Chapter 22. Output Management System
TheOutput Management System(OMS) providestheability toautomatically write selectedcategoriesof
output todifferent output filesindifferent formats. Formatsinclude: Word, Excel, PDF, IBMSPSS
Statisticsdatafile format (.sav), Viewer file format (.spv),web report format(.spw), XML,HTML, and
text.See thetopic“OMSoptions”onpage 246for moreinformation.
Touse the OutputManagementSystemControl Panel
1. Fromthe menus choose:
Utilities >OMSControl Panel...
Youcanusethe controlpanelto start and stoptheroutingof output to variousdestinations.
v EachOMS request remainsactive untilexplicitly ended or untilthe end of the session.
v Adestination file that isspecifiedon anOMS requestisunavailabletoother proceduresand other
applicationsuntil the OMSrequest isended.
v While an OMSrequest isactive, the specified destinationfilesarestored inmemory (RAM),so active
OMS requeststhatwrite alarge amount of outputtoexternalfilesmay consume alarge amount of
memory.
v Multiple OMSrequestsare independent of eachother. The same output can be routedtodifferent
locationsindifferent formats, based onthe specificationsindifferent OMSrequests.
v The orderoftheoutput objectsinanyparticular destinationisthe orderinwhichthey were created,
whichisdetermined by the orderandoperationoftheprocedures that generate the output.
Limitations
v For Output XMLformat, the specificationfor the Headingsoutput type hasno effect. Ifany output
fromaprocedure isincluded,theprocedure title outputisincluded.
v If theOMS specificationresultsin nothing otherthanHeadingsobjectsor aNotestablesbeing
included for aprocedure, then nothing isincluded for thatprocedure.
Adding newOMSrequests
1. Select the outputtypes(tables, charts,etc.) that you want to include. See the topic “Output object
types”onpage 244for more information.
2. Select the commandstoinclude. If youwant to include alloutput, select allitemsinthe list. Seethe
topic “Commandidentifiersand table subtypes”onpage 245for moreinformation.
3. Forcommandsthat produce pivot table output,select the specific table typesto include.
The list displaysonly the tablesthat are available inthe selectedcommands; any table type that is
available inone or more of the selectedcommandsisdisplayed inthe list.If no commandsare
selected, alltabletypesare displayed. See the topic “Command identifiersand table subtypes”on
page 245formore information.
4. Toselecttablesbased ontextlabelsinstead of subtypes,click Labels. See the topic“Labels”on page
246for moreinformation.
5. Click Options to specify the output format (for example, IBMSPSS Statisticsdatafile, XML, or
HTML). By default, Output XMLformat isused. See the topic“OMS options”onpage 246for more
information.
6. Specify anoutputdestination:
v File.Allselectedoutput isroutedtoasingle file.
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v Basedonobject names. Output isrouted to multiple destinationfilesbased onobject names. A
separate file iscreatedfor each output object, with afilename based oneither table subtype names
ortable labels. Enter the destinationfolder name.
v New dataset. For IBMSPSSStatisticsdatafile formatoutput, youcanroute the output to a
dataset. The datasetisavailable for subsequentuse inthe same sessionbutisnot saved unless you
explicitly save itasafile prior tothe end of the session. This optionisavailable onlyfor IBMSPSS
Statisticsdatafileformat output.Dataset namesmust conformto variable-namingrules. Seethe
topic“Variable names”onpage 50formore information.
7. Optionally:
v Exclude the selectedoutput from theViewer. Ifyou selectExcludefromViewer,the output typesin
the OMS request willnot be displayed inthe Viewer window. If multiple active OMSrequestsinclude
the same outputtypes, the display of those output typesinthe Viewerisdeterminedby the most
recentOMS requestthat containsthoseoutput types.Seethetopic“Excluding output display fromthe
viewer”onpage 249for more information.
v AssignanIDstring to the request.Allrequestsare automatically assigned anID value, and you can
override the systemdefaultID string withadescriptive ID, whichcan be useful if youhave multiple
activerequeststhat youwanttoidentify easily. IDvaluesthatyouassigncannot start withadollar
sign($).
Tipsfor selecting multiple itemsina list
The following tipsare for selecting multipleitemsinalist:
v PressCtrl+Atoselectallitems in alist.
v Use Shift+click to select multiplecontiguousitems.
v Use Ctrl+clicktoselectmultiple noncontiguousitems.
Toendanddelete OMSrequests
Active and newOMS requestsaredisplayed inthe Requestslist,withthe most recentrequest atthetop.
