Table 12 Innovations
This should match with the object ID in all other files (e.g. <perennials.xls>,
<population.xls>, and <demography.xls>.
The type of object. There are two basic types: Objects with a negative type refer
to agent characteristics, while objects with a positive type refer to asset
characteristics (incl. innovations).
Set to 1 for all divisible innovations. E.g., a cow is indivisible (set to 0) while a
hectare of coffee is divisible (set to 1)
Acquisition costs The purchasing price of an innovation in the first year. For livestock, make sure
this is consistent with <livestock.xls>.
Note that this cost refers only to “proper investments”, i.e. productive activities
with a gestation between first input use and full output of more than 1 year. If
shorter than 1 year, then the price must be included in file <Market.xls>.
The maximum age of an object. For example, a coffee plantation lasts 12 years,
and cows are culled before they turn 10 years old.
The soil types an innovation can be used on, if not restricted to any soil type then
set the suitability to 0.
Optionally a minimum amount can be specified. E.g, when investing into a new
coffee plantation, the investment should be more than 0.2 ha.
The activity index in the programming matrix. In case of investment objects, the
MATRIX includes two separate activities: one for production and one for
investment. This index must refer to the production activity.
The constraint index in the programming matrix.
The row coordinate in the programming matrix where the yields appear (-1 if not
a permanent crop)
The pieces per unit of the investment good (e.g., days/laborer)
The solution in the investment mode is taken and enters the production mode after
multiplication with this factor. The factor is therefore used to convert the units in
the solution vector of the investment mode to units of the RHS in the production
Specifies for what segment the innovation is accessible, if accessible for all set to
The year at which the innovation is introduced into the population
The year at which the innovation can be acquired for the particular innovation
Share own capital The share of the acquisition cost that needs to be paid from own liquid means.
Interest rate on
For what is not paid from own means an additional interest cost is incurred.
Network.xls lists all innovations and specifies various types of information for each of these as
is briefly explained in Table 12. The network-file uses three types of interest rates. (1) The long-
term interest rate is the interest over borrowed capital with a gestation of longer than one year.
(2) The short-term interest rate is the rate for borrowing capital from, say a bank, for a period of
one year. (3) The interest rate on equity is the rate you receive when depositing money at a bank
(say, at your current account). This is the opportunity costs of capital. In absence of any banks
or informal savings, this rate can be set very low.
BasicData.xls: General parameters
Parameters that do not immediately relate to a single input file but are required by several
separate model components are included in BasicData.xls. About 48 parameters are included in
this file. For instance, the choice of consumption model is included in BasicData.xls because
this impacts both on the matrix-file and on the market-file. The file is organized in eight
categories of parameters as shown in Table 13. Most parameters in this file are self-
Table 13 Parameters in BasicData.xls
Integers counting the frequency of same events, like the number of catchments,
villages, networks, etc.
Various parameters that allow the user to fine-tune the innovation diffusion
process, such as the ‘overlap’ parameter described in Section 6.
For making land markets endogenous in the model
For the simulation of policy options such as subsidies for permanent crops
Switches for various sub-
Defines which consumption is implemented and whether there is a crop growth
model, livestock or perennial crop model. If not then no respective file is read
by the program.
Defines the size of a single grid cell in hectares and defines which number of
different soil types and classes. Soil classes refer to land suitability.
Debugging of the
The most important dynamics can be switched off using these options: (a) aging
of agent household members and assets; (b) and updating of soil fertility (only if
a soil model is defined). In addition matrices can be saved by entering a matrix
Fine-tuning of the solver This tells the solver how long it can maximally take to solve a single MP model
or how many iterations is can go through.
CropWat.xls: Crop water requirements
Crop yields were modeled following the FAO CropWat model (Clarke et al. 1998, Smith 1992).
The workbook CropWat.xls specifies for each crop activity that appears in Matrix.xls the crop
water requirement and the crop yield potential. For each selected crop activity in the MP
tableau, MPMAS will recalculate a crop yield based on the crop water requirement and the crop
water supply—the latter specified in Routing.xls and is explained in the next section.
The crop-water requirement (CWR) for crop c in month m is the product of a crop water
coefficient (Kc), the potential evapotranspiration (ET0), and the planted area (Area):
in which ET0 is a function of the local climatic conditions and can be derived from CropWat
7.0. The Kc values can be obtained from specialized literature or as standard values in the
Monthly values for CWR do not change over time and are therefore specified in the workbook
CropWat.xls. Each of the crop activities specified in Matrix.xls also needs to be included in
CropWat.xls. In CropWat.xls the activity and constraint indices in the MP tableau are specified
for each crop activity and are linked to Matrix.xls.
