When you make your thesis electronically available by depositing it in USIR you are putting it into the
“public domain”. Although technically it is still an unpublished work, some comme
may take a different view and this may have an impact if, in the future you wish to publish your thesis
as a book, or publish individual chapters as journal articles.
A few commercial publishers will not accept work that has been published or otherwise put into the
public domain previously, so if you are intending to publish your thesis in future you are advised to
request a moratorium (embargo) being placed on it. If your request is granted then even though
you deposit it in USIR, access will be restricted for an initial period of two years. After that period,
annual extensions will be considered up to five years in total on application. See page 7 for more
information about this.
(Please also be aware that to have a journal article published you do not
have to sign over the
copyright to the publisher. The SPARC website has lots of useful information about your rights as an
.). The USIR team can also provide help and
advice on matters of copyright.
Using 3rd Party copyrighted material
While you were researching and writing your thesis you will have made use of many copyrighted
items: books, journal articles, reports, etc. and possibly illustrative material such as images, graphs,
tables, and maps. “Fair dealing” allows the use of this material for the purposes of study, research
and examination, so as a research student, you can use this material in your thesis without infringing
However, this refers to the use of this material during the course of your research and to facilitate the
consideration of your thesis by examiners, not for its being put into the public domain. By depositing
an electronic copy in USIR you are
effectively making someone else’s intellectual property freely
where this happens, you must either remove the copyright material or seek
copyright permission. See below for guidance.
Written material: short extracts
In your thesis, and especially in your literature review, you will have referred to the writing of others.
This will include direct quotations, paraphrases and summaries of other authors’ ideas. Generally,
these will be short extracts from a number of different sources. Because you are only using a small
proportion of the source you do not need to seek copyright permission for this material
but bear the
following in mind:
You must acknowledge this material correctly, in citations and a bibliography, in an
appropriate reference style for your discipline (your supervisor can advise you about
which style to use). A bibliographic management tool such as EndNote will help you
reference information correctly. This is freely available on-campus, and the Library
provides training courses throughout the year.
Written material: lengthy extracts
There are instances where you may need to quote long extracts from a copyrighted source, for
example, your whole thesis might be about the work of an author or composer. A general rule is that
if you use more than 1% of the original work you should seek copyright permission.
As with written material, you should seek copyright permission to use this material.
Remember, if the creator of the work you are citing or reproducing has been dead for over seventy
years, copyright will have expired and you will not need to seek permission to use it.
Obtaining copyright permission
If you need to obtain copyright permission for any third party material, do it as soon as you decide
you want to use the material
try to avoid leaving it all until you are writing up. It may take some
time to obtain permission, and you don’t want to add to your stress load.
To seek copyright permission you must contact the copyright owner. This might be an author,
illustrator, composer, etc., or the publisher. For material you have found in books and journal
articles, contact the publisher
. Look at the publisher’s website –
look for a link called something like
copyright or permissions. This should provide you with details of their copyright policies, and a
You must put your copyright request in writing. Be as clear as you can about identifying exactly what
it is you wish to use. The publisher’s website migh
t have an online permission request form, which
you should use. If not, write a letter or send an email. Below is an example of the wording you might
Do not expect an immediate response. If you have heard nothing after about six weeks you should
write to the publisher again.
I am a PhD [or appropriate degree] Candidate at the University of Salford.
I am contacting you to seek permission to include the following material within my thesis:
[Provide as much detail as you can about what it is you wish to use, for example, author, date, title,
journal title, page numbers, description if it is an image, etc.]
Following completion of my degree I will make my thesis electronically available in the University of
Salford's Institutional Repository, USIR: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/
. USIR is an open access, non-
If you are not the rights holder for this material I would be grateful if you would advise me who to
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If copyright permission is granted
Keep a copy of any letters or emails you receive from the rights holder. Indicate that copyright
permission has been granted at the appropriate place in your thesis, for example, if you have used
an image, add a footnote or caption stating “Permission to reproduce this
[image] has been granted
by [publisher/author name].
