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TodefineaLongitude/Latitudecoordinatesystemwithboundsof(-50,30)to(-48,35),usethis
line:
"Longitude / Latitude", 2000, 0, -50, 30, -48, 35
Youcanalsodefineacoordinatesystemwithboundsandanaffinetransformation.Inthatcase,
add3000totheprojectionnumber,andlisttheboundsaftertheaffinetransformationconstants.
Thegeneralformis:
name, projectionnum + 3000, projection parameters, unitnum, A, B, C, D,
E, F, x1, y1, x2, y2
AccountingforAffineTransformationsandExplicitBoundsinProjectionTypes
YoucanmodifyprojectiontypeentriesintheMAPINFOW.PRJtoaddaconstantvaluetoaccount
foraffinetransformationsandexplicitbounds.Validconstantvaluesarelistedinthenexttable:
Parameters
CoordinateSystemhas:
Constant
Affineunitsspecifierandcoefficientsappearafter
theregularparametersforthesystem.
Affinetransformations
1000
Boundsappearaftertheregularparametersforthe
system.
Explicitbounds
2000
Affineparametersfollowsystem'sparameters;
boundsfollowaffineparameters.
Bothaffinetransformationsandbounds
3000
Example:
InthisexampleweusetheTransverseMercatorcoordinatesystemwiththeNAD1983datum.You
mighthavethislineinyourMAPINFOW.PRJfile:
"UTM Zone 1 (NAD 83)", 8, 74, 7, -177, 0, 0.9996, 500000, 0
Ifyouwanttoaccountforanaffinetransformationforthissystem,youwouldaddtheconstantto
theprojectiontypeandappendtheparametersoftheaffinetransformationaslistedbelow:
Units=meters;A=0.5;B=-0.866;C=0;D=0.866;E=0.5;andF=0
Therefore,thenewentrytoappendtheparametersoftheaffinetransformationwouldbe:
"UTM Zone 1 (NAD 83) - rotated 60 degrees", 1008, 74, 7, -177, 0,
0.9996, 500000, 0, 7, 0.5, -0.866, 0, 0.866, 0.5, 0
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where:
Description
Entry
Achievedbyaddingtheconstant(1000)totheprojection
type(8)
1008
Unitsfortheaffinetransformation(7=meters)
7
Affineparameters.
0.5,-0.866,0,0.866,0.5,0
Tosupplyexplicitboundstothecoordinatesystem(x1,y1,x2,y2)=(-500000,0,500000,1000000),
therequiredlineentrieswouldbe:
"UTM Zone 1 (NAD 83) - bounded", 2008, 74, 7, -177, 0, 0.9996, 500000,
0, -500000, 0, 500000, 1000000
where:
Description
Entry
Producedbyaddingtheconstant(2000)totheprojection
type(8)
2008
Explicitboundsparameters
-500000,0,500000,1000000
Tocustomizethecoordinatesystemusingboththeaffinetransformationandexplicitbounds,the
entryintheMAPINFOW.PRJwouldbe:
"UTM Zone 1 (NAD 83) - rotated and bounded", 3008, 74, 7, -177, 0,
0.9996, 500000, 0, 7, 0.5, -0.866, 0, 0.866, 0.5, 0, -500000, 0,
500000, 1000000
where:
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Description
Entry
Producedbyaddingtheconstant(3000)totheprojection
type(8)
3008
Unitsfortheaffinetransformation(7=meters)
7
Affineparameters
0.5,-0.866,0,0.866,0.5,0
Explicitboundsparameters(SeeAccountingforAffine
TransformationsandExplicitBoundsinProjection
Types.)
-500000,0,500000,1000000
Datums
Adatumisestablishedbytyingareferenceellipsoidtoaparticularpointontheearth.Thefollowing
Datumstableliststhedetailsforeachdatum:
•ThenumberusedtoidentifythedatumintheMAPINFOW.PRJfile.
•Thedatum'sname
•Themapsforwhichthedatumistypicallyused
•Thedatum'sreferenceellipsoid
Foracomprehensivelistofsupportedprojectiondatums,seeProjectionDatums.
