Maintenance and care
The prerequisite for successful maintenance
and care is the correct choice of tire, in
accordance with the recommendations of
the tire manufacturer. Refer also previous
sections on this subject.
Unused tires should be stored in cool, dry,
dark and lightly ventilated rooms. Tires which
are not ﬁtted on rims should be stored stan-
ding up. Avoid contact with fuel, lubricants,
solvents and chemicals.
Should tires, tubes and bead ﬂaps need to
be stored temporarily, they may age more
quickly and develop cracks if they are ex-
posed to intense sunlight or extreme heat.
Effective air circulation accelerates this pro-
Inner tubes may be particularly affected if
their packaging is damaged.
Fitting the tire
Before taking off a tire, unscrew and remove
the valve insert; then wait until all the air has
escaped. If a tube-type tire is ﬁtted with an
angled valve as per DIN 7786-80 GD 80,
unscrew the valve stem and wait until the
escaping air ceases to make noise before
removing the tire.
Particular care should be taken when ﬁtting
the tire. Only rust-free rims of the right size
should be used. These should not be dama-
ged or show any signs of wear and tear. The
loose ﬂange side should be examined with
Always use new rubber tubeless valves or
new inner tubes and ﬂaps on new tires or
new seals for tubeless metal valves.
Take special care after tire repairs: inner tubes
stretch in use and may form dangerous folds
when re-ﬁtted. If in doubt, always ﬁt new inner
tubes in order to avoid tube failure.
It is particularly important with large tires that
these should already ﬁt on the rim ﬂange
with as little inﬂation pressure as possible.
See also WdK-Guideline 104, where detailed
ﬁtting recommendations are given.
As a guide:
When ﬁtting, do not exceed 150% of the
maximum standard inﬂation pressure. Under
no circumstances must 10 bar be excee-
ded. Use only recommended ﬁtting tools
Should the tire bead be jammed on the rim
and the pressure be high, the bead may get
damaged or even destroyed.
With tube type tires, check that valves still
move freely after the ﬁller nozzle has been
removed. This is important for later inﬂation
pressure checks under difﬁcult conditions.
Fast-running wheels should be balanced sta-
tically and dynamically to ensure smooth
Fitting the wheel on to the vehicle
Vehicle axle data such as toe-in, king pin
inclination and castor as well as axle align-
ment must be checked and if necessary
adjusted to within tolerances.
Only then should the wheel be ﬁtted.
When ﬁtting make sure that the axle hub is
perfectly centered. Extra care is necessary
with large, heavy tires which do not have
If necessary, re-balance the wheel when it is
ﬁtted on the vehicle.
Always remember to check that the valves
move freely and are easily accessible. Valve
extensions are necessary for dual tires.
Checking the inﬂation pressure requires
the free movement and easy access of the
valves, even when they have become dirty
Valve caps, preferably high pressure type,
must be ﬁtted.
On rolling road testers where the vehicle
performance is examined, restrictive testing
regulations must be observed: depending
on the roller diameter only short tests may
be carried out and these must always below
If a vehicle has all the same type of tires e.g.
radial tires, this will guarantee optimum
driving characteristics and maximum driving
The use of different tire designs on each axle
should be a rare exception. Where vehicles
are being used on the highway, minimum
tread depths as speciﬁed in the latest natio-
nal regulations must be observed. For motor
vehicles, trailers or semitrailers it is essential
that tires of the same construction are ﬁtted
to the same axle.
Minimum tread depth
The legal minimum tread depth is 1.0 mm
and must cover the complete width and cir-
cumference of the tread. The depth should
be measured in the tread groove with the
tread wear indicator (the area with the indi-
cator should not be taken).
Vehicle in operation
The inﬂation pressure must be correct.
Otherwise poor vehicle handling and pro-
nounced, irregular tread wear are inevitable.
If pressure is insufﬁcient, the rolling resis-
tance will increase and with it the fuel con-
sumption. Hidden defects in the tire may also
occur which later lead to tire failure.
Technical Data Book Maintenance and care
Technical Data Book Maintenance and care
Unfavourable weather conditions also ac-
celerate the ageing process as well as the
storage conditions thar were covered in the
An expert should always be called in to make
a qualiﬁed judgment on the tires.
Regrooving of the tread pattern – usually when
there are 2 or 3 millimetres of tread depth
left – should be carried out only by qualiﬁed
experts when the word “REGROOVABLE” is
displayed on the tire sidewall.
Tire damage may initially be just a question
of damage to the outer rubber: however, this
apparently superﬁcial damage can eventually
extend down to, or into, the tire’s reinforcing
materials (casing/belt). Therefore no time
should be lost in taking the tire to a specia -
list for assessment as soon as any external
damage is detected.
