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CGDK: An extensible CorelDRAW VBA program for geological drafting
Jun-Ting Qiu
a,b,
n
,Wan-Jiao Song
b
,Cheng-Xin Jiang
b
,Han Wu
c
,Raymond M. Dong
d
aChinaUniversityofGeosciences,Beijing100083,China
b
SchooloftheEarthSciencesandResources,ChinaUniversityofGeosciences,Beijing100083,China
cGeologicalLabCenter,ChinaUniversityofGeosciences,Beijing100083,China
d
UniversityofChicago,Chicago,IL60637,UnitedStates
ar t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received20October2011
Receivedinrevisedform
12July2012
Accepted13July2012
Availableonline5August2012
Keywords:
VBA
CorelDRAW
Excel
Software
CGDK
Geologicaldrafting
ab s t r a c t
CorelGeologicalDraftingKit(CGDK),aprogramwrittenin VBA,hasbeendesignedtoassistgeologists
andgeochemistswith theirdraftingwork.Itobtainsgeological datafromarunningExcel application
directly,and usesthedatatoplotgeochemicaldiagramsandtoconstructstratigraphiccolumns.The
softwarealsocontainsfunctionsforcreatingstereographicprojectionsandrosediagrams,whichcanbe
used for spatialanalysis,onacalibratedgeologicalmap.Theuser-friendlyprogramhasbeentestedto
workwith CorelDRAW13–14–15andExcel 2003–2007.
&2012 Elsevier Ltd.Allrightsreserved.
1. Introduction
CorelDRAW
TM
Graphic Suite is a graphic software package
producedbytheCanadianCorelCorporationthatprovidespower-
ful tools for drawing geological maps, geological profiles, cross
sections,andstratigraphiccolumns. Although CorelDRAW is one
of the most widely used graphic applications in geology, it has
several shortcomings. For example, when constructing a strati-
graphic column, the user must draw, reposition, resize, and fill
shapes manually, which is both time consuming and inaccurate.
Additionally, because CorelDRAW does not provide features for
plottingdiagrams,usersmustplotdiagramsinMicrosoftExcel
TM
orsomeotherstatisticalsoftwarefirstbeforecopyingandpasting
thediagrams toCorelDRAWformodification.Althoughtheabove
method is widely used, the diagrams moved from Excel to
CorelDRAW
usually contain many redundant or duplicative
shapes and lines, which must be removed before adding com-
ments and explanations tothediagram.
In order toimprove the efficiency andconvenience of geolo-
gicaldrafting,this paperpresents anextensibleCorelDRAWVBA
program, CorelGeologicalDrafting Kit(CGDK) for geologistsand
geochemists. The main functions of CGDK include calibrating
geological maps, creating stereographic projections and rose
diagrams, constructing stratigraphic columns and plotting geo-
chemicaldiagrams. The details ofCGDKandseveralexamplesof
the programarepresentedinthis paper.
2. Features ofCGDK
2.1. Installation
An executablefile named‘‘setup.exe’’is providedforsoftware
installation(Fig.1a).Bydouble-clickingonthisfile,usersstartan
installation procedure in which initially an environment test is
performedautomatically tocheckwhetherthecomputercanrun
the software.
CGDKrequiresCorelDRAW13orlaterandExcel2003or2007
tobeinstalledonusers’computer.Iftheserequirementsaremet,
the test will pass and a green text message will appear in the
lower-left corner of the ‘‘Deploy’’ window (Fig. 1b). Also, the
‘‘Install’’buttonwillbecomeclickable.
After clicking on the ‘‘Install’’ button (Fig. 1b), the program
beginstodeploythesoftwarefiles.Afewsecondslater,amessage
box will pop up to inform the user of successful deployment
(Fig.1c) and a toolbarwith 12 buttons named‘‘CorelGeological
Drafting Kit’’ willbe added in the active CorelDRAWworkspace
(Fig.1d).Thewholeprocedure willbecompletedafterrestarting
the operating CorelDRAWapplication.
2.2. Acquiring datafromarunning Excel application
CGDKsupportsdataacquisitionfromarunning Excelapplica-
tion.Theacquisitionprocedurecanbeperformedbyfirstclicking
on the ‘‘Data input’’ button (Fig. 2a) to open or activate an
Excel file, then specifying a data range in an Excel spreadsheet
(Fig.2b),andfinallyaddingthisrangetoCGDKby clickingonthe
Contentslistsavailable atSciVerseScienceDirect
journal homepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/cageo
Computers & Geosciences
0098-3004/$-seefrontmatter&2012ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2012.07.020
n
Correspondingauthor.Tel.: þ8615901022978;fax: þ861082326956.