Youcanchange the widthsoftheinformationcolumns by clicking anddraggingthe borders, and you
can scroll thelist horizontally to see more informationaboutaparticular request.
Anasterisk (*) after the wordActiveinthe StatuscolumnindicatesanOMSrequest that wascreated
withcommand syntaxthatincludesfeaturesthat are notavailable inthe ControlPanel.
Toendaspecific, active OMS request:
1. In theRequestslist, clickany cellinthe row forthe request.
2. Click End.
Toendallactive OMS requests:
1. Click End All.
Todeleteanewrequest (arequest thathasbeenadded but isnot yetactive):
1. In theRequestslist, clickany cellinthe row forthe request.
2. Click Delete.
Note:Active OMSrequestsare not ended untilyouclick OK.
Output object types
There aredifferenttypesof output objects:
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Charts.Thisincludeschartscreatedwiththe Chart Builder, chartingprocedures, and chartscreated by
statisticalprocedures (forexample, abar chart createdbytheFrequenciesprocedure).
Headings. Text objectsthat are labeledTitleinthe outline pane of the Viewer.
Logs.Log text objects. Log objectscontaincertaintypesof error and warning messages. Dependingon
your Optionssettings(Edit menu, Options, Viewer tab), logobjectsmay also containthe command
syntaxthatisexecutedduring the session. Log objectsare labeled Loginthe outline paneoftheViewer.
Models.Output objectsdisplayed inthe ModelViewer. Asingle model object cancontainmultiple views
of the model, including bothtablesand charts.
Tables. Outputobjectsthat are pivot tablesinthe Viewer (includesNotes tables). Tablesare the only
output objectsthat canbe routed to IBMSPSS Statisticsdatafile (.sav) format.
Texts. Text objectsthataren't logsorheadings(includesobjectslabeledText Output inthe outlinepane of
the Viewer).
Trees.Treemodeldiagramsthat are producedbytheDecisionTree option.
Warnings. Warning objectscontaincertaintypesof error and warning messages.
Command identifiers and table subtypes
Command identifiers
Command identifiersare available forallstatistical and charting proceduresandanyother commands
thatproduceblocksofoutput withtheirownidentifiable headingin theoutlinepane of the Viewer.
These identifiersare usually (but not always) the sameorsimilar to the procedure namesonthe menus
and dialogboxtitles,whichare usually (but not always) similarto theunderlying commandnames. For
example,thecommand identifier for the Frequenciesprocedure is"Frequencies," and the underlying
commandnameisalso the same.
There are, however, some caseswhere the procedure name and thecommand identifier and/orthe
commandnameare not allthat similar. For example, allof theproceduresonthe NonparametricTests
submenu(fromtheAnalyze menu) use thesame underlyingcommand,andthe command identifier is
the same asthe underlyingcommand name: Npar Tests.
Tablesubtypes
Tablesubtypesare the different typesof pivot tablesthat canbe produced. Some subtypesare produced
by only onecommand;other subtypescanbe producedbymultiple commands(althoughthe tablesmay
not look similar).Although table subtype namesare generally descriptive, there can be many namesto
choosefrom(particularly if youhave selectedalarge number of commands); also,twosubtypesmay
have verysimilar names.
Tofind command identifiersand table subtypes
Whenindoubt,youcanfind commandidentifiersand table subtype namesinthe Viewer window:
1. Runthe proceduretogeneratesome output inthe Viewer.
2. Right-click the item in theoutlinepane of the Viewer.
3. Choose Copy OMS Command Identifier or Copy OMS TableSubtype.
4. Pastethe copiedcommand identifierortablesubtype name into any text editor (suchasaSyntax
Editorwindow).
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Labels
Asanalternativeto table subtype names, youcanselect tablesbased onthetext that isdisplayed in the
outline pane of the Viewer.You canalsoselect other objecttypes basedon their labels. Labels are useful
fordifferentiating betweenmultiple tablesof the same type in whichtheoutline text reflectssome
attribute of the particular outputobject, suchasthe variable namesorlabels. There are, however, a
number of factorsthatcanaffectthe label text:
v If split-file processing ison, split-file group identificationmay be appended to the label.
v Labelsthat include informationabout variablesor valuesare affected by your current output label
optionssettings (Edit menu, Options, Output Labelstab).
v Labelsare affected by the current output language setting (Edit menu, Options, Generaltab).
Tospecifylabelsto use toidentify output objects
1. In theOutput Management SystemControlPanel, select one ormore output typesand thenselectone
or more commands.
