forinformationonhowtoaddtextafteranin-textcitationinyourdocument,seeCitation
Suffixes
).
ThiscommandcanbeusedtoaddthecontentoftheLabel,Keywords,Abstract,orNotesfield,ortheRecordNumber.Anyother
textorpunctuationcanalsobeenteredasareferencesuffixanditwillappearattheendofeachreferenceintheformattedbib-
liography.TwocommonusesfortheReferenceSuffixcommandareshownbelow.
Example:AddingNotestotheBibliography
Ifyouhavenotesthatyouwanttoprinttogetherwithyourreferences,youshouldaddtheNotesfieldasareferencesuffixinthe
stylethatyouareusingtoprintorformatthereferences.
1. OpentheStyleManagerbyselectingOutputStylesfromtheEditmenuandselectingOpenStyleManager.
2. Selectthestylethatyouwouldliketoedit,andclickEdit.
3. AftertheStylewindowopens,selectLayoutfromundertheBibliographyheading.
4. Clickinthetextboxbelowthe"Endeachreferencewith"section,andselectNotesfromtheInsertFieldlist.Thiswill
appendtheNotesfieldtoeveryreferenceinthebibliographywhenyouformatapaperwiththestyle.
Ifyouwantthenotestobeginonanewlineafterthereference,insertaparagraphmarkfromtheInsertFieldlistbefore"Notes."If
youwantthenotestobeindented,likethestartofanewparagraph,insertaTabbeforetheword"Notes."
AddingorRemovingBlankLinesBetweenReferences
AnothercommonusefortheLayoutoptionsistoaddablanklinebetweenreferences.Todothis,editthestyleasdescribed
above,andinsertaparagraphmark(usingtheInsertFieldlist)intothe"Endeachreferencewith"section.
Totightenupthebibliographyandgetridoftheblanklineaftereachreference,editthestyle,clickontheLayoutpanel,and
selectanddeletetheparagraphmark(¶)togetridoftheblankline.
HangingIndents
Manynumberedbibliographicstylesrequireahangingindent,asshowninthisexample:
1. Postma,
2. Nyamweru,
EndNoteprovidesafewhangingindentoptions.Normally,eachreferenceisoneparagraph,sosomeoftheseoptionswouldnot
apply.Butifyouhaveareferencethatincludesmorethanoneparagraph,EndNotegivesyouoptionsforwhichparagraphwithin
areferencethehangingindentsshouldapply.Examplesofmulti-paragraphreferencesincludeannotatedbibliographieswherethe
abstractsfolloweachreference,orastylesuchasthosecommoninanthropologyjournalswheretheauthorsareonalineoftheir
own
Hangingindentoptionsinclude:None,AllParagraphs,FirstParagraphOnly,SecondParagraphOnly,andAllParagraphsbutthe
First.ThefollowingisanexampleofwhenyouwoulduseSecondParagraphOnly.Thestylerequiresthatauthorsbeginonthe
leftmargin,andthentheyear(andtherestofthereference)startsonanewlineandisindented.Thestyleappliesahanging
indenttothesecondparagraphonly,andinsertsatabbeforeandaftertheyear.Inthewordprocessingdocument,thespacingfor
thehangingindentshouldbealignedwiththesecondtabstop.
Curtis,
Thespacingusedfortabsandindentsisdeterminedbytherulersettingsinyourwordprocessor.
Note:Ifyouarecreatinganumberedbibliography,asshowninthepreviousexample,insertatabafterthebibliographynumber
tohavethereferenceslineupcorrectly.
Tabs
TabsmaybeinsertedfromtheInsertFieldlist.Atabenteredintoastylewillappearasatabintheformattedbibliography.The
tabappearsasanarrowonthescreen.Thewidthofthetabasitappearsinthebibliographyisdeterminedbythetabsettingsin
yourwordprocessor.
TabsareoftenenteredafterthebibliographynumberaspartoftheLayoutsettings.Thishelpstoalignthestartofeachreference
afterthenumber,whichisespeciallyimportantifthebibliographyentriesuseahangingindent.
RelatedTopics:
Additional
Style
Formatting
Options
Modifying
Style
Templates
SortOrder:BibliographiesandMultipleCitations
Eachstylehasinstructionsforsortingreferencesinthebibliography,andhowtosortformattedmultiplecitationsinthetextof
yourpaper.SelectSortOrderfromundereithertheCitationsorBibliographiesheadings.
MultipleCitationSort
TheSortpanelundertheCitationheadingallowsyoutosettheorderthatthestyleusestosortmultiplein-textcitations.For
example,anunformattedmultiplecitationlookslikethis:
{Lee,1990#5;Jacob,1994#22;Zoler,1983#19}
FormattedwiththeAuthor-Datestyle,thecitationsaresortedchronologicallyandtheformattedcitationlookslikethis:
(Zoler1983;Lee1990;Jacob1994)
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