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Chapter 4. Distributed Analysis Mode
Distributed analysismode allowsyouto use acomputerother thanyour local(ordesktop)computer for
memory-intensive work. Because remote serversthat are used for distributed analysisare typically more
powerful andfaster than your localcomputer, distributedanalysismode cansignificantly reduce
computer processingtime.Distributedanalysiswitharemoteservercanbe usefulif your workinvolves:
v Large datafiles,particularly dataread from database sources.
v Memory-intensive tasks.Any taskthat takesalong timeinlocalanalysismode maybe agood
candidatefor distributed analysis.
Distributed analysisaffects only data-related tasks, suchas reading data, transformingdata, computing
newvariables,andcalculating statistics. Distributed analysishasno effect ontasksrelatedtoediting
output, suchasmanipulating pivot tablesormodifying charts.
Note:Distributedanalysisisavailableonly if youhave bothalocalversionand accessto alicensed server
versionof the software that isinstalledonaremote server.
Server Login
TheServer Login dialog boxallowsyouto select the computer that processescommandsandruns
procedures.Youcanselect yourlocalcomputer or aremoteserver.
Youcanadd, modify, or delete remote servers in thelist. Remoteserversusually require auser IDand
password, and adomainname may also be necessary.If you are licensed to use the StatisticsAdapter
and your site isrunning IBMSPSS CollaborationandDeployment Servicesyoumay be abletoconnect to
aremoteserverusingsingle sign-on. Single sign-onallows usersto connect to aremote server without
explicitly providing auser ID and password. The necessary authenticationisperformed withthe user's
existing credentialsonthe current machine--obtained,for example,fromWindowsActiveDirectory.
Contact yoursystemadministrator forinformationabout availableservers, auser ID andpassword,
domain names, andother connectioninformation,includingwhether single sign-on is supported atyour
site.
Youcanselect adefault server and save theuser ID, domain name, and password that are associated
withanyserver.You are automatically connectedto thedefault serverwhenyoustart anewsession.
Important: You canconnect to aserver thatisnot at the samerelease level asthe client. The server canbe
one or two releasesnewerorolder comparedto the client. However, it isnot recommendedtomaintain
thisconfigurationforanextended time. Ifthe server isnewerthanthe client, the server may create
output that cannot be read by the client.If the client isnewerthanthe server,syntaxsubmitted by the
clientmay notberecognized by the server. Therefore,you should talk toyour administrator about
connecting to aserverthat isatthe same release levelasthe client.
If youare licensed to use theStatisticsAdapterandyour siteisrunningIBMSPSS Collaborationand
Deployment Services3.5or later, youcanclickSearch... to view alist of serversthat are available on
your network.If you arenot logged ontoaIBMSPSS Collaborationand Deployment Services
Repository,youwill be prompted to enter connectioninformationbefore youcanviewthe list of servers.
Adding and Editing Server Login Settings
Use theServer LoginSettingsdialog boxto add oredit connectioninformationfor remote serversfor use
indistributed analysismode.
©CopyrightIBMCorporation1989,2014
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Contact yoursystemadministrator fora list of available servers, port numbersfor the servers, and
additional connectioninformation.Donot use theSecure Socket Layerunlessinstructedto do sobyyour
administrator.
ServerName.Aserver"name"canbe analphanumericname that isassignedtoacomputer (for
example,NetworkServer) or aunique IP address that isassigned to acomputer(for example,
202.123.456.78).
PortNumber.The portnumberisthe portthat the server software usesforcommunications.
Description. You canenter anoptionaldescriptionto display inthe serverslist.
Connect with SecureSocket Layer. Secure Socket Layer(SSL) encryptsrequestsfordistributedanalysis
whentheyare sentto theremote server. Before youuse SSL, checkwithyour administrator. For this
optionto be enabled, SSLmustbe configuredon your desktop computer and the server.
To Select, Switch, or Add Servers
1. Fromthe menuschoose:
File>Switch Server...