Remember that you must also acknowledge the reproduced material fully, in the appropriate style, in
a citation and reference list.
If copyright permission is denied
It is possible that permission will not be granted. You might receive notification that you cannot use
the copyrighted material. If this is the case, you will not be able to use the copyrighted material in
the version of your thesis made available publicly via USIR. Please remember that copyright fair
dealing allows you to use it in your research and for the purposes of assessment - so you can still
use the information you need and write the thesis you want.
You might be asked to pay to use the copyrighted material. If this happens, instead of paying you
may want to consider depositing an edited version (see separate section below on Depositing an
If you do not hear from the copyright owner
Although you may think that no news is good news, this is the equivalent of having permission
If you have used third party copyrighted material in your thesis, for which permission has been
denied, you must still submit your complete thesis in USIR. However, if third party copyright cannot
be obtained then it will be retained in the repository but access to it will be restricted indefinitely. If
you are in this position but would still like your work to be published you may deposit an edited copy
(with the copyrighted material removed) if you wish. Please see the section below on Depositing an
edited version, for information about this.
There are circumstances where your electronic thesis deposited in USIR cannot be made publicly
in effect, while it is stored in USIR it is not able to be published. As mentioned already,
you may have included third party copyrighted material which you do not have permission to use.
You might also have information that you do not want to make publicly available, because it is
commercially sensitive or contains other confidential information (see p.6 for more information about
Depositing an edited version
If you still wish to make your thesis available in electronic form, you may deposit an edited version of
it. Please note that this is in addition to your final, complete electronic copy
Save a second copy of your thesis - this must be a copy of the final passed version with all
corrections included. Give this file a different name to the first version.
The first version is your complete, final, corrected thesis, including any copyright-restricted or
confidential material. This is the version of which you will also submit two hard-bound copies to the
Student Information Directorate.
Edit the second version:
If you have used images, etc. for which you do not have copyright permission, remove the image
and replace it with a placeholder stating, for example:
Diagram [image/chart/graph, map etc.] removed due to copyright restrictions.
Do not remove your caption. This describes what
the image was, and will make your edited thesis
more meaningful to read (see example).
Try to make the placeholder the same size as the
image it replaces. This will keep the formatting of
your original thesis intact, and avoid any problems
with page numbering, contents page, etc.
If your thesis contains confidential information you
may need to remove whole pages or a whole
chapter. In this case you should still leave
placeholders where the information has been
removed, and if possible, a description of what has been removed. Do not make this description
so explicit that it breaches the original confidentiality.
Once you have removed all the copyright-restricted and/or confidential material from your thesis,
have a look at what is left. Is your document now riddled with holes, with much of its meaning
and substance gone? If so, it might be preferable not to deposit an electronic copy.
If you have a substantial amount of confidential information in your thesis you might find it
necessary to restrict access to the entire document. Please see the next section, Placing a
moratorium on your thesis, for information about this.
Placing a moratorium on your thesis
Placing a moratorium on your thesis means that you can delay the time when it is made available.
Some reasons why you might need to do this include:
Your thesis has been commercially sponsored, or carried out with an industrial partner, and
you have signed an agreement stating that the research must remain confidential for a given
number of years.
You, your sponsor or the University has filed (or intends to file) a patent application based on
a new discovery or method revealed by your research.
Your thesis includes information that was obtained under a promise of confidentiality and
disclosure would constitute an actionable breach of confidence.
Your thesis contains personal information, for which disclosure would breach the Data
Protection Act or otherwise endanger the health and safety of an individual.
The material in your thesis is due for publication (either in book or journal article form), and
making your thesis available electronically would be in breach of your contract with your
The publicly available
version of your thesis is the electronic copy which you will deposit in USIR.