The CWR can either be met through irrigation (IRR) or precipitation—converted into effective
precipitation (EP) to capture the share of precipitation that is actually available to the crop,
depending on its growth stage. The calculation of effective precipitation is rather complex in
CropWat and was simplified using a regression equation. The equation can be parameterized by
inserting into CropWat a large range of precipitation values and crop water requirements for a
selection of crops and then obtaining the EP values. The EP values can then be regressed on the
crop water requirements and precipitation using ordinary least squares:
The part of the crop water requirement that is unfulfilled by either precipitation or irrigation is
called the deficit irrigation (DIRR):
If there is deficit irrigation then the crop yield is reduced. The magnitude of the deficit is
expressed as the quotient of the deficit irrigation and the crop water requirement
), which is called the Kr value. In reality it matters much in what stage of the
growing period the water deficit occurs. Yet, as a simplification, the quotients of deficit
irrigation and the crop water requirement are simply averaged over all months with non-zero
crop water requirements:
Following Berger (2001) it is assumed that the crop yield is lost completely if the average Kr
falls below 0.5, while for Kr values greater than or equal to 0.5 the average Kr value is
multiplied by the crop yield potential (YPOT
) to simulate the actual crop yield (Y
Routing.xls: The crop water supply
Routing.xls simulates the irrigation water supply as based on the Edic-cedec model (Berger
2000). The physical landscape is divided into irrigation sectors while the irrigation water supply
is defined per sector. There are three sources of irrigation water in MPMAS:
• River flows: This is the water supply from streams in the watershed
• Surface runoff from neighboring irrigation sectors: The runoff from neighboring irrigation
• Lateral flows: The sub-surface flows from neighboring irrigation sectors.
The first three worksheets in Routing.xls define the quantity of water from each of these
sources. The first worksheet <EdicRiverFlows0> defines this quantity in m3/second while the
two other worksheets <EdicSurfaceRunoff0> and <EdicLateralFlows0> define it as a
proportion of the river flows. These last two sheets contain a matrix in which the surface and
sub-surface flows between all sectors can be defined. If irrigation water is only directly derived
from streams then all values can be set to zero.
The last worksheet in Routing.xls, <EdicIrrigationMethods0>, defines the efficiency of various
irrigation methods and contains parameters of the Edic-cedec model.
Table 14 Efficiency of various irrigation methods defined in Routing.xls
surface subsurface groundwate
Region.xls: The distribution of water over agents
Region.xls defines the distribution of water rights over agents. Water rights are defined as a
proportion of the total irrigation water supply of an irrigation sector that an agent is allowed to
use. This proportion is assumed constant over the whole year and during all years in the
MPMAS has two options for distributing water over agents:
1. Random water rights: Similar to the data structure in Population.xls, the water rights can
be distributed over agents randomly. Upper and lower bounds can be defined for each
inflow and for each sector.
2. Actual water rights: For each agent it is defined what proportion of the total irrigation
water supply per sector and per inflow the agent can use.
Perennials.xls: Parameters of perennial crops
Whereas the population file specifies the course of human life, the permanent crop file specifies
that of trees. It contains the following information for each year in the life span of a permanent
• pre-harvest costs (e.g., spraying)
• harvest cost
• total labor requirement
• total machinery requirement
• peak labor requirements
Furthermore, it specifies the acquisition cost and life span, both of which should be the same as
specified in the network file.
Because alternative levels of input use are possible for a crop, a separate permanent crop
activity is specified for each input level. For instance, in the Uganda case, coffee can be grown
on five different soil types, with 3 alternative levels of labor use, and with or without fertilizer;
this translates into 30 different coffee activities. Switching between input levels and between
soil types is thereby prevented and to switch input levels the agent is required to fulfill the
acquisition cost and start anew in year 0.
Livestock.xls: Parameters of livestock
The livestock file is similar to the permanent crop file in that different parameter values can be
specified for each year. The livestock file is, however, different from the permanent crop file in
that more than one output can be specified and the matrix coefficients of these outputs are
directly entered in this file, rather than the network file.
The first two outputs of each livestock type are gain in live weight, which is specified
cumulatively, and numbers of female offspring. Female offspring is treated differently as this
has a course of life of its own starting with year zero. Male offspring remains in the file as its
sole purpose is meat production.
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