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U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April 2016
121
Table 7.5   Stocks of Coal and Petroleum:  Electric Power Sector
r
Coala
Petroleum
Distillate Fuel Oilb
Residual Fuel Oilc
Other Liquidsd
Petroleum Cokee
Totale,f
Thousand Short Tons
Thousand Barrels
Thousand Short Tons
Thousand Barrels
1950 Year.............................
.
31,842
NA
NA
NA
NA
10,201
1955 Year.............................
.
41,391
NA
NA
NA
NA
13,671
1960 Year.............................
.
51,735
NA
NA
NA
NA
19,572
1965 Year.............................
.
54,525
NA
NA
NA
NA
25,647
1970 Year.............................
.
71,908
NA
NA
NA
239
39,151
1975 Year.............................
.
110,724
16,432
108,825
NA
31
125,413
1980 Year.............................
.
183,010
30,023
105,351
NA
52
135,635
1985 Year.............................
.
156,376
16,386
57,304
NA
49
73,933
1990 Year.............................
.
156,166
16,471
67,030
NA
94
83,970
1995 Year.............................
.
126,304
15,392
35,102
NA
65
50,821
2000 Year...........................
.
102,296
15,127
24,748
NA
211
40,932
2001 Year.............................
.
138,496
20,486
34,594
NA
390
57,031
2002 Year.............................
.
141,714
17,413
25,723
800
1,711
52,490
2003 Year.............................
.
121,567
19,153
25,820
779
1,484
53,170
2004 Year.............................
.
106,669
19,275
26,596
879
937
51,434
2005 Year.............................
.
101,137
18,778
27,624
1,012
530
50,062
2006 Year.............................
.
140,964
18,013
28,823
1,380
674
51,583
2007 Year.............................
.
151,221
18,395
24,136
1,902
554
47,203
2008 Year.............................
.
161,589
17,761
21,088
1,955
739
44,498
2009 Year.............................
.
189,467
17,886
19,068
2,257
1,394
46,181
2010 Year.............................
.
174,917
16,758
16,629
2,319
1,019
40,800
2011 Year.............................
.
172,387
16,649
15,491
2,707
508
37,387
2012 Year.............................
.
185,116
16,433
12,999
2,792
495
34,698
2013 Year.............................
.
147,884
16,068
12,926
2,679
390
33,622
2014 January........................
.
133,705
15,058
10,057
2,439
298
29,044
February ......................
.
119,904
16,003
10,677
2,479
277
30,541
March...........................
.
118,260
16,148
10,606
2,443
350
30,946
April .............................
.
128,925
16,483
10,608
2,477
515
32,143
May..............................
.
136,921
16,285
10,581
2,511
458
31,665
June .............................
.
133,479
16,583
10,659
2,495
397
31,724
July ..............................
.
125,870
16,490
10,250
2,380
381
31,025
August .........................
.
121,369
16,510
10,460
2,375
388
31,286
September ...................
.
124,546
16,863
10,532
2,394
389
31,734
October ........................
.
136,964
17,429
10,891
2,564
510
33,433
November ....................
.
142,595
18,166
11,978
2,685
633
35,994
 December ...................
.
151,548
18,309
12,764
2,432
827
37,643
2015 January........................
.
154,749
18,043
12,142
2,459
892
37,103
February ......................
.
149,765
16,278
9,781
2,182
850
32,492
March...........................
.
155,004
16,676
10,167
2,262
818
33,196
April .............................
.
167,681
16,718
10,045
2,233
912
33,555
May..............................
.
173,436
16,734
10,417
2,234
999
34,381
June .............................
.
167,039
16,703
10,463
2,269
1,031
34,592
July ..............................
.
158,596
16,661
10,157
2,247
1,065
34,387
August .........................
.
156,545
16,777
9,968
2,248
1,029
34,136
September ...................
.
162,684
17,211
10,617
2,226
1,102
35,562
October ........................
.
176,140
17,422
11,323
2,249
1,149
36,739
November ....................
.
189,120
17,470
12,133
2,291
1,292
38,352
 December ...................
.
197,128
17,439
12,449
2,334
1,342
38,935
2016 January........................
.
189,073
17,254
12,192
2,309
1,321
38,358
Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite; excludes waste
coal.