2. Click Labels.
3. Enter the label exactlyasitappearsinthe outline paneoftheViewer window.(Youcanalso
right-click the iteminthe outline, choose Copy OMS Label,andpaste the copied labelinto the Label
text field.)
4. Click Add.
5. Repeat the processforeach labelthat you want to include.
6. Click Continue.
Wildcards
Youcanuseanasterisk (*) asthe last characterofthelabelstring asawildcardcharacter.Alllabels that
beginwiththespecifiedstring (except for the asterisk) willbeselected. Thisprocessworksonly whenthe
asteriskisthe last character, because asteriskscanappear asvalidcharactersinside alabel.
OMS options
Youcanusethe OMS Optionsdialog boxto:
v Specify theoutput format.
v Specify theimage format (for HTMLand OutputXMLoutput formats).
v Specify what table dimensionelementsshould go intotherowdimension.
v Include avariable that identifiesthe sequentialtablenumberthat isthe sourcefor eachcase (for IBM
SPSS Statisticsdatafile format).
TospecifyOMSoptions
1. Click Options inthe OutputManagementSystemControl Panel.
Format
Excel.Excel97-2004and Excel2007andhigher formats. Pivot table rows,columns,andcellsare exported
as Excelrows, columns, and cells, withall formatting attributesintact -- for example, cell borders,font
styles, and backgroundcolors. Text outputisexportedwithall font attributesintact. Eachline inthe text
output isarowinthe Excel file, withthe entirecontentsof the linecontained inasinglecell. Charts, tree
diagrams, and model viewsare included in PNGformat.
HTML. Output objectsthatwouldbepivot tables in theViewer are converted to HTMLtables.Text
output objectsare tagged <PRE> in theHTML. Charts, tree diagrams, and modelviewsare embedded in
the document inthe selected format.
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Output XML. XMLthat conformstothe spss-outputschema.
PDF. Outputisexportedasit wouldappear inPrintPreview,withall formatting attributesintact.The
PDF file includesbookmarksthat correspond to the entriesinthe Viewer outline pane.
IBM SPSS Statistics DataFile. Thisformatisabinary file format.All output object typesotherthan
tablesare excluded.Eachcolumnof atablebecomes avariable in thedatafile. To use adatafilethat is
created withOMSinthe same session, you must end theactive OMSrequest before youcanopen the
datafile.See the topic “Routing output to IBMSPSS Statisticsdatafiles”onpage 249formore
information.
Text. Space-separated text. Output iswritten astext, withtabular outputaligned withspacesfor
fixed-pitchfonts.Charts, tree diagrams, and model viewsare excluded.
TabbedText. Tab-delimited text.For output that is displayedaspivot tablesinthe Viewer,tabsdelimit
table columnelements. Text block linesare writtenasis; noattempt ismade to divide themwithtabsat
useful places. Charts, tree diagrams, andmodelviewsareexcluded.
Viewer File.Thisisthe same format used whenyousave the contentsof aViewer window.
WebReport File. Thisoutput file format isdesignedfor use withPredictiveEnterprise Services.It is
essentially the same astheIBMSPSSStatisticsViewer format except that tree diagramsaresavedasstatic
images.
Word/RTF. Pivot tablesare exported as Wordtableswith allformatting attributesintact--for example, cell
borders, font styles, and backgroundcolors. Text outputisexportedasformatted RTF. Charts,tree
diagrams, and model viewsare included in PNGformat.
GraphicsImages
For HTMLand Output XMLformats, youcanincludecharts, tree diagrams,andmodelviewsasimage
files.Aseparate imagefileiscreated for eachchartand/or tree.
v For HTMLdocument format,standard<IMG SRC=’filename’>tags are included inthe HTMLdocument
for each image file.
v For Output XMLdocument format, the XMLfilecontainsachartelement with anImageFileattribute
of the general form<chartimageFile="filepath/filename"/>foreach image file.
v Image filesaresavedinaseparate subdirectory (folder). The subdirectory name isthename ofthe
destination file, without any extensionand with_files appended to the end. For example, if the
destination file isjulydata.htm,the imagessubdirectorywillbe named julydata_files.
Format.The availableimage formatsare PNG, JPG,andBMP.
Size.You can scalethe image size from 10%to 200%.
IncludeImagemaps. For HTMLdocument format,thisoptioncreatesimagemapToolTipsthat display
informationfor some chart elements, such asthe value of the selectedpoint ona line chart or bar ona
barchart.