E-mailaddress:midimyself@126.com(J.-T.Qiu).
Computers&Geosciences51(2013)34–48
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Fig.1. CGDKinstallation.(a) ) Setup.exe.(b)Deploywindow.(c)Messageboxthatinformsusersofsuccessfulinstallation.(d) CGDKtoolbar.ButtonsdisplayedinCGDK
toolbar(fromlefttoright)are‘‘Calibratemap’’,‘‘ShowGPS’’,‘‘Plotonmap’’,‘‘Moveto’’,‘‘Drawprojection’’,‘‘Commontool’’,‘‘Stratigraphic column’’,‘‘Templatedesigner’’,
‘‘Geochemicaldiagram’’,‘‘Serieseditor’’,‘‘Templatemanager’’,and‘‘About’’.
Fig. 2.Acquiring Data from m Excel. (a) The ‘‘Data input’’ button, whichisshown as anExcelicon(left) ) is coupled witha‘‘Datadelete’’ button(right). (b) An Excel
spreadsheet.(c)Confirmationbox.(d)Theaddressofthedatarangeisdisplayedinthetextbox,indicatingthatthedatahavebeenaddedsuccessfully.(e)Theaddressof
thedatarangeiscleared bytheprogram,indicatingthedatahavebeenremoved.
J-TQiuetal./Computers&Geosciences51(2013)34–48
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‘‘OK’’ button located in upper-left corner of the screen (Fig.2c).
Oncearangeisadded,itsaddresswillbeautomaticallydisplayed
in the textbox on the left side of the ‘‘Data input’’ button,
indicatingthatthedatahave beenaddedsuccessfully (Fig.2d).
The ‘‘Data input’’ button is always coupled with a ‘‘Data
delete’’ buttonon its rightside.By clicking on the ‘‘Data delete’’
button, a selected range will be removed from CGDK and the
address of the selected range will be cleared by the program
(Fig.2e).
2.3. Featuresdesignedforgeochemistry
Geochemicaldiagrams are basic and convenient geochemical
analysis tools, helping geochemists classify rock types (e.g., Le
Maitre, 1976; Herron, 1988; Frost et al., 2001; Frost and Frost,
2008),studycrustalevolution(e.g.,Taylor and McLennan, 1995;
Rollinson, 2008),distinguishbetweendifferent tectonicsettings
(e.g.,PearceandCann,1971,1973;PearceandGale,1977;Wood,
1980; Brown etal., 1984; Pearce et al., 1984),andinterpret the
provenanceofsediments(e.g.,Belousovaetal.,2002).Particularly
valuable is the ability to plot data onto an existing diagram or
template(e.g.,MacDonaldandKatsura,1964;Kuno,1966;Irvine
and Baragar, 1971), so o users s can n compare e their r work k with
previous works and interpret their own data based on a larger
numberof statisticalresults.
CGDKoffers three main categories of templates: X–Y scatter
plots, triangularplots,and‘‘spider’’ plots.Each category contains
aseriesoftemplates,suchasthetotalalkalis-silica(TAS)diagram,
Alkalis-FeO
n
-MgO (AFM) diagram, and the primitive mantle
normalizeddiagram. A ‘‘Template manager’’ toolis available for
template management. References for the templates offered by
CGDKarelistedinAppendixA1.
Besides the templates offeredby CGDK,newtemplates canbe
easily developed using the ‘‘Template designer’’ tool, which
provides a series of features for theestablishment of atemplate
coordinatesystem, andforthe creationof templateelements.
2.3.1. Savingand loadinga template
AdiagramtemplateisagroupofCorelDRAWstandardshapes,
which are easy tomodify but difficultto manage. The manage-
ment difficulty arises in distinguishing a specific template from
Fig.3. Savingandloadingatemplate.(a)CGDKtoolbarwiththe‘‘Templatemanager’’buttonhighlighted.(b)The‘‘Templatemanager’’window.(c)Aselectionareawhich
containsallthetemplateelements.(d)The‘‘Savetemplate’’window,inwhichusersenterthenameanddescriptionforatemplate.(e)Selectatemplatefromthetemplate
list.(f)PlacethetemplateonCorelDRAWpage.
