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WorkingwithFillPatterns
NotethatfillpatternsonthefirstrowoftheRegionStyledialogboxareWindowsstandardand
tendtoprintfaster.TheotherpatternsarebitmapsPitneyBowesSoftwareInc.hascreatedforyour
use.Youmightwanttoconsiderthiswhenyouareselectingfillpatterns.
SeealsoRecommendationsforEffectivePatternScalingintheMapInfoProHelpSystemformore
informationregardingscalingandprintingfillpatterns.
TranslucentRasterMaps/GridsandWindows9XDoNotMix
YoucannotprintatranslucentrastermaporgridonWindows9XplatformsorexportthemtoEMF
orWMFfileformats.Youneedtouseanon-metafile(forexample,.BMPor.GIF)formattoexport
rasterimagesonWindows9X.
Customersprintinglargeimages(suchasdestinationpagesizeD,E,orA0)nolongerhavethe
28,000pixellimitation.Ifyouexperiencedprinterdifficultiesinthepastduetothislimitation,you
shouldnoticeasignificantimprovementinyourprintedimages.
SometimestheOlderDriverisBetter
Whenindoubt,ifanolderdriverworkedandthenewonedoesnot,gobacktotheolderdriver.
MakeRoomfortheMetafile
Makesureyouhaveplentyoftemporarydiskspace,particularlyifyouareusingthePrintusingthe
EnhancedMetafileoption.Thesystemistryingtocreatealayeredbitmaplocallyondisk.
SpoolLocally,PrintGlobally
Tryspoolingprintjobslocallyratherthanattheplotter.Thisallowsthecomputertorasterizeyour
outputratherthantheprinter,whichcanbemoreefficient.
Forprintspoolinginstructions,seeTroubleshootingPrintingProblemsintheHelpSystem.
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15 - Working with
Coordinate Systems
and Projections
Mapsattheirbaseareavisualrepresentationintwodimensionsofasection
ofthethree-dimensionalEarth.Beingabletousemapsinanelectronic
formatinmanywaysfreesusfromtheconstrictionsofthetwo-dimensional
mapbecausewecanusemathematicalformulastocompensateforthe
curvatureoftheEarth.Inthischapter,wecoverthecoordinatesystems
andprojectionsthatarestandardinMapInfoProandprovidethetoolswith
whichyoucancreateacustomprojectionstomeetyourorganization's
needs.Whetheryouarealocalgovernmenttryingtoestablishnewtaxrolls
oralargecompanytryingtodefineyoursalesterritorymoreprecisely,
creatingacustomprojectionmaybeasolutionyouwanttoexplore.
Formoreinformation,seeUsingOceanandGridTablesandFrequently
AskedProjectionFileQuestionsintheHelpSystem.
In this section
WorkingwithCoordinateSystems
463
BuildingBlocksofaCoordinateSystem
469
AddingProjectionstotheMAPINFOW.PRJFile
477
UnderstandingPrecisioninMapInfoPro
480
UnderstandingAffineTransformations
480
UsingEarthandNon-EarthMaps
483
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Working with Coordinate Systems
Theterms"projection"and"coordinatesystem"areoftenusedinterchangeably,howevertheydo
notmeanthesamething.
Projection-Anequationorsetofequationsthatcontainmathematicalparametersforamap.The
exactnumberandnatureoftheparametersdependsuponthetypeofprojection.Youcanthinkof
aprojectionasamethodofreducingamap'sdistortioncausedbythecurvatureoftheEarth,or
moreprecisely,aprojectioncompensatesfortheshortcomingsofdepictingmapsintwodimensions
whenthecoordinatesexistinthreedimensions.
CoordinateSystem-Whenparametersofaprojectionareassignedspecificvalues,theybecome
acoordinatesystem.Acoordinatesystemisacollectionofparametersthatdescribecoordinates,
oneofwhichisaprojection.
DisplayingCoordinates
Therearetwoplaceswherecoordinatesdisplay:
•IntheStatusBarbycursorlocation(setintheMapOptionsdialogboxorbyclickingonthe
StatusBar).
•Indialogboxesthatdisplayareameasurements,suchasaPointObject,RegionObjectetc.