TablePivots
For pivot table output,youcanspecify the dimensionelement(s) that shouldappear in the columns.All
other dimensionelementsappearinthe rows. ForIBMSPSSStatisticsdata file format, table columns
become variables, androwsbecome cases.
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v If you specify multiple dimensionelementsforthe columns, theyare nested inthe columnsin the
order inwhich they are listed. For IBMSPSS Statisticsdatafile format,variable namesareconstructed
bynestedcolumnelements. See the topic“Variable names in OMS-generateddatafiles”onpage 250
for moreinformation.
v If atable doesn'tcontainany of the listeddimensionelements, alldimensionelementsfor that table
willappear inthe rows.
v Table pivotsthatare specified here have no effect ontablesthat are displayed in the Viewer.
Eachdimensionof atable--row, column,layer--may containzeroormore elements.For example,a simple
two-dimensionalcrosstabulationcontainsasingle rowdimensionelement andasingle column dimension
element,each of whichcontainsone of the variablesthat areused inthe table.Youcanuse either
positional argumentsor dimensionelement "names" to specify the dimensionelementsthat you want to
put intothe columndimension.
Alldimensions in rows. Createsasingle row for eachtable.For IBMSPSS Statisticsformat datafiles,
thismeanseach table is asingle case, andallthe table elementsare variables.
List ofpositions. The generalformof apositionalargument isaletter indicating the default positionof
the element--C for column, Rfor row, orL for layer--followed by apositiveintegerindicating the default
positionwithinthat dimension. Forexample, R1would indicate the outermost rowdimensionelement.
v To specify multipleelementsfrommultiple dimensions,separate eachdimensionwith aspace—for
example, R1C2.
v The dimensionletter followedbyALLindicatesallelementsinthat dimensionintheir default order.
For example, CALListhe same as thedefault behavior (using all column elementsintheirdefault
order to create columns).
v CALLRALLLALL(or RALLCALLLALL, and so on) willput alldimensionelementsinto the
columns. For IBMSPSS Statisticsdatafile format, thiscreatesone row/case pertable inthe datafile.
List ofdimension names. Asanalternative topositionalarguments, youcanuse dimensionelement
"names," whichare the text labelsthat appear inthe table.For example,asimpletwo-dimensional
crosstabulationcontainsa single row dimensionelement and asingle columndimensionelement,each
withlabelsbasedon thevariablesinthose dimensions, plusasingle layer dimensionelement labeled
Statistics (if Englishisthe output language).
v Dimensionelementnamesmay vary,based onthe output language and/or settings that affectthe
display of variablenamesand/orlabelsin tables.
v Eachdimensionelement name must beenclosedinsingle ordouble quotationmarks. Tospecify
multiple dimension element names, include aspace betweeneachquotedname.
The labelsthat are associated withthe dimensionelementsmay not alwaysbe obvious.
Tosee alldimensionelementsand their labelsforapivot table
1. Activate (double-click)the table inthe Viewer.
2. Fromthe menuschoose:
View> Show All
or
3. If the pivoting traysaren't displayed,fromthe menuschoose:
Pivot > Pivoting Trays
The element labelsaredispalyed inthe pivoting trays.
Logging
YoucanrecordOMS activity inalog inXML ortext format.
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v The log tracksallnew OMSrequestsfor the session but does notinclude OMSrequeststhat were
already active before yourequestedalog.
v The current log file endsif youspecify anew log file or ifyou deselect (clear) Log OMS activity.
How to specify OMSlogging
TospecifyOMSlogging:
1. Click Loggingin theOutput Management SystemControlPanel.
Excluding output display from the viewer
TheExcludefromViewer check box affectsalloutput thatisselected inthe OMSrequest by suppressing
the display of thatoutput inthe Viewer window. Thisprocessisoftenusefulforproductionjobsthat
generate alot of output andwhen you don'tneedthe resultsin the form of aViewer document (.spv
file).You canalsouse thisfunctionality to suppressthe display ofparticular output objectsthat you
simply neverwant to see, without routing any other output to some externalfileandformat.
Tosuppressthe display of certainoutput objects without routing other output to anexternalfile:
1. CreateanOMS requestthat identifiesthe unwantedoutput.
2. Select Excludefrom Viewer.
3. Forthe outputdestination, select File--but leave the File fieldblank.
4. Click Add.
Theselected outputwillbe excluded from the Viewer while allotheroutput willbe displayed in the
Viewer inthe normalfashion.