J-TQiuetal./Computers&Geosciences51(2013)34–48
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another. CGDK solves this problem by offering a ‘‘Template
manager’’tool,whichdivides thetemplatesintodifferentgroups
by category and purpose. A name list is available for users to
browse, and an information box is offered to display template
descriptions.
The ‘‘Template manager’’ window can be opened by clicking
onthe‘‘Template manager’’button intheCGDKtoolbar(Fig.3a).
Atemplategroupcanthenbeselectedfromthedrop-downlistat
thetopofthe‘‘Templatemanager’’window(Fig.3b).Ifusersneed
tosaveatemplate,theymustspecifyarectangleselectionareaon
the CorelDRAW page that contains all the template elements
(Fig.3c)andclickonthe‘‘Save’’button(Fig.3b)toshowthe‘‘Save
template’’ window (Fig. 3d) where the template name and the
description can be added. After inputting the name and the
description, users must click on the ‘‘Save’’ button in the ‘‘Save
template’’windowtofinish theprocedure(Fig.3d).
Users can alsoloada template by selecting one from the list
box and clicking on the ‘‘Load’’ button (Fig. 3e). After the
operation,themouse cursor changesintoa cross,indicating that
the program is ready for users to locate the template. By left
clicking on a CorelDRAW page, users can place the template on
thepage (Fig.3f).
2.3.2. Plottinga geochemical diagramwithatemplate
Once a diagram template has been placed on a CorelDRAW
page,the firststepincreatingaplotistoclick onthe‘‘Geochem-
ical diagram’’ button in the CGDK toolbar (Fig. 4a) to open the
‘‘Plot geochemistry diagram’’ window (Fig. 4b). The ‘‘Plot geo-
chemistry diagram’’ window, whose components change with
each template category, has the ability to distinguish between
differentcategories oftemplates.
Afteropeningthe‘‘Plotgeochemistrydiagram’’window,adata
acquisitionprocedureisrequired.Themethodofaddingdatahas
been describedinSection2.2, whilethe examples of data series
used to create differentcategories of diagrams are displayed in
Fig. 5.TriangulardiagramsneedthreeseriesofdatafortheTop,
Left, and Right axes (Fig.5a), X–Y scatter diagrams require two
seriesofdata fortheX and Yaxes (Fig.5b),and spiderdiagrams
need only one data series for the Y axes. For spider diagrams,
usersmustspecify whethertheYvaluesarearrangedincolumns
(Fig.5c)orinrows(Fig.5d)byselectingthecorrespondingoption
buttoninthe‘‘Plotgeochemistry diagram’’ window.
Afterinputtingtheentiredataseries forasample,usersmust
click on the ‘‘Add’’ button toadd the currentsample series into
CGDKseries list(Fig.4b). Usually, severalseries of samples may
beadded,soitisrecommendedtoenteranameforidentification
before adding the series to the list. Finally, users click on the
‘‘Plot’’ (Fig. 4b) button to create a geochemical diagram. The
resultsareshown inFig.5e.
2.3.3. Customizinga sampleseries
Inadefaultsituation,thedatapoints inonesampleseriesare
represented by rectangles and organized in a CorelDRAWshape
group object(Fig.6a). The filling color, border width, line style,
andtextfontofthesedatapointscanbe easilymodifiedbyusing
the tools offered by CorelDRAW. Additionally, CGDK provides a
‘‘Series editor’’ tool to automatically replace rectangles with
custom symbols. By clicking on the ‘‘Series editor’’ button
(Fig.6b) in theCGDKtoolbar,users can open the‘‘Series editor’’
window(Fig.6c).Before replacing data,users mustseta custom
symbolbyselectingone(Fig.6d)andclickingonthe‘‘Setsymbol’’
buttonlocatedinthe‘‘Serieseditor’’window(Fig.6c).Toperform
Fig.4. Plottingageochemicaldiagram.(a)CGDKtoolbarwiththe‘‘Geochemicaldiagram’’buttonhighlighted.(b)The‘‘Plotgeochemistrydiagram’’window,inwhichusers
inputthedataseriesforplottingadiagram.
J-TQiuetal./Computers&Geosciences51(2013)34–48
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the replacement,users mustselectasample series desiredtobe
replaced (Fig. 6e) and click on the ‘‘Replace’’ button (Fig. 6c).