Foralistofdatumchangesbyversion,seeCoordinateSystemEnhancementsbyVersioninthe
MapInfoProHelp.
Tocreateacustomdatum,seeDefiningCustomDatumsintheHelpSystem.
ConvertingCoordinatesfromOneDatumtoAnother
Whenconvertingcoordinatesfromonedatumtoanother,MapInfoProhasusedtheMolodensky
(3-parameter)andBursa-Wolfe(7-parameter)methods.Thesearegeneral-purposemethodsthat
canconvertcoordinatesfromanydatumtoanyotherdatum.
AftertheNAD83datumwasintroduced,NOAAdevelopedaprogramcalledNADCON,whichstands
forNorthAmericanDatumCONversion.Thisisaveryspecializedprogramthatconvertscoordinates
onlyfromNAD27toNAD83andviceversa.Forthisspecializedtask,itismuchmoreaccurate
thantheMolodenskygeneral-purposemethod;NADCONisaccuratetoabout0.1meter,and
Molodenskyisaccuratetoonly10-30meters.MostU.S.governmentagencies,includingtheCensus
Bureau,havestandardizedonNADCONforconvertingbetweenNAD27andNAD83.
TheNADCONalgorithmisusedtoconvertcoordinatesbetweenNAD27andNAD83ifthose
coordinatesliewithintheareascoveredbyNADCON(UnitedStates,PuertoRico,andtheVirgin
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Islands).Ifthecoordinateslieoutsidethoseareas,oriftheyusedatumsotherthanNAD27orNAD
83,MapInfoProusestheMolodenskyorBursa-Wolfeconversionmethods.
Duetothefileaccessrequired,theNADCONconversionmethodcanbeslightlyslowerthanthe
Molodenskymethod.IfyouwanttoturnofftheNADCONconversion,adda"NADCON"entrytothe
registry.Theregistryentryshouldhavethispath:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\MapInfo\MapInfo\Common\NADCON
Ifthisentryissettozero,thentheMolodenskyconversionmethodwillbeusedinsteadofNADCON.
NADCON=0
Units
Theunitsindicatethemeasurementthattheprojectionusestokeeptrackofspace.Tofinda
completelistofunitsandtheircorrespondingprojectionentries,seeUnits.
CoordinateSystemOrigin
ThecoordinatesystemoriginisthepointontheEarth(specifiedaslongitudeandlatitudedegrees)
fromwhichallcoordinatedistancesaretobemeasured.X=0andY=0attheoriginpoint,unless
afalseeastingand/orfalsenorthingisused(seebelow).Itischosentooptimizetheaccuracyofa
particularcoordinatesystem.Aswemovenorthfromtheorigin,Yincreases;Xincreasesaswe
moveeast.Thesecoordinatevaluesaregenerallycallednorthingsandeastings.
FortheTransverseMercatorprojection,theorigin'slongitudedefinesthecentralmeridian.In
constructingtheTransverseMercatorprojectionacylinderispositionedtangenttotheearth.The
centralmeridianisthelineoftangency.Thescaleoftheprojectedmapistruealongthecentral
meridian.
IncreatingaHotineObliqueMercatorprojectionitisnecessarytospecifyagreatcirclethatisnot
theequatornorameridian.MapInfoProdoesthisbyspecifyingonepointontheellipsoidandan
azimuthfromthatpoint.Thatpointistheoriginofthecoordinatesystem.
StandardParallels(ConicProjections)
Inconicprojectionsaconeispassedthroughtheearthintersectingitalongtwoparallelsoflatitude.
Thesearethestandardparallels.Oneistothenorthandoneistothesouthoftheprojectionzone.
Touseasinglestandardparallelspecifythatlatitudetwice.Bothareexpressedindegreesoflatitude.
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ObliqueAzimuth(HotineObliqueMercator)
Whenspecifyingagreatcircle(suchastheHotineObliqueMercator)usingapointandanazimuth
(arc),theazimuthiscalledtheObliqueAzimuthandisexpressedindegrees.