To select adefault server:
2. Inthe server list, select the boxnext to the serverthat youwant touse.
3. If the serverisconfigured forsingle sign-onthensimply ensure that SetCredentialsisunchecked.
Otherwise, select Set Credentialsandenter the userID, domainname, and password thatwere
provided by your administrator.
Note: Youare automatically connected to the default server whenyoustart anew session.
To switchto another server:
4. Select theserverfromthe list.
5. If the serverisconfigured forsingle sign-onthensimply ensure that SetCredentialsisunchecked.
Otherwise, select Set Credentialsandenter the userID, domainname, and password (if necessary).
Note: Whenyou switch serversduring asession, allopen windowsareclosed.Youwill be prompted
tosave changesbefore the windowsare closed.
To addaserver:
6. Get theserverconnectioninformationfromyour administrator.
7. Click Addtoopenthe Server LoginSettingsdialog box.
8. Enter theconnectioninformation and optionalsettings, andthenclick OK.
To edit aserver:
9. Get therevised connectioninformationfromyouradministrator.
10. Click Edit to open theServer LoginSettingsdialog box.
11. Enter thechangesandclick OK.
To searchfor availableservers:
Note: The abilitytosearchfor available serversisavailable only if youare licensed to usethe
StatisticsAdapterandyour siteisrunningIBMSPSSCollaboration and DeploymentServices3.5or
later.
12. Click Search...toopenthe SearchforServersdialog box. Ifyou are not logged onto aIBMSPSS
Collaboration and DeploymentServicesRepository, youwill be prompted forconnection
information.
13. Select oneormore availableserversand click OK.The serverswill nowappear inthe Server Login
dialog box.
14. To connect to oneof theservers,follow theinstructions"To switchto another server."
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IBMSPSSStatistics23CoreSystemUser'sGuide
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Searching for Available Servers
Use theSearch for Serversdialogboxtoselectone or more serversthat areavailable onyournetwork.
Thisdialog boxappearswhen you click Search... on theServer Logindialog box.
Select one or more serversandclickOKtoadd themtothe ServerLogindialog box. Althoughyou can
manually add serversinthe Server Logindialog box, searching for available serversletsyouconnect to
serverswithoutrequiring thatyouknowthe correct server name andport number. Thisinformationis
automatically provided. However, you still need the correct logoninformation, suchasusername,
domain, and password.
Opening Data Files from a Remote Server
Indistributedanalysismode,the OpenRemote File dialog boxreplacesthe standard OpenFile dialog
box.
v The contentsof the list of available files, folders, and drivesdependsonwhat isavailable onor from
the remote server. Thecurrent servernameisindicated at the topof the dialog box.
v Indistributed analysismode, you willnot have accessto filesonyour local computer unless you
specify the drive asashareddevice or specify the folderscontaining your datafilesassharedfolders.
Consult the documentation for youroperating systemfor informationonhowto"share"folderson
your local computer withthe server network.
v If theserverisrunning adifferentoperating system(for example, you are running Windowsand the
server isrunning UNIX), youprobablywon't have accesstolocaldatafilesindistributed analysis
mode even if they are insharedfolders.
File Access in Local and Distributed Analysis Mode
Theview of datafolders(directories) and drivesforboth your localcomputerandthe network isbased
onthe computerthat youare currently using to processcommands andrunprocedures—whichisnot
necessarily the computer infrontof you.
Local analysis mode.Whenyouuse your localcomputerasyour"server,"theview of datafiles, folders,
and drivesinthe file accessdialog box(for opening datafiles) issimilar to whatyou seeinother
applicationsor inWindowsExplorer.Youcansee allof the datafilesand foldersonyour computer and
any filesand foldersonmountednetworkdrives.
Distributedanalysismode. Whenyou use another computer asa"remoteserver"torun commandsand
procedures,the viewof datafiles, folders,anddrivesrepresents theview from theremote server
computer.Althoughyoumaysee familiar folder names(such asProgram Files) and drives(suchasC),
these itemsare not the foldersand driveson your computer; they arethe foldersand drivesonthe
remoteserver.