.
Fuel oil nos. 1, 2 and 4.  For 1973–1979, data are for gas turbine and internal
combustion plant stocks of petroleum.  For 1980–2000, electric utility data also
include small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel.
.
Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6.  For 1973–1979, data are for steam plant stocks of
petroleum.  For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel
oil no. 4.
.
Jet fuel and kerosene.  Through 2003, data also include a small amount of
waste oil.
.
Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5.
Distillate fuel oil and residual fuel oil.  Beginning in 1970, also includes
petroleum coke.  Beginning in 2002, also includes other liquids.
.
Through 1998, data are for electric utilities only.  Beginning in 1999, data are
for electric utilities and independent power producers.
.
NA=Not available.  
Notes:  
Data are for utility-scale facilities.  See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity
Statistics," at end of section.  
The electric power sector comprises electricity-only
and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose
e
primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.  
Stocks
are at end  of period.  
Totals may not equal sum of components due to
independent rounding.  
Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of
Columbia.
Web Page:  See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel
and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data
beginning in 1973.
Sources:  
1949–September 1977:  Federal Power Commission, Form FPC-4,
"Monthly Power Plant Report."  
October 1977–1981:  Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission, Form FPC-4, "Monthly Power Plant Report."  
1982–1988:  U.S.
Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant
Report."  
1989–1997:  EIA, Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and
Form EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report."  
1998–2000:  EIA,
Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-860B, "Annual Electric
Generator Report—Nonutility."  
2001–2003:  EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant
Report."  
2004–2007:  EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form
EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." 
2008 forward:  EIA, Form
EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report."
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Figure 7.6 Electricity End Use
(Billion Kilowatthours)
Electricity End Use Overview, 1989–2015
Retail Sales
a
by Sector, January 2016
Retail Sales
a
by Sector, 1949–2015
Retail Sales
a
by Sector, Monthly
Retail Sales
a
Total, January
122
U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April 2016
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
130.8
110.3
76.3
0.7
Residential
Industrial
0
30
60
90
120
150
Direct Use
b
Total
Retail Sales
a
Transportation
d
Commercial
c
Transportation
d
Commercial
c
Commercial
c
Residential
1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
0
500
1,000
1,500
Industrial
Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by utilities and
other energy service providers.
b
See “Direct Use” in Glossary.
c
Commercial sector, including public street and highway lighting, inter-
departmental sales, and other sales to public authorites.
d
Transportation sector, including sales to railroads and railways.
Web Page:  http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity.
Source:  Table 7.6.
Residential
JFMAM J JASOND J FMAMJ JASOND J FMAMJ JASOND
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
2015
Industrial
2016
Transportation
d
2014
341
326
318
2014
2015
2016
0
100
200
300
400
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U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April 2016
123
Table 7.6   Electricity End Use
(Million Kilowatthours)
)
Retail Salesa
Direct Usef
Total
End Useg
Discontinued
Retail Sales Series
Residential
Commercialb
Industrialc
Transpor-
tationd
Total
Retail Salese
Commercial
(Old) h
Other
(Old) i
1950 Total....................
.
72,200
65,971
146,479
6,793
291,443
NA
291,443
50,637
22,127
1955 Total....................
.
128,401
102,547
259,974
5,826
496,748
NA
496,748
79,389
28,984
1960 Total....................
.
201,463
159,144
324,402
3,066
688,075
NA
688,075
130,702
31,508
1965 Total....................
.
291,013
231,126
428,727
2,923
953,789
NA
953,789
200,470
33,580
1970 Total....................
.
466,291
352,041
570,854
3,115
1,392,300
NA
1,392,300
306,703
48,452
1975 Total....................
.
588,140
468,296
687,680
2,974
1,747,091
NA
1,747,091
403,049
68,222
1980 Total....................
.
717,495
558,643
815,067
3,244
2,094,449
NA
2,094,449
488,155
73,732
1985 Total....................
.
793,934
689,121
836,772
4,147
2,323,974
NA
2,323,974
605,989
87,279
1990 Total....................
.
924,019
838,263
945,522
4,751
2,712,555
124,529
2,837,084
751,027
91,988
1995 Total....................
.