Note: Thissetting hasnoeffectonOMSoutput saved to externalformatsor files, including the Viewer
SPVand SPW formats. It also hasno effect onoutput savedtoSPVformatin abatchjob executed with
the BatchFacility (available withIBMSPSS StatisticsServer).
Routing output to IBM SPSS Statistics data files
Adatafile inIBMSPSSStatisticsformat consistsof variablesinthecolumnsand casesin the rows,which
isessentially the format inwhichpivot tablesareconverted to datafiles:
v Columnsinthe table are variablesinthe data file. Validvariable namesare constructedfromthe
columnlabels.
v Row labelsinthe table becomevariableswith genericvariable names(Var1, Var2, Var3, andso on)in
the datafile. The valuesof these variablesare the row labelsinthe table.
v Three table-identifier variablesare automatically included in thedatafile: Command_, Subtype_, and
Label_.Allthree are stringvariables.The first two variablescorrespond to the commandandsubtype
identifiers. See the topic “Commandidentifiersand table subtypes”onpage 245for more information.
Label_containsthe table titletext.
v Rows in thetablebecome cases in thedatafile.
Data files created from multiple tables
Whenmultiple tables are routed to the samedata file, eachtable isadded to the datafile inafashion
thatissimilar to merging datafilesby adding casesfromone datafiletoanotherdatafile(Datamenu,
Merge Files,AddCases).
v Eachsubsequent table willalwaysaddcasesto the datafile.
v If columnlabelsinthe tablesdiffer, eachtable may also addvariablesto the datafile,withmissing
valuesfor casesfrom other tablesthat don't have anidentically labeled column.
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v If any tablesdonot have the samenumberof rowelementsasthe othertables, no datafile willbe
created. Thenumberof rowsdoesn't havetobe thesame; thenumberof rowelementsthat become
variablesinthe datafile must be the same.For example,atwo-variablecrosstabulation anda
three-variablecrosstabulationcontaindifferentnumbersof row elements, because the “layer”variable
isactually nestedwithinthe rowvariable inthe default three-variable crosstabulation display.
Controlling column elements to control variables in the data file
IntheOptionsdialog box of the Output ManagementSystemControl Panel, youcanspecify which
dimension elements should be inthe columnsandtherefore will be used to create variablesinthe
generated datafile.Thisprocessisequivalent to pivoting thetableintheViewer.
For example, the Frequenciesprocedure producesadescriptivestatisticstable with statisticsinthe rows,
while the Descriptivesprocedure producesadescriptive statisticstablewithstatistics in thecolumns.To
include bothtabletypesin thesame datafileina meaningfulfashion, youneedto changethe column
dimension for one of the table types.
Becausebothtable typesuse the elementname "Statistics"forthestatisticsdimension, we canput the
statisticsfromthe Frequenciesstatistics table in thecolumnssimply by specifying "Statistics"(in
quotationmarks) inthe list of dimensionnamesinthe OMS Optionsdialog box.
Some of the variableswillhave missingvalues,because the table structuresstillaren't exactly the same
withstatisticsinthe columns.
Variable names in OMS-generated data files
OMSconstructsvalid,uniquevariablenamesfromcolumnlabels:
v Rowandlayerelementsare assignedgenericvariable names—the prefixVarfollowed by asequential
number.
v Charactersthat aren't allowed invariable names(spaces, parentheses,etc.) are removed. Forexample,
“This(Column) Label” wouldbecome avariable named ThisColumnLabel.
v If the labelbeginswithacharacterthat isallowedinvariablenamesbut not allowed asthe first
character (for example, anumber), “@”is inserted asa prefix. For example, “2nd”would becomea
variable named@2nd.
v Columnlabelsthatwouldresult induplicate variable namesare resolvedbyappending an underscore
andasequentialletter.For example,the second instanceof "Count" wouldbecome avariable named
Count_A.
v Underscoresor periodsat the end of labelsareremovedfromthe resulting variable names. The
underscoresattheend of the automatically generatedvariablesCommand_, Subtype_, and Label_are not
removed.
v If more thanone element isinthe column dimension, variable namesare constructedby combining
category labelswithunderscoresbetweencategory labels.Grouplabelsare not included.For example,
if VarBisnestedunder VarAinthe columns, you would get variableslike CatA1_CatB1, not
VarA_CatA1_VarB_CatB1.