Indistributedanalysismode,youwill nothave accessto datafiles onyourlocalcomputer unlessyou
specify the drive asashareddevice or specify the folderscontaining yourdatafilesasshared folders. If
the server isrunning adifferent operating system(forexample, youarerunning Windowsandthe server
isrunning UNIX), you probably won't have accessto localdatafilesindistributed analysismode evenif
they are in shared folders.
Distributed analysismode isnotthe same asaccessing datafilesthat resideonanother computer onyour
network. Youcanaccessdatafilesonother network devicesinlocalanalysismode or indistributed
analysismode. In local mode, youaccess other devicesfromyourlocalcomputer. Indistributed mode,
you accessother network devicesfromthe remoteserver.
Chapter4.DistributedAnalysisMode
45
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If you'renot sure ifyou're using local analysismode or distributedanalysismode, look at the title bar in
the dialog boxfor accessing datafiles.If the title of the dialogboxcontainsthe word Remote (asinOpen
RemoteFile), or if thetext RemoteServer: [server name] appearsat the topof the dialog box, you're
using distributed analysismode.
Note:Thissituationaffectsonly dialog boxesfor accessing datafiles(forexample, OpenData, Save Data,
OpenDatabase, andApply DataDictionary). For allother file types(for example,Viewer files, syntax
files, and script files), thelocalview isalwaysused.
Availability of Procedures in Distributed Analysis Mode
Indistributedanalysismode,procedures are available for use only if they areinstalledonbothyour local
versionand the versiononthe remote server.
If youhave optionalcomponentsinstalled locally that are not available ontheremote server and you
switchfromyour localcomputertoa remote server,the affected procedureswillberemovedfromthe
menusand the corresponding commandsyntaxwillresult inerrors. Switching back to localmode will
restore allaffected procedures.
Absolute versus Relative Path Specifications
Indistributedanalysismode,relative pathspecificationsfordata filesandcommand syntax filesare
relative tothe current server,not relative to your localcomputer.Arelative pathspecificationsuchas
/mydocs/mydata.savdoesnot pointto adirectory and file onyourlocaldrive; it pointsto adirectory and
file onthe remote server'shard drive.
WindowsUNC PathSpecifications
If youare using aWindowsserver version, youcanuse universal naming convention(UNC)
specificationswhenaccessing dataand syntaxfiles withcommand syntax. The generalformof aUNC
specificationis:
\\servername\sharename\path\filename
v Servername isthenameof thecomputer thatcontainsthe datafile.
v Sharename isthe folder (directory)onthatcomputer that isdesignatedasashared folder.
v Pathisanyadditionalfolder (subdirectory) pathbelowthesharedfolder.
v Filename isthe name of the datafile.
Anexample isasfollows:
GET FILE=’\\hqdev001\public\july\sales.sav’.
If the computerdoesnot have aname assigned to it, you canuse itsIPaddress, asin:
GET FILE=’\\204.125.125.53\public\july\sales.sav’.
EvenwithUNC pathspecifications, youcanaccessdataand syntaxfilesonly fromdevicesandfolders
thatare designated asshared. Whenyou use distributed analysismode, thissituationincludesdataand
syntaxfiles onyourlocalcomputer.
UNIXAbsolute PathSpecifications
46
IBMSPSSStatistics23CoreSystemUser'sGuide
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For UNIXserver versions, there isno equivalent to theUNC path, andalldirectory pathsmust be
absolute paths that start at the rootoftheserver;relative pathsare not allowed. Forexample, if the data
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you must specify the entire path, asin:
GET FILE=’/bin/sales.sav’.
INSERT FILE=’/bin/salesjob.sps’.
Chapter4.DistributedAnalysisMode
47
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IBMSPSSStatistics23CoreSystemUser'sGuide
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Chapter 5. Data Editor
TheDataEditorprovides aconvenient, spreadsheet-like method forcreating and editing datafiles. The
DataEditor windowopensautomatically whenyoustart asession.