1,042,501
953,117
1,012,693
4,975
3,013,287
150,677
3,163,963
862,685
95,407
2000 Total....................
.
1,192,446
1,159,347
1,064,239
5,382
3,421,414
170,943
3,592,357
1,055,232
109,496
2001 Total....................
.
1,201,607
1,190,518
996,609
5,724
3,394,458
162,649
3,557,107
1,083,069
113,174
2002 Total....................
.
1,265,180
1,204,531
990,238
5,517
3,465,466
166,184
3,631,650
1,104,497
105,552
2003 Total....................
.
1,275,824
1,198,728
1,012,373
6,810
3,493,734
168,295
3,662,029
– –
– –
2004 Total....................
.
1,291,982
1,230,425
1,017,850
7,224
3,547,479
168,470
3,715,949
– –
– –
2005 Total....................
.
1,359,227
1,275,079
1,019,156
7,506
3,660,969
150,016
3,810,984
– –
– –
2006 Total....................
.
1,351,520
1,299,744
1,011,298
7,358
3,669,919
146,927
3,816,845
– –
– –
2007 Total....................
.
1,392,241
1,336,315
1,027,832
8,173
3,764,561
125,670
3,890,231
– –
– –
2008 Total....................
.
1,380,662
1,336,133
1,009,516
7,653
3,733,965
132,197
3,866,161
– –
– –
2009 Total....................
.
1,364,758
1,306,853
917,416
7,768
3,596,795
126,938
3,723,733
– –
– –
2010 Total....................
.
1,445,708
1,330,199
971,221
7,712
3,754,841
131,910
3,886,752
– –
– –
2011 Total....................
.
1,422,801
1,328,057
991,316
7,672
3,749,846
132,754
3,882,600
– –
– –
2012 Total....................
.
1,374,515
1,327,101
985,714
7,320
3,694,650
137,657
3,832,306
– –
– –
2013 Total....................
.
1,394,812
1,337,079
985,352
7,625
3,724,868
143,462
3,868,330
– –
– –
2014 January................
.
146,511
113,866
80,149
712
341,238
12,043
353,281
– –
– –
February ..............
.
128,475
104,353
75,413
700
308,941
10,683
319,624
– –
– –
March...................
.
114,233
106,968
80,539
648
302,388
11,423
313,811
– –
– –
April .....................
.
92,290
102,459
80,505
640
275,894
10,776
286,669
– –
– –
May......................
.
95,727
109,666
85,383
646
291,421
11,196
302,617
– –
– –
June .....................
.
118,049
118,423
85,711
609
322,792
11,376
334,168
– –
– –
July ......................
.
137,028
125,434
88,417
645
351,524
12,355
363,879
– –
– –
August .................
.
135,830
125,603
89,808
642
351,883
12,421
364,304
– –
– –
September ...........
.
120,741
120,049
85,489
628
326,907
11,619
338,526
– –
– –
October ................
.
98,038
113,023
84,994
625
296,680
11,216
307,896
– –
– –
November ............
.
99,486
104,245
81,044
637
285,413
11,288
296,701
– –
– –
December ............
.
120,801
108,070
80,123
626
309,620
12,179
321,799
– –
– –
 Total....................
.
1,407,208
1,352,158
997,576
7,758
3,764,700
138,574
3,903,274
– –
– –
2015 January................
.
137,531
110,941
77,242
670
326,384
12,258
338,642
– –
– –
February ..............
.
123,777
105,514
74,512
702
304,505
10,760
315,266
– –
– –
March...................
.
116,865
107,786
77,394
682
302,727
11,021
313,748
– –
– –
April .....................
.
89,926
103,973
78,056
623
272,578
10,406
282,984
– –
– –
May......................
.
94,863
109,127
80,738
611
285,339
11,100
296,439
– –
– –
June .....................
.
119,926
119,112
83,772
612
323,422
11,615
335,037
– –
– –
July ......................
.
145,418
128,448
85,400
650
359,916
12,569
372,486
– –
– –
August .................
.
144,091
128,387
85,891
627
358,996
12,411
371,407
– –
– –
September ...........
.
124,992
122,116
82,342
617
330,068
11,719
341,787
– –
– –
October ................
.