The resultis shown inFig.6f.
2.3.4. Creatinga new template
Although several templates are available for geochemical
analysis, new ones can be supplemented to handle additional
geochemicalproblems.
Usually,a geochemicaldiagramcontains aframethatdefines
diagramsize,acoordinatesystem,andgraphicelements,suchas
axes, classification lines, data points, and labels. The frame and
labels canbe createdby usingthetools providedby CorelDRAW,
whereas other elements, including the coordinate system, axes,
classification lines,and data points mustbe created with‘‘Tem-
plate designer’’tool.
The ‘‘Templatedesigner’’ windowconsists of three pages: (1)
Coordinate, (2) Axis, and (3) Marks. Users can switch between
different pages by clicking on the buttons at the top of the
‘‘Templatedesigner’’window.Onceaframeis selected,acalibra-
tionprocedurecanbe performedby clicking onthe‘‘Coordinate’’
buttonanddefiningtheboundaryvalues.Thetriangulartemplate
requiresnoboundaryvalue,theX–Yscatterdiagramrequiresfour
values for the left, right, top, and bottom boundaries, and the
spider diagram requires two values for the top and bottom
boundaries as well as a series of data obtained from Excel for
the normalizing values. After calibration, axes can be added by
clickingonthe‘‘Axis’’buttonanddefiningtheaxisintervalvalues
in the textbox where commas are employed to separate the
values.The classification lines and datamarks can be defined in
the‘‘Marks’’page.Themethodofcreatingclassification linesand
marks issimilar tothatof creating axis.
The following example shows howtocreatea TAS (LeMaitre
et al., 1989) template e with the ‘‘Template designer’’tool. First,
click on the ‘‘Template designer’’ button (Fig. 7a) to open the
‘‘Templatedesigner’’windowandchooseadiagramtype(Fig.7b)
from the drop-down list at the top of the ‘‘Template designer’’
window. Here, the second option ‘‘Scatter diagram’’ should be
selected since TAS is an X–Y scatter diagram. Then, create a
template frame by drawing a rectangle on a CorelDRAW page
(Fig.7c),buildupthecoordinatesystemfortheframebydefining
the left, right, top, and bottom values in the textboxes in the
‘‘Template designer’’ window (Fig. 7b), and click on the ‘‘Estab-
lish’’ button (Fig.7b). Next, click on the ‘‘Axis’’ button (Fig.7d),
enterintervalvaluesinX-axisandY-axistextboxesusingcommas
to separate each number, and click on the ‘‘Draw axis’’ button
(Fig.7d). Finally, click on the ‘‘Marks’’ button, inputthe coordi-
natesofeachturningnodeofaclassificationline,andclick onthe
‘‘Drawcurve’’button(Fig.7e).Fig.7fshowstherelevantinforma-
tionthathasbeenaddedforthecreationoftheclassificationlines
in a TAS diagram. Users can also employ the tools offered by
CorelDRAWtoadd labels tothetemplate(Fig.7g).
In addition,CGDKprovides alternativewaystocreatea diagram
template.Forexample,itallowsuserstodeveloptemplateswithbmp
Fig.5.ExamplesofgeochemicaldiagramsplottedbyCGDK.(a)Dataseriesforplottingatriangulardiagram.(b)DataseriesforplottinganX–Yscatterdiagram.(c)and
(d)Dataseriesforplottingaspiderdiagram.(e)Theoutputsofgeochemicaldiagrams.
J-TQiuetal./Computers&Geosciences51(2013)34–48
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Ga/Alvs.Nbtemplate:
First,copya.bmpimagefromanarticle(e.g.,Wongetal.,2009)
and paste it to CorelDRAW (Fig. 8a). To calibrate the template,
first draw a frame whose left, right, top, and bottom borders
overlap with the original grid lines (Fig. 8a). Next, open the
‘‘Template designer’’ window, choose a diagram type, input the
left, right, top, and bottom values according to the overlapped
grid lines, and click on the ‘‘Establish’’ button (Fig.8b). Finally,
hidetheframeanduse‘‘Templatemanager’’tosavethetemplate
(Fig.8c).