ScaleFactor(TransverseMercator)
Ascalefactorisappliedtocylindricalcoordinatestoaveragescaleerroroverthecentralareaof
themapwhilereducingtheerroralongtheeastandwestboundaries.Thescalefactorhastheeffect
ofrecessingthecylinderintotheearthsothatithastwolinesofintersection.Scaleistruealong
theselinesofintersection.
Youmayseethescalefactorexpressedasaratio,suchas1:25000.Inthiscaseitisgenerally
calledthescalereduction.Therelationshipbetweenscalefactorandscalereductionis:
scalefactor=1-scalereduction
Inthiscasethescalefactorwouldbe1-(1/25000)or0.99996.
FalseEastingandFalseNorthing
AsyoucanseeintheLongitude/LatitudeProjectionMap,XandYcoordinateparametersare
commonlydesignatedinrelationshiptoasinglepoint.Pointstotheleftofthatcenterpointare
negativeandpointstotherightarepositive.Pointsabovethatcenterpointarepositiveandpoints
belowthatpointarenegative.
Inthedaysofthetallships,thesecalculationsandcomputationsweredonebyhand.Usingpositive
andnegativesignsmadethesecalculationsmorecomplicated.Theterms"falseeasting"and"false
northing"wereusedtoremovethesesignsandrefertotheabsolutevalueoftheXandYcoordinates.
MapInfoProhandlesthesecomputations,buttheseparametersstillhavetobeaccountedforinthe
projectionsthatusethem.
Range(AzimuthalProjections)
Therangespecifies,indegrees,howmuchoftheEarthisvisible.Therangecanbebetween1and
180.Whenyouspecify90,youseeahemisphere.Whenyouspecify180youseethewholeearth,
thoughmuchofitisverydistorted.
About PolyconicCoordinateSystems
Thefollowingdescriptionhasbeencopiedfrom"MapProjections-AWorkingManual",USGS
ProfessionalPaper1395,byJohnP.Snyder.
ThePolyconicprojection,usuallycalledtheAmericanPolyconicinEurope,achieveditsname
becausethecurvatureofthecirculararcforeachparallelonthemapisthesameasitwouldbe
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followingtheunrollingofaconewhichhadbeenwrappedaroundtheglobetangenttotheparticular
paralleloflatitude,withtheparalleltracedontothecone.Thus,therearemany("poly-")cones
involved,ratherthanthesingleconeofeachregularconicprojection.
ThePolyconicprojectionisneitherequal-areanorconformal.Alongthecentralmeridian,however,
itisbothdistortionfreeandtruetoscale.Eachparallelistruetoscale,butthemeridiansare
lengthenedbyvariousamountstocrosseachparallelatthecorrectpositionalongtheparallel,so
thatnoparallelisstandardinthesenseofhavingconformality(orcorrectangles),exceptatthe
centralmeridian.Nearthecentralmeridian,distortionisextremelysmall.
Thisprojectionisnotintendedformappinglargeareas.Theconversionalgorithmsusedbreakdown
whenmappingwidelongituderanges.Forexample,WORLD.TAB,fromthesampledatashipped
withMapInfoPro,mayexhibitanomaliesifreprojectedusingPolyconic.
ExamplesofProjectionEntriesintheMAPINFOW.PRJFile
TheMAPINFOW.PRJfileliststheparametersforeachcoordinatesystemonaseparateline,asin
thefollowingexamples:
"Mollweide(EqualArea)",13,62,7,0
"AlbersEqual-AreaConic(Alaska)",9,63,7,-154,50,55,65,0,0
"UTMZone9(NAD27forCanada)",8,66,7,-129,0,0.9996,500000,0
Thisisabasiclistoftheelementsofacoordinatesystem,forreview.Therearesomeprojections
thatdonotrequirealloftheelementsinthelist.Followingthislist,youcanseesomeentriesfrom
the.PRJfile.
1. Thefirstelementineachlististhenameoftheprojectioninquotes.
2. Thesecondelementineachlististhenumberthatidentifiestheprojectionnumberasindicated
inProjectionTypesList.
3. ThethirdelementineachlististhedatumIDthatidentifiestheappropriatedatumfortheprojection.
SeeDatumsforacompletelistofsupporteddatums.