Damage to the reinforcing materials, for
instance due to a nail puncture or a deep
cut, is particularly dangerous because dirt
and moisture may penetrate during the time
between when the damage occurred and
when it was detected. This may even result
in more serious damage to the reinforcing
materials. Damage to the inside of a tire can
also cause a slow puncture.
The tire is then driven underinﬂated and con-
sequently subjected to excessive strain. All
these factors can make a tire non-repairable
by the time the damage is ﬁnally discovered.
If the tire is repaired regardless, even if it is
repaired by a reputable tire specialist, it is
possible that tire failure can still occur as a
result of an overstrained area, other than that
This is why each tire must be carefully ins-
pected by a tire expert before it is repaired.
For only a specially trained person can decide
whether it is possible to repair the tire and
whether the tire will be capable of delivering
safe performance after the repair. Repairs
must be carried out by an authorized work-
shop, which is then responsible for inspec-
ting the tire and for doing the job properly.
Repairs to the wheels are forbidden.
Tire inﬂation pressures speciﬁed by vehicle
and tire manufacturers are contained in
the vehicle manual and, for example, on the
vehicle mud guard. These may vary with
different loads and service conditions,
and must be adjusted before commencing
a journey. Speciﬁed inﬂation pressures
always apply to cold tires. An increase in
inﬂation pressure during running is normal
and must never be re-adjusted. Do not
reduce pressure when the tires are hot.
Never use different inﬂation pressures for the
The spare wheel should be inﬂated to at
least the maximum inﬂation pressure given in
the vehicle manual. Remember to always in-
clude the spare wheel when checking inﬂati-
A balanced, even style of driving reduces the
strain on the tires. Every hasty reaction on
the accelerator, brakes or steering shortens
the life of the tires.
The same also applies of course to all other
forms of peak strain such a severe scufﬁng
of the tire along the curb or driving over
obstacles that may be in the road. These can
all result in damage to the tires construction.
Strain on the tire should be avoided. This
has the same effect as insufﬁcient pres-
Do not exceed the tire’s permitted maxi-
mum speed, otherwise tire damage is inevi-
Maintenance and care of the
The high quality standard of the tires and
vehicle, which is achieved by the measures
and recommendations stated above, can
only be ensured by the regular checking of
For example, pressure checks and external
inspections of the tires (including the side-
walls to the inside of the vehicle and bet-
ween dual tires).
Pressure checking devices and small re-
placement parts such as valve inserts, caps
and extensions should always be close at
Tires age as a result of physical and chemi-
cal processes and this may impair their per-
Tires, which are ﬁtted to mainly stationary
vehicles or those which are not used re -
gu larly, are particularly prone to premature
Technical data manuals for other tire groups:
Tires for passenger cars and vans:
Technical Data Book Car, 4x4, Van Tires
Tire Service Data Industrial Vehicles
Technical Manual Motorcycle tires
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Terms and Explanations
The nominal load carrying capacity of a tire
is expressed as the Load Index (LI) and is ex-
pressed in kg. In addition to this, a reference
speed is also determined in connection with
the nominal load carrying capacity (refer to
speed symbol and reference speed).
Speed symbol and reference speed (km/h)
Each speed symbol is assigned a reference
speed in km/h or mph. The tire speed is as-
signed the nominal load carrying capacity of
„Ply-rating“ (also called „PR“), is an interna-
tional designation for the solidity of the tire
casing. In the past, the tire load-carrying
class was only expressed by means of a
PR number. The exact designation of load
carrying capacity is nowadays expressed
as a numerical code, namely the Load Index
Tubeless – tires without inner tube
Tube Type – tires with inner tube
Minimum distance between rim centres
Adherence to the minimum distance between
rim centres ensures the fault-free perfor-
mance of two tires in accordance with
the ETRTO Standard without chains, when
mounted dually (refer also to page 5).
Maximum standard value in service
This is the maximum permissible width in
accordance with the ETRTO Standard. It
includes dynamic deformations are not inclu-
Width and external diameter as provided by
Distance from the centre of the wheel to the
The distance covered on each revolution of
Describes single (S) or dual ﬁtment (D)
Load carrying capacity in kg per axle at an
inﬂation pressure in bar or psi
Axle load carrying capacities with single or
dual ﬁtment at an adjusted inﬂation pressure
in bar and psi (1 bar ~ 14.5 psi)
Explanation of footnotes
Data acc. to DIN 7805/4, WdK Guidelines 134/2, 142/2, 143/14, 143/25
1) Load index single/dual wheel ﬁtment and speed symbol
2) TT = Tube Type, TL = Tubeless
3) For tire pressure of 8.0 bar (116 psi) and over use valve slit cover plate
* in preparation
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