The method of creating a template with a.bmp image is less
time consuming than the former method since an existent
diagramis used as a background as opposedtohaving tocreate
thegraphic elements, but depends on the availability of a high-
resolution.bmpimage. In ordertocheck the accuracy of plotting
onthetemplate createdby this method,the geochemicaldata of
Baijuhuajian granite (Wong et al.,2009) has been re-plotted on
this template. The new plotted data points representedby stars
overlap the original data points marked by rectangles. Fig. 8d
displays the results and indicates that the calibration of the
template is accurate.
2.4. Featuresdesigned forstratigraphy
Stratigraphic columns are widely used for stratigraphic unit
division and comparison (e.g.,Vogeletal.,1998;Michelsenand
Clausen,2002;Vilasetal.,2003).Theycanalsobeusedtoreflect
thechangingdepositionenvironment(e.g.,WeissheimerdeBorba
et al., 2004). Insomecases,elementsof astratigraphic c column
canbedrawnby rectanglesandfilledwithspecifiedpatternsand
symbols that represent different rock types. The height of a
rectangle normally represents thickness of a rock layer (Miall,
1984; Tucker, 1988), while the width normally y represents s the
average grainsize ofthe layer (KrumbeinandSloss,1963).
In modern stratigraphic studies, other types of columns and
diagrams, suchas magnetostratigraphiccolumns,magnetostrati-
graphicdiagrams, chronostratigraphiccolumns,elementconcen-
tration diagrams, and temperature change diagrams are also
Fig.6.Customizingaseries.(a)UsetoolsofferedbyCorelDRAWtocustomizedatapoints.(b) CGDKtoolbarwiththe‘‘Serieseditor’’buttonhighlighted.(c)The‘‘Series
editor’’window. (d)Selectalegendsymbol.(e)Selectthesampleseriesdesiredtobereplaced.(f)Therectanglesarereplacedwithstars.
J-TQiuetal./Computers&Geosciences51(2013)34–48
39
providedalongwithstratigraphiccolumns(e.g.,Cirillietal.,2009;
Glenetal.,2009).
2.4.1. Drawinga stratigraphiccolumn
During the process of creating a stratigraphic column, CGDK
firstreadsthethicknessandgrainsizedataandcreatesrectangles
with different heights and widths before trying to fill each
rectangle based on its lithology. A rectangle whose lithology is
notregisteredwillautomaticallybeunfilledby theprogram.The
lithology registration can be done in the ‘‘Lithology’’ window
wherethere aretwolistboxes.Therightlistbox displays allthe
lithologies thathave beenregisteredin the previouswork,while
the leftlistbox displaysthe lithologiesoftherectangles thatare
going to be filled. Registered lithologies in the left list box are
marked so they can be distinguished from the unregistered
lithologies. To perform a registration, choose an unregistered
lithology fromthe left list box,select a legend shape filled with
thedesiredcolorsorpatternsfromtheCorelDRAWpage,andclick
on the ‘‘Set’’ button. The registered lithology will be stored by
CGDKforfutureuse.
The following example shows the instructions for creating a
stratigraphiccolumn:
First, click on the‘‘Stratigraphiccolumn’’ buttoninthe CGDK
toolbar (Fig. 9a) to show the ‘‘Draw stratigraphic columns’’
window(Fig.9b).Then,getthethickness,grainsizeandlithology
datafromanExcelfile(Fig.9b).Next,clickonthe‘‘Setlithology’’
button(Fig.9b) toshowthe‘‘Lithology’’window(Fig.9c).Choose
an unregisteredlithology fromthe leftlistbox (Fig.9c), selecta
legendshapefromtheCorelDRAWpage(Fig.9d),andclickonthe
‘‘Set’’button(Fig.9c).Afteralllegendshavebeenregistered,click
onthe‘‘OK’’button(Fig.9c).Next,drawarectanglewhoseheight
represents the total thickness of all layers and whose width
stands forthe maximumgrainsize ofalllayers (Fig.9e).Finally,
click on the ‘‘Draw’’ button (Fig. 9b) to build the stratigraphic
column(Fig.9e).
2.4.2. Drawing othercolumns
Besides stratigraphic columns, CGDK provides three other
categories of columns, including the polyline, smooth line, and
magnetostratigraphiccolumns. Users can choose a column type
from the drop-down list at the top of ‘‘Draw stratigraphic
columns’’window(Fig.10a).