4. Thefourthelementineachlististheunits,whichindicatetheunitsoftheprojection.SeeUnits
foracurrentlistofthesupportedunits.
5. Thenextelementinsomelistsisthecoordinatesystemorigin.SeeCoordinateSystemOrigin
foracompletedescriptionofthisentry.
6. Theremainingelementsarespecifictoparticulartypesofprojections.Youcanseetheir
descriptionsinStandardParallels(ConicProjections),ObliqueAzimuth(HotineOblique
Mercator),ScaleFactor(TransverseMercator),FalseEastingandFalseNorthingandRange
(AzimuthalProjections).
Eachelementinaprojectionentryisseparatedbyacomma.
Note:
Letuslookatsomespecificcoordinatesystemstoprepareyoutocreateyourownprojection.Itis
importanttorememberthattheelementsofaprojectionaredifferentforeachprojection.Hereare
someexampleswehavealreadyseen:
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ThereareadditionalexamplesintheHelpSystem.
Note:
Adding Projections to the MAPINFOW.PRJ File
OnceyouunderstandthestructureoftheentriesintheMAPINFOW.PRJfile,youarereadytocreate
anewprojectionentryforyourcoordinatesystem.Youmaywanttomakeacopyofthe
MAPINFOW.PRJfileincaseyouwanttorevertbacktoitlater.
TocreateanewprojectionentryforthecoordinatesystemintheMAPINFOW.PRJfile:
1. OpenMAPINFOW.PRJinatexteditororwordprocessor.Inthisfile,youaregoingtoaddthe
newprojectionentries.
MAPINFOW.PRJinNotepad
2. Scrolldowninthislisttofindthetypeofprojectionyouwanttobaseyourmapon.See
UnderstandingCoordinateSystemsfordescriptionsofthedifferentprojectiontypes.
3. Addanewlineattheendoftheprojectionlistyouaremodifying.
Forexample,toaddanewUniversalTransverseMercatorprojection(AustralianMapGridusing
AGD66datum),scrolldowntothatentryandtypethenewprojectionattheendofthelist.
AddingaLineintheMAPINFOW.PRJFile
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4. Onanewline,typethenewparameterentriesbasedontherequiredparametersdescribedfor
thatprojectiontypeinthetableProjectionsandTheirParameters.
•IfthenameofyourprojectiondoesnotappearintheCommonMapProjectionslist,consider
thekindofprojectionyouarecreating(Latitude/Longitude,Conic,Transverse,etc.)andfollow
thetableentriesforthetypeofprojectionyouwant.
•Remembertoincludeconstantvalues(AccountingforAffineTransformationsandExplicit
BoundsinProjectionTypes)toindicateanaffinetransformation,specificbounds,orbothif
appropriateornecessary.
Theorderofparametersisvitallyimportant.Remembertoseparateeachparameter
withacomma.
Note:
5. SaveyoureditedMAPINFOW.PRJfileinthedirectoryinyouruserdirectory.
InthepasttheMAPINFOW.PRJfilewassavedinyourinstallationdirectorybutthisdidnot
allowdifferentuserstohavedifferentPRJfiles.Thisnewfileplacementpermitsthis.
Note:
ThingstokeepinmindwheneditingtheMAPINFOW.PRJfile:
•YoumustrecordtheXandYcoordinatesoftheoriginpointindecimaldegrees.
•Remembertoincludeanegativesignforwestlongitudesandsouthlatitudes.
•YoumustlisttheoriginlongitudefirstintheMAPINFOW.PRJfileentry.
•Carryoutdecimalstoatleastfive(5)placesforgreateraccuracy.
•Donotusecommastorepresentthousandsormillionsinlargenumbers.Onlyusecommasto
separateparametersfromoneanother.
•Whenspecifyingprojection,datumandunits,usethenumberthatrepresentstheparameter.
Thesenumbersarelistedinthetableforeachparameterearlierinthissection.Inourexample,
6representsEquidistantConicprojection;74representsNAD83datum,and7representsmeters.