TheDataEditorprovides two views of your data:
v DataView. Thisviewdisplaysthe actual datavaluesordefined value labels.
v VariableView.Thisviewdisplaysvariable definitioninformation, including defined variable and
value labels, datatype (for example, string, date, or numeric), measurement level(nominal, ordinal,or
scale), and user-defined missing values.
Inboth views, you canadd,change, and delete informationthat iscontainedinthe datafile.
Data View
Many of the featuresof DataView aresimilar to the featuresthat are found inspreadsheet applications.
There are, however, severalimportant distinctions:
v Rows are cases. Eachrow represents acase or anobservation.For example,each individual respondent
toaquestionnaire isacase.
v Columnsare variables. Each column represents avariable or characteristic that isbeing measured. For
example, eachitem onaquestionnaire isavariable.
v Cellscontainvalues. Eachcellcontainsa single value of avariable foracase. Thecelliswhere the case
andthe variable intersect. Cellscontainonly datavalues. Unlike spreadsheet programs,cellsinthe
Data Editor cannot containformulas.
v The datafile isrectangular. The dimensionsof the datafileare determined by the number of casesand
variables. Youcanenter datainany cell. If youenter datainacelloutside theboundariesof the
defined datafile, the datarectangleisextended to includeany rowsand/or columnsbetweenthat cell
andthe file boundaries. There are no "empty"cellswithinthe boundariesof the datafile. For numeric
variables, blank cellsare convertedto thesystem-missing value.For string variables,a blank is
considered avalid value.
Variable View
Variable Viewcontainsdescriptionsoftheattributesof eachvariable inthe datafile. InVariable View:
v Rows are variables.
v Columnsare variable attributes.
Youcanaddor delete variablesand modify attributes of variables, including thefollowing attributes:
v Variable name
v Data type
v Numberof digitsor characters
v Numberof decimal places
v Descriptive variable and value labels
v User-definedmissing values
v Columnwidth
v Measurementlevel
Alloftheseattributesaresavedwhen you save the datafile.
49
Inadditionto defining variable propertiesin VariableView, thereare two othermethodsfordefining
variable properties:
v The CopyDataPropertiesWizard providesthe ability to use anexternalIBMSPSS Statisticsdatafile
or another dataset that isavailable inthe current sessionas atemplate for defining file and variable
propertiesinthe active dataset.You can alsouse variablesin theactivedataset astemplates for other
variablesinthe active dataset. Copy DataPropertiesisavailableonthe DatamenuintheDataEditor
window.
v Define Variable Properties(alsoavailable onthe Datamenu inthe DataEditorwindow)scansyour
dataandlistsallunique datavaluesfor any selected variables, identifiesunlabeledvalues,and
providesanauto-label feature.Thismethodisparticularly useful for categoricalvariables that use
numeric codestorepresent categories--for example, 0=Male,1= Female.
To display or define variable attributes
1. Makethe DataEditor the active window.
2. Double-click avariable name atthe topof the columninDataView,orclick the VariableViewtab.
3. To define new variables,enter avariable name inany blank row.
4. Select the attribute(s) that youwanttodefine or modify.
Variable names
The following rulesapply to variable names:
v Eachvariable name must beunique; duplicationisnotallowed.
v Variable namescanbe upto 64byteslong,andthe first character must be aletter or one of the
characters@, #,or$. Subsequent characterscanbe any combinationof letters, numbers,
nonpunctuationcharacters, and aperiod(.). Incode page mode, sixty-four bytestypically means64
charactersinsingle-byte languages(for example, English,French,German, Spanish,Italian, Hebrew,
Russian,Greek,Arabic, andThai)and32charactersindouble-byte languages(for example, Japanese,
Chinese, andKorean). Many stringcharactersthat only take one byte incode page mode take two or
more bytesin Unicode mode. Forexample, é isonebyteincode pageformat but istwo bytesin
Unicode format; so résumé issix bytesinacodepagefile andeightbytesinUnicode mode.