99,076
112,761
80,915
638
293,390
11,140
304,530
– –
– –
November ............
.
92,383
103,942
76,378
606
273,309
11,488
284,797
– –
– –
December ............
.
111,033
106,312
75,923
622
293,890
12,262
306,153
– –
– –
 Total....................
.
1,399,884
1,358,419
958,563
7,659
3,724,525
138,750
3,863,275
– –
– –
2016 January................
.
130,795
110,334
76,287
659
318,075
11,971
330,046
– –
– –
Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and,
beginning in 1996, other energy service providers.
.
Commercial sector, including public street and highway lighting,
interdepartmental sales, and other sales to public authorities.
.
Industrial sector. Through 2002, excludes agriculture and irrigation; beginning
in 2003, includes agriculture and irrigation.
.
Transportation sector, including sales to railroads and railways.
The sum of "Residential," "Commercial," "Industrial," and "Transportation."
Use of electricity that is 1) self-generated, 2) produced by either the same
entity that consumes the power or an affiliate, and 3) used in direct support of a
service or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilities
that house the generating equipment.  Direct use is exclusive of station use.
.
The sum of "Total Retail Sales" and "Direct Use."
"Commercial (Old)" is a discontinued series—data are for the commercial
sector, excluding public street and highway lighting, interdepartmental sales, and
other sales to public authorities.
"Other (Old)" is a discontinued series—data are for public street and highway
lighting, interdepartmental sales, other sales to public authorities, agriculture and
irrigation, and transportation including railroads and railways.
E=Estimate.  NA=Not available.  – – =Not applicable.  
Notes:  
See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of section.
 Totals may  not equal sum  of  components due  to  independent  rounding.
Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Web Page:  See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Excel
and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data
beginning in 1973.
Sources:   See end of section.
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Electricity
Note  1.  Coverage  of  Electricity  Statistics.
  
Data  in
Section 7 cover the following:  
Through 1984, data for electric utilities also include institu-
tions (such as universities) and military facilities that gener-
ated electricity primarily for their own use; beginning in 1985,
data  for  electric  utilities  exclude  institutions  and  military
facilities.  Beginning in 1989, data for the commercial sector
include institutions and military facilities. 
The generation, consumption, and stocks data in Section 7 are
for facilities with a combined generator nameplate capacity of
1 megawatt or greater; these data exclude small-scale facilities
(those with a combined generator nameplate capacity of under
1 megawatt).  Data for small-scale solar photovoltaic genera-
tion in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors are
available in the Electric Power Monthly.
Note 2.  Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-
Use Sectors.  
The U.S. Energy Information Administration
(EIA)  classifies  power  plants  (both  electricity-only  and
combined-heat-and-power  plants)  into  energy-use  sectors
based on the North American Industry Classification System
(NAICS), which replaced the Standard Industrial Classifica-
tion (SIC) system in 1997.  Plants with a NAICS code of 22
are assigned to the Electric Power Sector.  Those with NAICS
codes beginning with 11 (agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
hunting); 21  (mining, including oil  and gas  extraction); 23
(construction);  31–33  (manufacturing);  2212  (natural  gas
distribution); and 22131 (water supply and irrigation systems)
are assigned to the Industrial Sector.  Those with all other
codes are assigned to the Commercial Sector.  Form EIA-860,
“Annual  Electric  Generator  Report,”  asks  respondents  to
indicate the  primary purpose of the facility by  assigning a
NAICS code from the list at
http://www.eia.gov/survey/form/eia_860/instructions.pdf.
Table 7.1 Sources
Net Generation, Electric Power Sector
1949 forward:  Table 7.2b.
Net Generation, Commercial and Industrial Sectors
1949 forward: Table 7.2c.
Trade
1949–September 1977:  Unpublished Federal Power Commis-
sion data.
October  1977–1980:    Unpublished  Economic  Regulatory
Administration (ERA) data.    
1981:  U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy
Emergency Operations, “Report on Electric Energy Exchanges
with Canada and Mexico for Calendar Year 1981,” April 1982
(revised June 1982).
1982 and 1983:  DOE, ERA, Electricity Exchanges Across
International Borders
1984–1986:    DOE,  ERA, Electricity Transactions Across
International Borders.  