UsingtheNewProjectioninaCoordinateSystem
Onceyouhavecreatedthisnewprojection,youcanuseitinaMapwindowtoreplacethecoordinate
systemyouareusing.
1. Openthemapforwhichyouwanttochangeprojections.
2. FromtheMapmenu,selectOptionstodisplaytheMapOptionsdialogbox.
3. ClicktheProjectionsbuttontodisplaytheChooseProjectiondialogbox.
Tochangetheprojectionofatabfileandallofthemapobjectsinit,usetheFile>Save
CopyAscommandandselectthenewprojection.
Note:
1. SelectthenewprojectionfromthelistandclickOKtoconfirm.TheMapOptionsdialogredisplays.
2. ClickOKtoimplementthenewprojectionintheMapwindow.
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EnteringaNewCoordinateSystem(Example)
Toillustratethisprocessinanotherway,createthefollowingcoordinatesystemusingthese
parametersbyaddinganewentrytotheMAPINFOW.PRJfile:
Description
Entry
ParameterType
Nameofthenewcoordinatesystem
"EquidistantConicPlus"
Name
EquidistantConic
6,
ProjectionType
(NAD83)
74,
Datum
meters
7,
Units
90
×
30
¢
W
-90.5,
OriginLongitude
30
×
N,
30,
OriginLatitude
10
×
20
¢
N
10.33333,
StandardParallel1
50
×
N
50,
StandardParallel2
10,000,000m
10000000,
FalseEasting
500,000m
500000
FalseNorthing
1. OpenMAPINFOW.PRJinatexteditororwordprocessor.
2. GototheEquidistantConicsectionandaddanewline.
3. Typethenameofyournewcoordinatesysteminquotes,followedbyacomma.
4. Enterthefollowinginformationtorepresentyourcoordinatesystem:
6,74,7,-90.5,30,10.33333,50,10000000,500000
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5. SaveyoureditedMAPINFOW.PRJfile.
Youcanuseyourcustomcoordinatesystemjustasyouwoulduseanyofthecoordinatesystems
thatcomewithMapInfoPro.
Thereareotherwaysyoucaneditthisfile.Toshortenthelist,removecoordinatesystemsfromthe
file.Youcanalsochangethenames,changegroupheadingsandreorderthefiletosuityourneeds.
Groupheadingsaredistinguishedbythehyphenatthebeginningofthename.Namesof
coordinatesystemscannotbeginwithahyphenoraspace.
Note:
Understanding Precision in MapInfo Pro
MapInfoProisaverygoodtoolforworkingatahighprecisionlevel.Buttheonusisontheuserto
discoverthepracticallimitsoftheprograminvariouscircumstancesandhowtosetthework
environmentinordertoobtainthedesiredprecisionlevel.Millimeterlevelprecisioncanbeeasily
attainedandmaintainedwithprojectedmapsinthemetricsystem.
WhatisPrecision?
ThemostbasiccomponentofanyGISisthespatialdatathatdefinesthemapfeatures.Thisspatial
datacouldnotexistwithoutthecoordinatesystemsthatareusedtospecifythelocationinformation.
Coordinateprecisionisameasureofstoringspatialdataasaccuratelyaspossible.Ofcourse,this
canbenomoreprecisethantheoriginaldataprovided.Precisionisameasurementofhowaccurately
youcanstoreandretrievethespatialdataandhasnothingtodowiththequalityofthedata.The
numberofreliabledigitsinyourcoordinateistermedsignificantdigits.Precisionismeasuredin
termsofthesesignificantdigits.
•Fortopicsrelatedtoprecisionandmapbounds,seeUnderstandingPrecisioninMapInfoProin
theHelpSystem.
Understanding Affine Transformations
Anaffinetransformationallowsyoutomatchthepointsontwovectormapsthatusedifferent
coordinatesystemssotheycanbeusedtogether.Thebasemapstaysthesamewhilethederived
mapistransformedmathematicallytomatchupcoordinatestothebasemap.
MapInfoProprovidesthedefinitionsforscale,translation,rotation,reflection,andshearingnecessary
tosupportanoptionalaffinetransformationforanycoordinatesystemdefinition.Youcanalsodefine
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