CoordinatescanonlybeenteredintheObjectInfodialogboxeswhenalayeriseditable.
Note:
Youcandisplaycoordinatesinoneofthefollowingformats:
•Decimaldegrees(forexample-97.90052°,42.85732°)
•Degrees,minutes,seconds(forexample-97°54'1.908",42°51'26.28")
•MilitaryGridReference(WGS1984datum)(forexample14TNN8982545555)
•USNationalGridReference(NAD83/WGS84)(forexample14TNN8982545555)
•USNationalGridReference(NAD27)(forexample14TNN8985745342(NAD27))
ThedefaultisDecimaldegrees.
ElementsofaCoordinateSystem
AcoordinatesysteminMapInfoProismadeupofmanyelementswhichneedtobespecifiedin
advance.Oncetheseelementsareinplace,youcanbesurethatyourmapsareasaccurateas
possible.ThesearetheprojectionelementsyouneedtosetintheMAPINFOW.PRJfile:
ProjectionTypes
Datums
Units
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CoordinateSystemOrigin
StandardParallels(ConicProjections)
ObliqueAzimuth(HotineObliqueMercator)
ScaleFactor(TransverseMercator)
FalseEastingandFalseNorthing
Range(AzimuthalProjections)
Fordatumandunittables,seeProjectionDatumsandUnits.
Note:
UnderstandingCoordinateSystems
Youcanmakeamapoutofanyglobewithoutdistortingthepointsonthesurfacebyplacingthe
globeintoanimaginarycylinder.
GlobewithLongitude/LatitudeProjection
Ifyoutransferthetouchpointsfromtheglobesurfaceontothecylinderandrolloutthecylinderonto
graphpaper,theresultisamapasinthefigurebelow.Inthemapthatwouldbecreatedfromthis
cylinder,theEquatoris0degreesallthewayaroundtheglobeandthepointsonthatlineare
completelyaccurate.
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Longitude/LatitudeProjectionMap
Whenyouaddlongitudeandlatitudelinesat15degreeincrementstoeachsideoftheEquatorand
thePrimeMeridianyoucreateareferencegrid.ThelinesfurthestfromthePrimeMeridianare+180
degreestowardtherightand-180degreestotheleft.Thismapprojectioniscommonlycalledthe
Longitude/Latitudeprojection.
Thisisoftenconsideredthedefaultprojection.Itisthemosteffectivemapforareasnearestthe
Equatorbutmeasurementsfurtherawaytendtoincreaseindistortion.
BecausemanypeopledonotliveneartheEquator,otherprojectionscameintousetocreatemore
accuratelocalmaps.Accuracydependsuponhowyouprojecttheglobeontothecylinder.Ifyou
turnthecylindersothatittouchesthePrimeMeridianinstead(oranylineoflongitude,90degrees
awayfromtheEquator)youhaveaTransverseProjection.Thecloseryouaretotheplacethe
cylindertouchestheglobe,themoreaccuratethemeasurementsare.
GlobeDemonstratingtheTransverseProjection
TransverseprojectionsallowustomakemapsthataremoreNorth-Southlineaccurate,aslongas
youcompensateforthedistancefromthenew"Equator"whichinthiscaseisthePrimeMeridian.
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Figure:TransverseMercatorProjectionMap
Athirdtypeofprojectionattemptstoresolvethedistortionprobleminanotherway.Conicprojections
useaconeshapeinsteadofacylindertocreatethe"touchpoints".
GlobewithConicProjection
Thistypeofprojectionismuchmoreaccurateforlargeregionsorcountriesthatarewiderinthe
East-WestdirectionthanintheNorth-Southdirection.Thereismuchlessdistortionregionally
becausethetouchpointsofaconeareclosertothemapsurfacethanthoseofacylinder.
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BrazilianPolyconicProjectionMap
Asyoucanseefromthepreviousfigure,theconicmapsarebestforsmallregionalareas.The
smaller-scalemaphastoomuchdistortiontobeuseful.
Afourthtypeofprojection,theAzimuthalprojection,doesnotuseconesorcylindersbutasimple
circlethatgoesallthewayaroundtheglobeoveraparticularpoint.Thisprojectionprovidesa"view
fromspace"overaparticularpoint.