1987  and  1988:    DOE,  ERA,  Form  ERA-781R,  “Annual
Report of International Electrical Export/Import Data.”   
1989:  DOE, Fossil Energy, Form FE-781R, “Annual Report
of International Electrical Export/Import Data.”
1990–2000:   National  Energy Board of Canada; and DOE,
Office of Electricity Delivery  and  Energy Reliability, Form
FE-781R,  “Annual  Report  of  International  Electrical
Export/Import Data.”
2001–May 2011:  National Energy Board of Canada; DOE,
Office of Electricity Delivery  and  Energy Reliability, Form
OE-781R, “Monthly Electricity Imports and Exports Report,”
and  predecessor  form;  and  California  Independent  System
Operator.
June  2011  forward:    National  Energy  Board  of  Canada;
California Independent System Operator; and EIA estimates
for Texas transfers.
T&D Losses and Unaccounted for
1949 forward:  Calculated as the sum of total net generation
and imports minus end use and exports.
End Use
1949 forward:  Table 7.6.
Table 7.2b Sources
1949–September 1977:  Federal Power Commission, Form
FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”  
October 1977–1981:  Federal Energy Regulatory Commis-
sion, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”  
1982–1988:    U.S.  Energy  Information  Administration
(EIA), Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
1989–1997:  EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant
Report,”  and  Form  EIA-867,  “Annual  Nonutility  Power
Producer Report.”
1998–2000:  EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant
Report,” and Form  EIA-860B, “Annual Electric Genera-
tor Report—Nonutility.” 
2001–2003:  EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.” 
2004–2007:  EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,”
and  Form  EIA-920,  “Combined  Heat  and  Power  Plant
Report.”
2008 forward:  EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Opera-
tions Report.” 
Table 7.2c Sources
Industrial  Sector,  Hydroelectric  Power,
1949–1988
1949–September  1977:    Federal  Power  Commission
(FPC), Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” for
plants with generating capacity exceeding 10 megawatts,
and FPC, Form FPC-12C, “Industrial Electric Generating
Capacity,” for all other plants.
October 1977–1978:  Federal Energy Regulatory Commis-
sion  (FERC),  Form  FPC-4,  “Monthly  Power  Plant
124
U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April 2016
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Report,” for plants with generating capacity exceeding 10
megawatts,  and  FERC,  Form  FPC-12C,  “Industrial
Electric Generating Capacity,” for all other plants.
1979:    FERC,  Form  FPC-4,  “Monthly  Power  Plant
Report,” for plants with generating capacity exceeding 10
megawatts,  and  U.S.  Energy  Information  Administration
(EIA) estimates for all other plants.
1980–1988:  Estimated by EIA as the  average generation
over the 6-year period of 1974–1979.
All Data, 1989 Forward
1989–1997:  EIA, Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility Power
Producer Report.”
1998–2000:    EIA,  Form  EIA-860B,  “Annual  Electric
Generator Report—Nonutility.”
2001–2003:  EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.”
2004–2007:   EIA, Form  EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,”
and  Form  EIA-920,  “Combined  Heat  and  Power  Plant
Report.”
2008 forward:  EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Opera-
tions Report.”
Table 7.3b Sources
1949–September 1977:  Federal Power Commission, Form
FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
October 1977–1981:  Federal Energy Regulatory Commis-
sion, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
1982–1988:  U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA),
Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
1989–1997:    EIA,  Form  EIA-759,  “Monthly  Power
Plant  Report,”  and  Form  EIA-867,  “Annual
Nonutility
Power 
Producer Report.”
1998–2000:   EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly  Power Plant
Report,” and Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric Generator
Report—Nonutility.”
2001–2003:  EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.”
2004–2007:   EIA, Form  EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,”
and  Form  EIA-920,  “Combined  Heat  and  Power  Plant
Report.”
2008 forward:  EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Opera-
tions Report.”
Table 7.4b Sources
1949–September  1977:   Federal  Power  Commission,
Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
October  1977–1981:   Federal  Energy  Regulatory
Commission,  Form  FPC-4,  “Monthly  Power  Plant
Report.”
1982–1988:    U.S.  Energy  Information  Administration
(EIA), Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
1989–1997:  EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant
Report,”  and  Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility
Power
Producer Report.”