Thepolyline(Fig.10b) andthesmoothline(Fig.10c) columns
needtwodataseries for‘‘Thicknesses’’and‘‘X values’’,wherethe
‘‘X’’ may represent grain size,elementconcentration,oranother
feature of a layer. For example, if ‘‘X’’ stands for grain size, the
columnscanbeusedtoreflectthesealevelchangeduringperiods
ofdepositionformation (Nørgaard-Pedersenetal.,2006).
Fig.7. Creatingatemplate.(a) ) The‘‘Templatedesigner’’ buttoninCGDKtoolbar.(b)The‘‘Templatedesigner’’window.(c)Drawarectangle. (d) Createaxisintervals.
(e)Createtheclassificationlines.(f)RelevantinformationthathasbeenaddedontheTAStemplate(g)UsetexttoolsprovidedbyCorelDRAWtoaddlabelstothetemplate.
J-TQiuetal./Computers&Geosciences51(2013)34–48
40
Themagnetostratigraphiccolumn(Fig.10d)requirestwodata
seriesforthethicknessesandpolarities.Themethodofcreatinga
magnetostratigraphic column is similar to that of building a
stratigraphiccolumnas described inSection2.4.1.
2.4.3. Drawingdiagrams
In Sections 2.3.2 and d 2.3.4 we introduced the methods for
creating templates andplotting geochemicaldiagrams,andthese
methods can also be used to create diagrams for stratigraphic
analysis.ThefollowingexampleshowshowtocreateaTOC(Total
OrganicCarbon) vs.depthdiagram.
First,duplicatetherectangle thathas beenusedforcreating a
stratigraphic column (Fig. 11a). Then, open the ‘‘Template
designer’’window,choose‘‘Scatterdiagram’’fromthedrop-down
list, inputthe left,right, bottomand,topvalues,andclickonthe
‘‘Establish’’button (Fig.11b).
Next,openthe‘‘Plotgeochemicaldiagram’’window(Fig.11c),
enter the X and Y values (Fig. 11c and d), click on the ‘‘Add’’
button,selectthe‘‘Drawconnectingcurve’’checkbox,andclickon
the‘‘Plot’’buttontodrawthediagram(Fig.11a).
Insomestudies(e.g.,Braultetal.,2004;MazumderandSarkar,
2004),rosediagramsareusedtoindicatepaleocurrentdirections.
Aseriesofrosediagramsalongwithastratigraphiccolumnreflect
changesofpaleocurrentdirectionsthroughtime(Fig.11e),which
is significantforbasin analysis.The rose diagramcan be created
byCGDK,andthemethodologywillbedescribedinSection2.5.2.
2.5. Features designed forfield geology
2.5.1. Convenient tools forfillingshapesand areas
A geological map is used to show geological features of an
area. Rock types and stratigraphic units are shown in different
colors, patterns and symbols toindicatewherethey are exposed
inthe area.
CorelDRAWprovides severalwidely usedtools,such as burette
andpaintbarreltocopyandassignfillingandoutlinestylesfroma
legendtoa specified shapeor area.In somecases, however,users
must flip between burette and paint barrel frequently, which is
bothtedious andinconvenient.CGDKprovides asmartfilling tool
tosolvethisproblem.Thetoolcanmemorizethefillingandoutline
stylesofalegendwhen leftclickingonthelegendwiththe ‘‘Shift’’
key pressed, andcan assign the rememberedstyles toa specified
shape or area when clicking on the area with the ‘‘Shift’’ key
released. Thefollowing example showsthe procedure:
First,clickonthe‘‘Commontool’’buttontoopenthe‘‘Common
tools’’window(Fig.12a) where therearetwooptions(‘‘Fill’’and
‘‘Outline’’).Withthefirstoption(‘‘Fill’’)selected,theprogramfills
the specified area with the memorized fill style, and with the
second option (‘‘Outline’’) selected, theprogramassigns the out-
line style to the specified shape. Then, click on the ‘‘Smartfill’’
button (Fig.12b). Next, click on a legend shape withthe ‘‘Shift’’
keypressed(Fig.12c).Finally,clickonanareawiththe‘‘Shift’’key
released to assign the memorized style to the area (Fig. 12d).
Continueclickingontheareasdesiredtobefilled(Fig.12e)before
pressing ‘‘ESC’’key toendtheprocedure.
