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noaa             
/
NATIONAL OCEANIC AND
ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION
National Environmental Satellite,
Data, and Information Service
NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24 
ETOPO1 1 ARC-MINUTE GLOBAL RELIEF MODEL:
PROCEDURES, DATA SOURCES AND ANALYSIS 
C. Amante
B.W. Eakins
National Geophysical Data Center
Marine Geology and Geophysics Division
Boulder, Colorado
March 2009
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UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
Gary Locke
Secretary
NATIONAL OCEANIC AND
ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION
Dr. Jane Lubchenco
Under Secretary for Oceans
and Atmosphere/Administrator
National Environmental Satellite, 
Data, and Information Service
Mary E. Kicza
Assistant Administrator
NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24
ETOPO1 1 ARC-MINUTE GLOBAL RELIEF MODEL:
PROCEDURES, DATA SOURCES AND ANALYSIS 
Christopher Amante
Barry W. Eakins
2
1
NOAA Ernest F. Hollings Undergraduate Scholar, Boulder, Colorado 
2
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder
National Geophysical Data Center
Marine Geology and Geophysics Division 
Boulder, Colorado
March 2009
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Amante and Eakins, 2009
ii
NOTICE
Mention of a commercial company or product does not constitute an endorsement by the 
NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. Use of information 
from this publication concerning proprietary products or the test of such products for publicity
or advertising purposes is not authorized. 
Correspondingproject contact:
Barry E. Eakins
NOAA, National Geophysical Data Center
Marine Geology and Geophysics Division
325 Broadway, E/GC 3
Boulder, Colorado 80305
Phone: 303-497-6505
Fax: 303-497-6513
E-mail:Barry.Eakins@noaa.gov
http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/global.html
Also available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
(http://www.ntis.gov)
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ETOPO1 1 A
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C
ontents
1. 
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................1
2. 
Study Area ..........................................................................................................................................2
3. 
Methodology ......................................................................................................................................2
3.1 Data Sources and Processing ......................................................................................................3
3.1.1  Shoreline ................................................................................................................4
3.1.2  Bathymetry ............................................................................................................5
3.1.3  Topography ............................................................................................................7
3.1.4  Integrated Bathymetry–Topography ......................................................................9
3.1.5  Bedrock ...............................................................................................................13
3.2 Establishing Common Datums .................................................................................................14
3.2.1  Vertical datum transformations ...........................................................................14
3.2.2  Horizontal datum transformations .......................................................................14
3.3 Digital Elevation Model Development .....................................................................................14
3.3.1  Verifying consistency between data sets .............................................................14
3.3.2  Gridding of coastal bathymetry ...........................................................................14
3.3.3  Gridding the data with MB-System.....................................................................16
3.3.4  Registration of grids ............................................................................................16
3.4 Quality Assessment of the DEM ...............................................................................................17
3.4.1  Horizontal and vertical accuracy .........................................................................17
4. 
Summary and Conclusions ...............................................................................................................17
5. 
Acknowledgments ............................................................................................................................18
6. 
References ........................................................................................................................................18
7. 
Data Processing Software ................................................................................................................19
L
ist
of
f
igures
Figure 1.   Color, shaded-relief image of the ETOPO1 Ice Surface Global Relief Model ...........................1
Figure 2.   Color, shaded-relief image of the ETOPO1 Bedrock Global Relief Model ...............................2
Figure 3.   Source and coverage of data sets used to compile the ETOPO1 Ice Surface
Global Relief Model ............................................................................................................3
Figure 4.   Source and coverage of data sets used to compile the ETOPO1 Bedrock 
Global Relief Model ............................................................................................................3
Figure 5.   Color image of Caspian Sea depth contours and bathymetric grid .............................................6
Figure 6.   Color image of Mediterranean Sea morpho-bathymetric map ...................................................6
Figure 7.   A row of bad data present in the SRTM30 data set .....................................................................7
Figure 8.   Coverage of GLOBE topography that was used in building ETOPO1.......................................8
Figure 9.   Anomalous depth values in the Measured and Estimated Seafloor Topography 
grid in shallow coastal waters north of Vancouver Island .................................................10
Figure 10.  Color image of the IBCAO v.2 grid of the Arctic .....................................................................11
Figure 11.  Areas of the U.S. coast covered by NGDC’s Coastal Relief Model .........................................12
Figure 12.  Color image of the Estimated Seafloor Topography grid along Iceland’s 
northwest coast ..................................................................................................................15
Figure 13.  Color image of Iceland’s northwest coast in ETOPO1 .............................................................15
Figure 14.  Differences between grid-registration and cell-registration ......................................................17
L
ist
of
t
abLes
Table 1. 
Specifications for ETOPO1
.........................................................................................................2
Table 2. 
Shoreline data sets used in evaluating ETOPO1 source data sets...............................................4
Table 3. 
Bathymetric data sets used in compiling ETOPO1 .....................................................................5
Table 4. 
Topographic data sets used in compiling ETOPO1 ....................................................................7
Table 5. 
Integrated bathymetric–topographic data sets used in compiling ETOPO1 ...............................9
Table 6. 
Bedrock elevation data sets used in compiling the ETOPO1 Bedrock 
Global Relief Model ..........................................................................................................13
Table 7. 