Note: Lettersinclude any nonpunctuationcharacters usedinwriting ordinary wordsin thelanguages
supported inthe platform'scharacterset.
v Variable namescannot containspaces.
v A#character inthe first positionof avariablenamedefinesascratchvariable.You canonly create
scratchvariableswithcommand syntax. Youcannotspecifya #asthe first character of avariable in
dialog boxesthat createnew variables.
v A$signinthefirstpositionindicatesthat the variable isasystem variable. The $signisnot allowed
asthe initialcharacter of auser-definedvariable.
v The period, theunderscore, and the characters$,#, and @canbe used within variable names. For
example, A._$@#1isavalidvariable name.
v Variable namesendingwithaperiodshouldbeavoided, since the periodmay be interpreted asa
command terminator.You canonly create variablesthat end withaperiod incommandsyntax. You
cannotcreatevariablesthatendwith aperiod indialog boxesthat create new variables.
v Variable namesendinginunderscoresshouldbeavoided, since suchnamesmay conflictwithnamesof
variablesautomatically createdby commands andprocedures.
v Reservedkeywordscannot be used asvariablenames.ReservedkeywordsareALL,AND,BY, EQ, GE,
GT,LE,LT,NE,NOT, OR, TO, and WITH.
v Variable namescanbe defined withany mixtureof uppercase and lowercasecharacters, and case is
preservedfor display purposes.
v Whenlong variablenamesneedto wrap onto multiple linesinoutput, linesare brokenat underscores,
periods, andpointswhere content changesfrom lower case to upper case.
50
IBMSPSSStatistics23CoreSystemUser'sGuide
Variable measurement level
Youcanspecify the levelofmeasurement as scale(numericdataonan interval or ratioscale), ordinal,or
nominal.Nominaland ordinaldatacanbe eitherstring (alphanumeric) ornumeric.
v Nominal.Avariable canbe treated asnominalwhenitsvaluesrepresentcategorieswithno intrinsic
ranking (forexample, the departmentofthecompany in whichanemployee works). Examples of
nominal variablesincluderegion, postalcode, andreligiousaffiliation.
v Ordinal. Avariable can be treatedasordinalwhenitsvaluesrepresentcategorieswithsome intrinsic
ranking (forexample, levelsof service satisfactionfromhighly dissatisfied to highly satisfied).
Examplesof ordinalvariablesinclude attitudescoresrepresenting degree of satisfactionor confidence
andpreference rating scores.
v Scale.A variable canbetreated asscale (continuous) whenitsvaluesrepresent ordered categorieswith
ameaningful metric, so that distance comparisonsbetweenvaluesare appropriate.Examplesof scale
variablesinclude age inyearsand income inthousandsof dollars.
Note:For ordinal stringvariables,the alphabeticorder of string valuesisassumed to reflect thetrue order
of the categories. For example, for astring variable withthe valuesof low, medium, high,theorder of the
categoriesisinterpretedashigh, low, medium, whichisnotthecorrect order. Ingeneral, itismore reliable
to use numeric codestorepresent ordinal data.
For new numericvariablescreated withtransformations, datafromexternalsources, and IBMSPSS
Statisticsdatafilescreated prior to version8,default measurement level is determinedbytheconditions
inthe following table.Conditionsare evaluated inthe orderlisted inthe table . Themeasurement level
for the first condition that matchesthe dataisapplied.
Table6.Rulesfordeterminingmeasurement level
Condition
MeasurementLevel
Allvaluesofavariablearemissing
Nominal
Formatisdollarorcustom-currency
Continuous
Formatisdateortime(excludingMonthandWkday)
Continuous
Variablecontainsatleastonenon-integervalue
Continuous
Variablecontainsatleastonenegativevalue
Continuous
Variablecontainsnovalidvalueslessthan10,000
Continuous
VariablehasNormorevalid,uniquevalues*
Continuous
Variablehasnovalidvalueslessthan10
Continuous
VariablehaslessthanNvalid,uniquevalues*
Nominal
*N isauser-specified cut-off value. The default is24.
v You canchange thecutoff value inthe Options dialog box.See thetopic“DataOptions”onpage 201
for moreinformation.
v The DefineVariable Propertiesdialogbox, available fromthe Datamenu, canhelp youassignthe
correct measurement level. See the topic “AssigningtheMeasurement Level”onpage 69formore
information.