1998–2000:  EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant
Report,” and Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric Genera-
tor Report—Nonutility.”
2001–2003:  EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.”
2004–2007:  EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,”
and Form EIA-920,  “Combined  Heat  and  Power  Plant
Report.”
2008 forward:  EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Opera-
tions Report."
Table 7.6 Sources
Retail Sales, Residential and Industrial
1949–September 1977:  Federal Power Commission, Form
FPC-5, “Monthly Statement of Electric Operating Revenue
and  Income.” 
October  1977–February  1980:  Federal  Energy  Regulatory
Commission (FERC), Form FPC-5, “Monthly Statement of
Electric Operating Revenue and Income.” 
March 1980–1982:   FERC, Form FPC-5, "Electric Utility
Company Monthly Statement." 
1983:  U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form
EIA-826,  "Electric  Utility  Company  Monthly  Statement.”
1984–2003:  EIA, Form EIA-861, “Annual Electric Utility
Report.” 
2004 forward :  EIA, Electric Power Monthly (EPM ), March
2016, Table 5.1.
Retail Sales, Commercial
1949–2002:  Estimated by EIA as the sum of “Commercial
(Old)” and the non-transportation portion of “Other (Old).”
See estimation methodology at
http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/sep_use/notes/use_elec.pdf.
2003:  EIA, Form EIA-861, “Annual Electric Utility Report.”
2004 forward:  EIA, EPM, March 2016, Table 5.1.
Retail Sales, Transportation
1949–2002:  Estimated by EIA as the transportation portion of
“Other  (Old).”    See  estimation  methodology  at
http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/sep_use/notes/use_elec.pdf.
2003:  EIA, Form EIA-861, “Annual Electric Utility Report.”
2004 forward:  EIA, EPM, March 2016, Table 5.1.
Direct Use, Annual
1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility Power
Producer Report.”
1998–2000:  EIA,  Form  EIA-860B,  “Annual  Electric
Generator Report—Nonutility.”
2001–2014:  EIA, Electric Power Annual 2014,  February
2016, Table 2.2.
2015:  Sum of monthly estimates.
Direct Use, Monthly
1989 forward:  Annual shares are calculated as annual direct
use divided by annual commercial and industrial net genera-
tion (on Table 7.1).  Then monthly direct use estimates are
calculated  as  the  annual share  multiplied  by  the  monthly
commercial and industrial net generation values.  For 2015,
the 2014 annual share is used.
Discontinued Retail Sales Series Commercial (Old)
and Other (Old)
1949–2002: See sources for “Residential” and “Industrial.
U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April 2016
125
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THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
8.  Nuclear
Energy
Figure 8.1 Nuclear Energy Overview
Electricity Net Generation, 1957–2015
Nuclear Share of Electricity Net Generation, 1957–2015
Nuclear Electricity Net Generation
Capacity Factor, Monthly
128
U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April 2016
Web Page:   http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#nuclear.
Sources:  Tables 7.2a and 8.1.
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
0
1
2
3
4
5
Trillion Kilowatthours
Nuclear Electric Power
Total
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
0
5
10
15
20
25
Percent
2014
73.163
74.270
72.536
January
January
January
0
20
40
60
80
Billion Kilowatthours
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Percent
2014
2015
2016
2015
2016
U .S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April 2016
129
Table 8.1   Nuclear Energy Overview
w
Total
Operable
Unitsa,b
Net Summer
Capacity of
Operable Unitsb,c
Nuclear Electricity
Net Generation
Nuclear Share
of Electricity
Net Generation
Capacity Factord
Number
Million Kilowatts
Million Kilowatthours
Percent
1957 Total..........................
.
1
0.055
10
(s)
NA
1960 Total..........................
.
3
.411
518
.1
NA
1965 Total..........................
.
13
.793
3,657
.3
NA
1970 Total..........................
.
20
7.004
21,804
1.4
NA
1975 Total..........................
.
57
37.267
172,505
9.0
55.9
1980 Total..........................
.
71
51.810
251,116
11.0
56.3
1985 Total..........................
.
96
79.397
383,691
15.5
58.0
1990 Total..........................
.
112
99.624
576,862
19.0
66.0
1995 Total..........................
.