Data hierarchy used to assign gridding weight in MB-System .................................................16
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ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model
Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis
1. 
i
ntroduCtion
In August 2008, the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) developed the ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model as an improvement 
to the ETOPO2v2 Global Relief Model. ETOPO1 is available in “Ice Surface” (top of Antarctic and Greenland ice 
sheets; Fig. 1) and “Bedrock” (base of the ice sheets; Fig. 2) versions. Both versions of ETOPO1 were generated 
from diverse global and regional digital data sets (coverage shown in Figs. 3 and 4), which were shifted to common 
horizontal and vertical datums, and then evaluated and edited as needed. This report provides a summary of the data 
sources and methodology used in developing ETOPO1. 
Figure 1. Color, shaded-relief image of the ETOPO1 Ice Surface Global Relief Model.
Amante and Eakins, 2009
2
Figure 2. Color, shaded-relief image of the ETOPO1 Bedrock Global Relief Model. Illumination from the east.
2. 
s
tudy
a
rea
ETOPO1 provides complete global topographic and bathymetric coverage between -90
°
to +90
° 
in latitude and 
-180
° 
to +180
°
in longitude. 
3. 
M
ethodoLogy
ETOPO1 was developed to improve the resolution and accuracy of the ETOPO2v2 2 arc-minute Global Relief 
Model, and was designed to support tsunami forecasting, modeling and warning, as well as ocean circulation modeling 
and Earth visualization. The best available regional and global digital data sets were obtained by NGDC and shifted 
to common horizontal and vertical datums: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) and sea level. Data processing, 
evaluation, assembly and assessment of ETOPO1 are described in the following subsections.
Table 1: Specifications for ETOPO1.
Versions
Ice Surface, Bedrock
Coverage Area 
Global: -180º to 180º; -90º to 90º
Coordinate System
Geographic decimal degrees
Horizontal Datum
World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS 84)
Vertical Datum
Sea Level
Vertical Units
Meters
Cell Size
1 arc-minute
Grid Format
Multiple: netCDF, g98, binary float, tiff, xyz
ETOPO1 1 A
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3.1  Data Sources and Processing
Shoreline, bathymetric, topographic, integrated bathymetric–topographic, and bedrock digital data sets (data 
footprints shown in Figs. 3 and 4) were obtained from several U.S. government agencies, international agencies and 
academic institutionsSafe Software’s (http://www.safe.com/‘Feature Manipulation Engine’ (FME) data translation 
tool package was used to shift data sets to WGS 84 horizontal datum and sea level vertical datum, and to convert them 
into ESRI (http://www.esri.com/ArcGIS
shape files and rasters. The shape files and rasters were then displayed with 
ArcGIS to assess data quality and manually edit data sets. Wessel and Smith’s [1991, 1995] ‘Generic Mapping Tools’ 
(GMT) version 4.3 (http://gmt.soest.hawaii.edu) and Caress and Chayes’ [1995] ‘MB-System’ version 5.1.0 (http://
www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/pi/MB-System/) were used to grid the data and build the global relief model. 
Figure 3. Source and coverage of data sets used to compile the ETOPO1 Ice Surface Global Relief Model.
Figure 4. Source and coverage of data sets used to compile the ETOPO1 Bedrock Global Relief Model.
Amante and Eakins, 2009
4
3.1.1 Shoreline
Coastline data sets were obtained from NGDC and the Antarctica Digital Database (Table 2). Both coastline data 
sets were used in evaluating individual source data sets and ETOPO1. They were also used to clip some data sets to 
the coastline to eliminate anomalous values.
Table 2: Shoreline data sets used in evaluating ETOPO1 source data sets.
Source
Name
Year
Data Type
Spatial 
Resolution
Original Horizontal 
Datum/Coordinate 
System
Original 
Vertical 
Datum
URL
NGDC
GSHHS
2003
Hierarchically 
arranged closed 
polygons
Approximately 
100 m
WGS 84 geographic
MSL
http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/
mgg/shorelines/gshhs.html
ADD
Antarctica 
Coastline
1993 to 
2006
Derived from 
maps
Ranges from 5 
m to 5 km
WGS 84 geographic
MSL
http://www.add.scar.
org:8080/add/
1) GSHHS
NGDC disseminates the GSHHS (Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Shoreline) in 
ArcGIS format. GSHHS is a high-resolution shoreline data set created from the two well-known, public 
domain data sets [Wessel and Smith, 1996]. World Data Bank II (WDB; also known as CIA Data Banks) 
contains global coastlines, lakes, political boundaries, and rivers at an approximate working scale of 
1:3,000,000, which means that the features are considered to be accurately located on maps using that scale 
or smaller. The other data set is the World Vector Shoreline (WVS), which only contains shorelines along 
the ocean and land interface. The WVS data has superior quality and resolution with a working scale of 
1:100,000 and thus the GSHHS was created using the WVS data when possible and supplementing it with 
WDB data. The data have undergone extensive processing and are free of internal inconsistencies such as 
erratic points and crossing segments.
2) Antarctica Coastline
The Antarctic Digital Database provides a medium-resolution coastline for Antarctica, south of 60° S, 
created by the British Antarctic Survey. The database is managed by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic 
Research (SCAR).
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