OXML table structure
OutputXML(OXML) isXMLthat conformsto the spss-output schema. Foradetailed descriptionofthe
schema, seetheOutput SchemasectionoftheHelpsystem.
v OMS commandandsubtype identifiersare usedasvaluesof thecommandandsubTypeattributesin
OXML. Anexampleisasfollows:
<command text="Frequencies" command="Frequencies"...>
<pivotTable text="Gender" label="Gender" " subType="Frequencies"...>
v OMS commandand subTypeattribute valuesare notaffectedbyoutput language ordisplay settingsfor
variable names/labelsor values/value labels.
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v XMLiscase sensitive.AsubTypeattributevalue of "frequencies" isnot the same asasubTypeattribute
value of "Frequencies."
v All informationthat isdisplayedinatableiscontained inattribute valuesinOXML. At the individual
cell level,OXMLconsistsof “empty” elementsthat containattributes but no “content” other thanthe
contentthat iscontainedinattribute values.
v Table structure inOXMLisrepresented row by row; elementsthatrepresent columnsare nested within
the rows, and individualcellsarenestedwithin thecolumnelements:
<pivotTable...>
<dimension axis=’row’...>
<dimension axis=’column’...>
<category...>
<cell text='...’ number=’...’ ’ decimals=’...’/>
</category>
<category...>
<cell text=’...’ number=’...’ ’ decimals=’...’/>
</category>
</dimension>
</dimension>
...
</pivotTable>
Thepreceding example isasimplifiedrepresentationof thestructure that showsthe descendant/ancestor
relationshipsofthese elements.However, the exampledoesnot necessarily showthe parent/child
relationships, becausethere are typically interveningnestedelement levels.
Thefollowing example showsasimple frequency table and the complete output XMLrepresentationof
thattable.
Table23.Simplefrequencytable
Gender
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid
Female
216
45.6
45.6
45.6
Male
258
54.4
54.4
100.0
Total
474
100.0
100.0
Chapter22.OutputManagementSystem
251
Asyoumay notice, asimple, smalltableproducesasubstantialamount of XML.That'spartly because
the XMLcontainssome informationthatisnot readily apparent inthe originaltable, some information
thatmight not evenbe availablein theoriginal table, and acertainamount of redundancy.
v The table contentsasthey are (or wouldbe) displayedin apivot table inthe Viewerare containedin
text attributes.An example isas follows:
<command text="Frequencies" command="Frequencies"...>
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" " ?>
<outputTreeoutputTree xmlns="http://xml.spss.com/spss/oms"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://xml.spss.com/spss/oms
http://xml.spss.com/spss/oms/spss-output-1.0.xsd">
<command text="Frequencies" command="Frequencies"
displayTableValues="label" displayOutlineValues="label"
displayTableVariables="label" displayOutlineVariables="label">
<pivotTable text="Gender" " label="Gender" subType="Frequencies"
varName="gender" variable="true">
<dimension axis="row" text="Gender" label="Gender"
varName="gender" variable="true">
<group text="Valid">
<group hide="true" text="Dummy">
<category text="Female" label="Female" string="f"
varName="gender">
<dimension axis="column" text="Statistics">
<category text="Frequency">
<cell text="216" number="216"/>
</category>
<category text="Percent">
<cell text="45.6" " number="45.569620253165" decimals="1"/>
</category>
<category text="Valid Percent">
<cell text="45.6" " number="45.569620253165" decimals="1"/>
</category>
<category text="Cumulative Percent">
<cell text="45.6" " number="45.569620253165" decimals="1"/>
</category>
</dimension>
</category>
<category text="Male" " label="Male" string="m" " varName="gender">
<dimension axis="column" text="Statistics">
<category text="Frequency">
<cell text="258" number="258"/>
</category>
<category text="Percent">
<cell text="54.4" " number="54.430379746835" decimals="1"/>
</category>
<category text="Valid Percent">
<cell text="54.4" " number="54.430379746835" decimals="1"/>
</category>
<category text="Cumulative Percent">
<cell text="100.0" " number="100" decimals="1"/>
</category>
</dimension>
</category>
</group>
<category text="Total">
<dimension axis="column" text="Statistics">
<category text="Frequency">
<cell text="474" number="474"/>
</category>
<category text="Percent">
<cell text="100.0" " number="100" decimals="1"/>
</category>
<category text="Valid Percent">
<cell text="100.0" " number="100" decimals="1"/>
</category>
</dimension>
</category>
</group>
</dimension>
</pivotTable>
</command>
</outputTree>
Figure3.OutputXMLforthesimplefrequencytable
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IBMSPSSStatistics23CoreSystemUser'sGuide
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