109
99.515
673,402
20.1
77.4
2000 Total..........................
.
104
97.860
753,893
19.8
88.1
2001 Total..........................
.
104
98.159
768,826
20.6
89.4
2002 Total..........................
.
104
98.657
780,064
20.2
90.3
2003 Total..........................
.
104
99.209
763,733
19.7
87.9
2004 Total..........................
.
104
99.628
788,528
19.9
90.1
2005 Total..........................
.
104
99.988
781,986
19.3
89.3
2006 Total..........................
.
104
100.334
787,219
19.4
89.6
2007 Total..........................
.
104
100.266
806,425
19.4
91.8
2008 Total..........................
.
104
100.755
806,208
19.6
91.1
2009 Total..........................
.
104
101.004
798,855
20.2
90.3
2010 Total..........................
.
104
101.167
806,968
19.6
91.1
2011 Total..........................
.
104
101.419
790,204
19.3
89.1
2012 Total..........................
.
104
101.885
769,331
19.0
86.1
2013 Total..........................
.
100
99.240
789,016
19.4
89.9
2014 January......................
.
100
99.182
73,163
19.4
99.1
February ....................
.
100
99.182
62,639
19.3
94.0
March.........................
.
100
99.182
62,397
18.8
84.5
April ...........................
.
100
99.182
56,385
18.9
78.8
May............................
.
100
99.182
62,947
19.4
85.2
June ...........................
.
100
99.182
68,138
19.0
95.4
July ............................
.
100
99.182
71,940
18.6
97.5
August .......................
.
100
99.182
71,129
18.5
96.4
September .................
.
100
99.182
67,535
19.9
94.6
October ......................
.
100
99.182
62,391
19.8
84.5
November ..................
.
100
99.182
65,140
20.5
91.3
December ..................
.
99
98.569
73,363
21.7
99.6
 Total..........................
.
99
98.569
797,166
19.5
91.7
2015 January......................
.
99
98.590
74,270
20.5
101.3
February ....................
.
99
98.590
63,462
18.9
95.8
March.........................
.
99
98.590
64,547
19.9
88.0
April ...........................
.
99
98.590
59,757
20.3
84.2
May............................
.
99
98.590
65,833
20.4
89.7
June ...........................
.
99
98.729
68,546
18.9
96.4
July ............................
.
99
98.729
71,412
17.8
97.2
August .......................
.
99
98.729
72,415
18.4
98.6
September .................
.
99
98.729
66,466
18.9
93.5
October ......................
.
99
98.729
60,571
19.4
82.5
November ..................
.
99
98.729
60,264
20.0
84.8
December ..................
.
99
98.729
69,634
21.5
94.8
 Total..........................
.
99
98.729
797,178
19.5
92.2
2016 January......................
.
99
98.707
72,536
20.5
98.8
Total of nuclear generating units holding full-power licenses, or equivalent
permission to operate, at end of period.  See Note 1, "Operable Nuclear Reactors,"
at end of section.  
At end of period.
For the definition of "Net Summer Capacity," see Note 2, "Nuclear Capacity,"
at end of section.  Beginning in 2011, monthly capacity values are estimated in two
steps:  1) uprates and derates reported on Form EIA-860M are added to specific
months; and 2) the difference between the resulting year-end capacity (from data
reported on Form EIA-860M) and final capacity (reported on Form EIA-860) is
allocated to the month of January.
.
Beginning in 2008, capacity factor data are calculated using a new
methodology. For an explanation of the method of calculating the capacity factor,
see Note 2, "Nuclear Capacity," at end of section.
E=Estimate.  NA=Not available.  (s)=Less than 0.05%.  
Notes:  
•  
For a discussion of nuclear reactor unit coverage, see Note 1,
"Operable Nuclear  Reactors,"  at  end  of  section.   
•  
Nuclear  electricity  net
generation totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
•  
Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Web Page:   See  http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#nuclear  (Excel
and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1957 and monthly data
beginning in 1973.
Sources:  See end of section.