Variable type
Variable Type specifiesthe datatype foreachvariable. By default,allnew variablesare assumedtobe
numeric.You canuse Variable Type to change the datatype. The contentsof theVariableType dialog box
depend onthe selected datatype. For some datatypes,there are textboxesfor widthandnumber of
decimals; for other datatypes, youcansimply select aformat fromascrollablelist of examples.
Theavailable datatypesare asfollows:
Chapter5.DataEditor
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Numeric. Avariable whosevaluesarenumbers. Valuesare displayed in standardnumeric format. The
DataEditor acceptsnumericvaluesinstandardformat or in scientificnotation.
Comma. Anumericvariable whose valuesare displayedwithcommasdelimiting every threeplacesand
displayedwiththe period asadecimal delimiter.The DataEditor acceptsnumericvaluesforcomma
variableswithor without commasorinscientific notation. Valuescannot containcommasto therightof
the decimal indicator.
Dot.A numericvariable whosevaluesaredisplayed withperiodsdelimiting every three placesandwith
the commaasadecimaldelimiter. The DataEditoraccepts numericvaluesfor dot variableswithor
without periodsor inscientificnotation. Valuescannot contain periodsto theright of the decimal
indicator.
Scientificnotation. Anumericvariable whose valuesare displayed withanembeddedE and asigned
power-of-10exponent.The DataEditor acceptsnumericvaluesforsuchvariableswithor without an
exponent.The exponent canbe preceded by EorD with anoptionalsignor by the signalone--for
example,123, 1.23E2, 1.23D2, 1.23E+2, and 1.23+2.
Date.Anumeric variable whosevaluesare displayed inone of severalcalendar-date or clock-time
formats. Select aformatfromthe list.You canenter dates withslashes,hyphens, periods, commas, or
blank spacesasdelimiters. The century range fortwo-digityear valuesisdetermined by yourOptions
settings(fromthe Edit menu,choose Options, andthenclick the Datatab).
Dollar. Anumericvariabledisplayed withaleading dollarsign($), commasdelimiting every three
places, and aperiodasthe decimaldelimiter.You canenter datavalueswithor without the leading
dollarsign.
Custom currency. Anumericvariable whosevaluesaredisplayed inone of the customcurrency formats
thatyouhave defined onthe Currency taboftheOptionsdialog box. Defined customcurrency characters
cannot be used indataentrybut are displayed in theDataEditor.
String.Avariable whose valuesare not numericand therefore are not usedincalculations. Thevalues
can contain any charactersuptothe defined length. Uppercase and lowercase lettersareconsidered
distinct.Thistype isalso knownasanalphanumericvariable.
Restricted numeric. Avariable whose valuesare restricted to non-negative integers.Valuesare displayed
withleading zerospadded to the maximumwidth of the variable. Valuescanbe entered inscientific
notation.
To define variable type
1. Click the buttoninthe Type cellfor the variable that youwantto define.
2. Select the datatype inthe Variable Type dialogbox.
3. Click OK.
Input versus display formats
Depending on theformat, the display of valuesinDataViewmay differfromthe actualvalue asentered
and stored internally.Following are somegeneral guidelines:
v For numeric, comma,anddotformats, you canenter valueswithany number of decimalpositions(up
to16), and the entire value is stored internally. The DataView displaysonly the defined numberof
decimalplacesand roundsvalueswithmore decimals. However, the complete value isusedinall
computations.
v For string variables, allvalues are right-padded to the maximumwidth. For astring variable witha
maximum widthof three, avalue of Noisstored internally as’No’and is not equivalent to ’No’.
v For dateformats, you canuse slashes, dashes, spaces, commas, or periodsasdelimitersbetweenday,
month, and year values, and you canenter numbers, three-letter abbreviations, or complete namesfor
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IBMSPSSStatistics23CoreSystemUser'sGuide
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