Notonly canthe‘‘Smartfilling’’toolbeusedtofillshapes,but
itcanalsobeusedtomodifygeologicalboundaries,suchasfaults
andunconformities(Fig.12f).
2.5.2. Creating stereographic projectionsand rosediagrams
Stereographic projections and rose diagrams are important
toolsforstructuralanalysis.Thestereographicdiagramsofjoints,
faults,folds,andcleavages along witha geologicalmaphelp the
user determine the stress field of an area (e.g., Whitaker and
Engelder, 2005). Rose diagrams s of f bedding g orientations s and
pebbles reflect paleocurrentdirections (e.g.,Franksetal.,1959)
and can thus be used to interpret the evolution of basins and
orogenicbelts(e.g.,Maejimaetal.,2004).
Fig.8. DevelopingatemplatewithaBMPpicture. . (a)CopyaBMP picturefrom anarticleanddrawarectangle.(b)Inputthecoordinateinformationofthetemplate.
(c) Hide therectangleand save thetemplate with‘‘Template manager’’. . (d) The geochemical data of Baijuhuajian granite are re-plotted d on the template and d are
representedbyredstarsthatoverlaptheoriginaldatapoints,indicatinganaccuratecalibrationofthetemplate.
J-TQiuetal./Computers&Geosciences51(2013)34–48
41
To create a stereographic projection or rose diagram with
CGDK,users needtofollowthe steps below:
Click on the ‘‘Draw projection’’ button (Fig.13a) toopen the
‘‘Projection & diagram’’ window, obtain azimuth and dip data
from an Excel file (Fig. 13b), and draw a circle (Fig. 13c). If a
stereographicprojection is tobecreated, users mustspecify the
type of structure (planar or linear) (Fig.13b), whereas if a rose
diagram is to be created, users must define the type (strike,
azimuth or dip) of rose diagramby selecting the corresponding
optioninthe‘‘Projectionanddiagram’’window(Fig.13b).Finally,
click on the ‘‘Projection’’ or ‘‘Rose diagram’’ button to create a
stereographic projection or rose diagram (Fig. 13b). The results
areshowninFig.13d.
2.5.3. Calibrating aUTMgeological map
The coordinate system in CorelDRAW is orthogonal with the
origin located in the lower-left corner of the CorelDRAW page.
Positionsinthiscoordinatesystemaremeasuredindocumentunit,
rather than latitude and longitude. Although linear interpolation
may be used to convert latitudes and longitudes into X and Y
coordinates, this method works only on small-sized maps with
largescalesatlowlatitudes.
Because the earth is three-dimensional, several map projec-
tions (e.g.,Mercator,Gauss–Kruger, UniversalTransverse Merca-
tor(UTM), and Lambert),and many datumplanes (e.g., WGS84,
NAD83,GRS 80,WGS72) have beenused torepresentitssurface
onplanemaps.As longas weknowthe mapprojectioninforma-
tion,thedatumplaneandseveralcalibrationpointswithlatitudes
and longitudes, we can use these datasets tocalibrate the map
andexploitthedatasetstorepresentotherpositionsonthesame
map.AUTMconversionfile
1
hasbeenrevisedandusedtodevelop
a feature of CGDK that allows users to calibrate a UTM WGS84
map with twocalibration points.
By clicking on the ‘‘Calibrate map’’ button in the CGDKtoolbar,
usersstartacalibrationprocedureduringwhichusersareprompted
Fig.9. Drawingastratigraphiccolumn.(a)The‘‘Stratigraphiccolumn’’buttoninCGDKtoolbar.(b)The‘‘Drawstratigraphiccolumns’’window.(c)The‘‘Lithology’’window.
(d)Selectalegendshapeforalithology.Theregisteredlithologywillbestoredforfutureuse.(e)Thestratigraphiccolumnthatiscreated byCGDK.Alegendlistisalso
createdalongwiththestratigraphiccolumn.
1
http://home.hiwaay.net/taylorc/toolbox/geography/geoutm.html.
J-TQiuetal./Computers&Geosciences51(2013)34–48
42
tospecifytwopointswithdifferentlongitudesandlatitudesandgive
their geographic coordinates (Fig.14a). The two calibration points
mustbeinthesameUTMzonesothatthezonenumberandcentral
meridian can be determined by CGDK. The map will be calibrated
afterthepointspecificationandwillbeavailableforplottingdataand
representingotherpositions.