GlobewithAzimuthalProjection
Thistypeofprojectionismostusefulwhenyouneedtoworkwithaparticularhemisphere.A
hemisphereneednotbeNorth-SouthorEast-Westbased.ThenextfigureusestheNorthPoleas
thecenterpointfortheAzimuthalProjection.
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LambertAzimuthalProjectionMap
YoucanusemorethanoneprojectionthatrotatesacylinderslightlyalongtheEquator.Thisstyle
isusedintheUniversalTransverseMercator(UTM)projection.UTMmapstheEarthwithatransverse
cylinderprojectiontocreatestandard"UTMZones".Byrotatingthecylinderaroundtheglobeinsix
degreeincrements,theUTMassuresthatallspotsontheEartharewithin3degreesofthecenter
line.(TheGauss-KrugersystemisaEuropeansystemakintoUTMthatalsousesatransverse
cylinderrotatedinsixdegreesteps).
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UniversalTransverseMercatorProjectionMap(UTMZone29)
Almostallprojectionsyouwilluseareoneofthesetypes.Theyareeithercylindrical(regularor
transverse),conic,orazimuthalprojectionsandarecustomizedbyslightlydifferentprojection
parameters.Projectionparametersareoptionsthatdescribehowtheprojectionisarranged.
Youcanfurthercustomizeprojectionsbyspecifyingdifferentparametersfortheprojectionyouwant
touse.Forexample,youcanspecifythelongitudeandlatitudeofanypointontheEarthtocreate
yourownAzimuthalprojectionofthatpoint.Youcancustomizeconicprojectionsbyspecifyingthe
paralleloflatitudeatwhichtheconeshouldbetangent.
Building Blocks of a Coordinate System
Inthissection,weprovidethetablesrequiredtocreateyourowncoordinatesystemsusingmap
projections,datums,units,Origins,StandardParallels,Azimuths,ScaleFactors,FalseEastings,
FalseNorthings,andRanges.Youmightwanttocreateyourowncoordinatesystemifaccuracyis
crucialtounderstandingyourdataorifyourdataisspecifiedinrelationtoanon-standardpoint,and
youwouldprefertokeepyourdatainthatcustomcoordinatesystem.
CoordinateSystems,Projections,andtheirParameters
Byspecifyingaprojectiontypeandvariousrequiredparameters,youcreateamathematicalalgorithm
forproducingequivalentcoordinatesindegreesfortheprojectedcoordinatesystem.Eachprojection
hasspecificparametersyoucancustomizetomakeyourmapsmoregeographicallyaccurate.The
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followingtabledetailseachmajorcoordinatesystemtypeandtheparametersyoucanuseto
customizethatsystem.Theparametersarelistedintheordertheyappearintherelevantprojection
entriesintheMAPINFOW.PRJfile.Tocreateyourowncoordinatesystemusingaparticular
projection,youmustaddanentryintotheMAPINFOW.PRJfile.
Theparametersofacoordinatesystemare(inthisorder):
•CoordinateSystemName
•ProjectionType
•Datum
•Units
•OriginalLongitude
•OriginalLatitude
•StandardParallel1
•StandardParallel2
•Azimuth
•ScaleFactor
•FalseEasting
•FalseNorthing
•Range
Eachoftheseheadingsisdescribedindetailinthenextfewpages.
Note:
Foracompletelistofcommoncoordinatesystemsandtheirnecessaryparameters,seeProjections
andTheirParameters
ProjectionTypes
Theprojectiontypeistheequationorequationsusedbyacoordinatesystem.Foralistofprojections
MapInfoProfessinaluses,seeProjectionTypesList.
SpecifyingtheBoundsforCoordinateSystems
YoucanspecifytheboundsforcoordinatesystemsintheMapInfoPro.PRJfile.Todoso,add2000
totheprojectionnumberandlisttheboundsaftertheprojectionparameters.Thegeneralformis:
name, projectionnum + 2000, projection parameters, x1, y1, x2, y2
Forexample,todefineaUTMZone10coordinatesystemwithboundsof(100000,400000)to
(200000,450000),usethisline:
"UTM Zone 10", 2008, 74, 7, -123, 0, 0.9996, 500000, 0, 100000, 400000,
200000, 450000
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