Therefore, if you need to place a moratorium on your thesis, it relates to this version. To do this, you
must make a request at the time you present your thesis for examination (when you deposit your 3
soft-bound copies for examination). You may request a moratorium of up to two years initially.
Further requests may be made for additional single years, annually, up to a maximum of five years.
A special form is available from the Student Information Directorate; it must be signed by your
supervisor and the Director of your Research Centre.
A moratorium means that the USIR team will not make your thesis available until after the stipulated
time. (Normally, a thesis is made live and publicly accessible immediately after graduation.)
Formatting your thesis
See Appendix 2, Regulations For The Form Of Thesis, in the
Code of Practice for the
Conduct of Postgraduate Research Degrees, for guidelines about the layout and presentation of
your thesis. It is available at:
These instructions relate to the format of both the soft-bound copies you will submit for examination,
the final corrected electronic copy submitted to USIR and the hard-bound copies which are
presented to the University.
You might find it useful to look at some of the recent theses in USIR for examples of layout:
Electronic format: PDF
The electronic version of your thesis should match the bound version as closely as possible
you may need to remove copyright-restricted or confidential material (see pages 6-7 for details).
Ideally, for text-based theses we would like your electronic thesis to be one single PDF document.
However, if your thesis is made of files that are too large to combine easily into a single document,
or if it contains elements (e.g. multimedia) that cannot be incorporated into a PDF document, you
may deposit it as more than one file
but please try to keep the number of files to a minimum.
You may have pages in the bound copies of your thesis that you do not have in electronic format
for example, you might have included in your appendices, a photocopy of a handwritten sample of a
completed questionnaire, or a copy of an authorisation letter that you have received. Incorporating
photocopied material into a bound thesis is no problem, but to include it in your electronic version
you will need to scan the photocopied material, and then insert it into the appropriate place in your
thesis as an image. Scanners are located in all our Library sites.
Once you have collated all the pages of your thesis you need to convert it into a PDF file. You can
use Word 2007 to do this.
Note: The PDF conversion in Word 2007 may have trouble saving some characters, such as
diacritics and formulas. If this happens, you may need to use Adobe Acrobat. The USIR team can
help with this
you can contact them at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Click the Office Button,
go to Save As,
and select PDF or XPS.
If your thesis includes material in other formats, for example, multimedia such as sound files or
videos, these may be deposited as separate files. See the section on uploading your files on page
15. There are no restrictions on the types of multimedia files which may be deposited, although we
cannot guarantee that they will be playable or continue to be accessible into the future.
Only digital items will be accepted (currently resources are not available to offer a digitisation
File types currently supported by USIR are:
Rich text (RTF)
PDF / PDF/A
All file types will be considered for acceptance (some older, obsolete and obscure file formats may
present compatibility problems. In such cases USIR staff will contact the depositor).
Files may be converted to more common /current formats by USIR staff for compatibility (cross
Need help putting it all together?
ITScope is a drop-in service where you can get help with whatever you need to know to do with IT. The
Library’s friendly and helpful ICT trainers will be happy to assist
you to format your thesis, show you how to
use the scanners, convert files, etc.
ITScope sessions run for two hours every weekday during term time. To see the timetable, go to:
Depositing your thesis in USIR
Has your thesis been completed, and are you ready to submit your hard-bound copies to the
Have you obtained permission to use any third party copyrighted material (see pages 3-6) or if not,
removed this material from a second copy of your thesis (see page 6).
Have you removed any confidential or commercially sensitive material from the copy of your thesis
(see page 6).
If yes, then you are ready to put your thesis in USIR.
Go to http://usir.salford.ac.uk/etheses/
Click the Login link
Log in with your network username and password
Click the Manage deposits link,
and at the next screen click the
New Item button.
There are a number of forms that need to be filled in.
Click on the headings to move between them.
Use this button if you wish you may save your
work and return to complete it later.
At the first screen click the Thesis
then scroll up and click the Next>
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