If users want to obtain the latitude and longitude of an
arbitrary point on the map, they can click on the ‘‘Show GPS’’
buttonandmovethemousecursortothepoint.Thelatitudeand
longitude will be displayed in the floating window next to the
mouse cursor (Fig.14b). By clicking on the ‘‘Show GPS’’ button
again,users canclose the floatingwindow.
Themethodofplottingdataona calibratedmap is similarto
thatof plotting data ongeochemicaldiagrams.First,click on the
‘‘Plotonmap’’ button,click on alegendsymbol,andclick onthe
‘‘Set symbol’’button.Next,obtain latitudes and longitudes from
an Excelfile,andclick on the‘‘Plot’’button(Fig.14c).
Inordertoevaluatetheaccuracyofthecalibration,thegeographic
coordinates ofsome guideline intersectionshave beenplottedon a
calibrated1:250,000geologicalmapfromUSGS
2
.Theresultdisplayed
in Fig. 15 shows that the data points are consistent with the
guidelinesintersections,indicating agoodcalibration.
3. Advantages ofCGDK
3.1. Data acquisition
Other software packages have been developed to plot geo-
chemical diagrams, such as Newpet (Clarke, 1993), Igpet (Carr,
1995), and MinPet t (Richard, 1997). However, these programs
access only plotfunctionalities withoutlinking to aspreadsheet.
Users must convert an Excel file into an external file with a
specificformatbeforeandafter dataprocessing.
Byproviding aninterfaceforimportationdirectly fromExcelto
CorelDRAW,CGDK aims tointegrate the data storage and manip-
ulationadvantages ofExcelwiththepowerfulvector drawingand
editingfeaturesofCorelDRAW.Thisinterfacehasthreebenefits:(1)
theprogramcanobtain data withoutformatconversion andavoid
importing useless data, (2) users may select data flexibly (for
example, by row, by column, or even from different rows and
columns in different sheets), and (3) CGDK obtains data from a
runningExcelapplication,whichmeansallthefeaturesprovidedby
Excel,suchasautofill,datasort,andmacroscanbeusedduringthe
data acquisition process.
3.2. Plottinggeochemicaldiagramswithgraphic-based templates
MicrosoftExcelis widely usedby geochemists fordata storage
andanalysis,butonlymanualdataorganizationandbasicX–Yplots
are available fordata interpretation (Wangetal.,2008).Although
several previous macro programs have been written for plotting
triangular and spider plots in Excel (e.g., ChristieandLangmuir,
1994; Sidder,1994; Marshall,1996),theseprogramsdonotmeet
presentgeochemists’needsbecausetheyarenotcapableofadding
newdiagramtypesforcurrentgeochemicalanalysis.
GeoPlot(ZhouandLi,2006) and GCDPlot(Wangetal.,2008)
are the latest macro programs with powerful functions for
plotting triangular and discrimination diagrams, the capability
of adding new diagram types, and the friendly user interface.
However,thetwoprogramsprovidedata-basedtemplateswhose
elements, including lines of various classifications, data points,
and labels are exactly defined in VBA macros or configuration
files, meaning these templates are difficult to update or share.
Additionally, the appearances of these templates rarely meet
publication requirements, so users must modify them prior to
publication.Themodificationsmustberepeatedeverytimeanew
diagramiscreated.
CGDK introduces the concept of a graphic-based template.
Incontrasttoanabstractdata-basedtemplate,thegraphic-based
template is concrete and can be easily modified and updated.
The template is a standard CorelDRAW shape group object,
which can be stored and shared conveniently. When plotting
data on a template that has been optimized to meet publica-
tion requirements, users can focus on customizing data points
and adding comments and explanations rather than modifying
thewholediagram.Additionally,agraphic-basedtemplatecanbe
used with flexibility to create diagrams for other geolo-
gical analysis, such as TOC vs. depth diagram for stratigraphic
analysis.
3.3. Creatingstratigraphic columnsalongwithothercolumns and
diagrams
Sincetheconstructionofastratigraphiccolumnisusuallyvery
timeconsuming,aseriesofapplicationshavebeenprovidedsuch
Fig. 10.Other available columns provided by CGDK. (a) Polyline column.
(b)Smoothlinecolumn.(c) Magnetostratigraphiccolumn.
2
http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of01-262/PULL-MAP.PDF.
J-TQiuetal./Computers&Geosciences51(2013)34–48
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