Nuclear Energy 
Note  1.    Operable  Nuclear  Reactors.  A reactor is
generally defined as operable while it possessed a full-power
license  from  the  Nuclear  Regulatory  Commission  or  its
predecessor the Atomic Energy Commission, or equivalent
permission  to  operate,  at  the  end  of  the  year  or  month
shown. The definition is liberal in that it does not exclude
units retaining full-power licenses during long, non-routine
shutdowns that for a time rendered them unable to generate
electricity.  Examples are:
(a)  In 1985 the five then-active Tennessee Valley Authority
(TVA) units (Browns Ferry 1, 2, and 3, and Sequoyah 1 and
2) were shut down under a regulatory forced outage.  All
five units  were idle  for several  years,  restarting  in  2007,
1991, 1995, 1988, and 1988, respectively and were counted
as operable during the shutdowns.  
(b)  Shippingport was shut down from 1974 through 1976
for  conversion  to  a  light-water  breeder  reactor,  but  is
counted as operable from 1957 until  its retirement in 1982.
(c)  Calvert Cliffs 2 was shut down in 1989 and 1990 for
replacement of pressurizer heater sleeves but is counted as
operable during those years.
Exceptions to the definition are Shoreham and Three Mile
Island 2. Shoreham was  granted  a  full-power license in
April 1989, but was shut down two months later and never
restarted. In 1991, the license was changed to Possession
Only.  Although  not  operable  at  the  end  of  the  year,
Shoreham is counted as operable during 1989.  A major
accident closed Three Mile Island 2 in 1979, and although
the unit retained its full-power license for several years, it
is considered permanently shut down since that year. 
The following nuclear generating units were retired in 2013:
Crystal  River  3  in February; Kewaunee in May; and San
Onofre 2 and 3 in June.  Vermont Yankee was retired in
December 2014.
Note 2.  Nuclear Capacity.  Nuclear generating units may
have more than one type of net capacity rating, including the
following: 
(a)  Net Summer Capacity—The steady hourly output that
generating equipment is expected to supply to system load,
exclusive of auxiliary power, as demonstrated by test at the
time of summer peak demand.  Auxiliary power of a typical
nuclear power plant is about 5% of  gross  generation.
(b)  Net Design Capacity or Net Design Electrical Rating
(DER)—The  nominal  net  electrical  output  of  a  unit,
specified  by  the utility and used for plant design.
Through 2007, the monthly capacity factors are calculated
as the monthly nuclear electricity net generation divided
by  the  maximum  possible  nuclear  electricity  net
generation for that month. The maximum possible nuclear
electricity net  generation  is the  number of hours  in the
month  (assuming  24-hour days,  with  no  adjustment  for
changes to or from Daylight Savings Time) multiplied by
the  net  summer capacity  of  operable nuclear  generating
units  at  the  end  of  the  month.  That  fraction  is  then
multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage. Annual capacity
factors  are  calculated  as  the  annual  nuclear  electricity  net
generation divided by the annual maximum possible  nuclear
electricity net generation (the sum of the monthly values for
maximum possible nuclear electricity net generation).
For the
methodology used  to calculate capacity factors  beginning in
2008, see U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric
Power  Monthly, Appendix C notes on “Average Capacity
Factors.”
Table 8.1 Sources
Total  Operable  Units and  Net  Summer  Capacity  of
Operable Units  
1957–1982:  Compiled from various sources, primarily U.S.
Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs,
“U.S.  Central  Station  Nuclear  Electric  Generating  Units:
Significant Milestones.”
1983 forward:  U.S. Energy Information Administration
(EIA),  Form  EIA-860,  “Annual  Electric  Generator
Report,”  and  predecessor  forms;  Form  EIA-860M,
“Monthly  Update  to  the  Annual  Electric  Generator
Report”; and monthly updates as appropriate.  For a list
of  operable  units  as  of  November  2011,  see
http://www.eia.gov/nuclear/reactors/stats_table1.html
.
Nuclear Electricity Net Generation and Nuclear Share of
Electricity Net Generation
1957 forward:  Table 7.2a.
Capacity Factor
1973–2007:  Calculated by EIA using the method described
above in Note 2.
2008  forward:  EIA,  Form  EIA-860,  “Annual  Electric
Generator Report”; Form EIA-860M, “Monthly Update to
the Annual Electric Generator Report”; and Form EIA-923,
“Power Plant Operations Report.”
130
U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April 2016
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