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14.
Johnson, David W. and Johnson, Roger T
.  (
2005) in their article     
“Essential  Components  of  Peace  Education
”,
writes  that  peace
education  is  a  key  for  establishing  a  consensual  peace  and
maintaining it over time. There are five essential elements in building
a lasting peace through education. First, a public education system
must be established with compulsory attendance for all children and
youth. It will motivate students from previously conflicting groups,
bringing  an  interaction  with  one  another  and  giving  them  an
opportunity to build positive relationships with one another.  Second,
a sense of mutuality and common fate needs to be established that
highlights  mutual  goals,  the  just  distribution  of  benefits  from
achieving  the  goals,  and  a  common  identity.  In  schools,  this  is
primarily  done  through  the  use  of  cooperative  learning.  Third,
students must be taught the constructive controversy procedure to
ensure that they know how to make difficult decisions and engage in
political discourse. Fourth, students must be taught how to engage in
integrative negotiations and peer mediation to resolve their conflicts
with  each  other  constructively.  Finally,  civic  values  must  be
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49
inculcated that  focus students  on  the  long-term  common  good of
society.
15.  According to Kupermintz, Haggai  and  Salomon  Gavriel  (2005) in
the article entitled “ Lessons to Be Learned From Research on Peace
Education in the Context of  Intractable Conflict
”, 
writes that recent
research on peace education entails important practical lessons about
educational work in regions of intractable conflict. Peace education in
this context must deal with collective narratives and deeply rooted
historical memories and societal beliefs. Research findings from a
series of studies with Israeli and Palestinian students and teachers
demonstrate  the  challenges  of  attaining  durable  and  worthwhile
effects through educational activities: short-term benefits may erode
over  time,  ongoing  violence  and  hostility  may  block  attempts  to
understand  the  opponent's  perspective,  and  power  and  status
asymmetries may dictate incompatible agendas or prohibit a mutual
common ground for constructive interaction. At the same time, these
studies offer several promising directions to enhance the potential of
carefully  designed  peace  education  programs.  Such  programs  are
likely to foster participants' ability to acknowledge the adversary's
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50
collective narrative, engage in constructive negotiations over issues
of national identity, and  express a less monolithic outlook of  the
conflict.
16. The  paper  by  Simon  Harris,  Nick  Lewer      (2005)  entitled
“Post-graduate  peace  education  in  Sri  Lanka”,  summarises  the
rationale,  development,  content,  and  delivery  of  a  Post  Graduate
Diploma in Conflict Resolution and Peace Preparedness in Sri Lanka,
a country that has experienced a violent and protracted social conflict
over the last 25 years. It also describes the methodology which is
being  used  to  measure  the  peace  impact  of  the  programme.
Difficulties encountered and lessons learned are discussed, and some
early  indicators  of  the  effectiveness  of  the  programmes  were
evaluated. It is clear that the impact of such a programme cannot be
fully measured in a short term, since peace education should be seen
as  a  process  whereby  knowledge  and  skills  gained  can  be  both
utilised in the short term and reflected upon in the long term.
17. The paper by Claire McGlynn  (2004) entitled “Education for peace
in integrated schools: a priority for Northern Ireland?”, argues that a
vital  purpose  of  education  in  Northern  Ireland  should  be  peace
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51
building and the promotion of social cohesion. In particular, the paper
looks at the lessons that can be learned from integrated education by
societies moving out of conflict. As a part of a larger study of the
impact  of  integrated  (mixed  Catholic  and  Protestant)  education,
former  and  current  Principals  of  the  two  longest  established
post-primary  (for  children  aged  11-18)  integrated  colleges  were
questioned about the policies and practice employed by their schools
with regards to promoting respect for diversity, dealing with cultural
symbols  and  affirming  or  challenging  identity.  The  potential  of
integrated  education  to  promote  tolerance  and  understanding  is
discussed. This paper concludes that the needs of children and society
for reconciliation through integrated schooling should perhaps take
preference over the rights of parents to segregated education.
18.  Gavriel Salomon    (2004)  in his  article entitled   “ Does Peace
Education  Make  a  Difference  in  the  Context  of  an  Intractable
Conflict?”,  reveals  that  peace  education  in  regions  of  intractable
conflict faces  a number of  severe challenges, such as  conflicting
collective narratives, shared histories and beliefs, grave inequalities,
excessive emotionality, and unsupportive social climates. It shows
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52
that the chances of success for peace education programs are rather
slim.  A  series  of  quasi-experimental  studies  carried  out  with
Israeli-Jewish  and Palestinian youngsters revealed  that despite  the
ongoing violence, participation in various programs yields positive
attitudinal,  perceptual,  and  relational  changes,  for  example,  more
positive  views  of  "peace",  better  ability  to  see  the  other  side's
perspective,  and  greater  willingness  for  contact.  These  changes
depend on participants' initial political views, and thus, as found in
one  study,  play  an  attitude-reinforcing function,  but,  as  found  in
another study, prevent the worsening of perceptions of and attribution
to the other side, thereby serving in a preventive capacity.
19. The  paper  by  Brantmeier,  Edward  J    (2003)  entitled    “Peace
Pedagogy:  Exposing  and  Integrating  Peace  Education  in  Teacher
Education”,  discusses  peace  education,  as  "the  transmission  of
knowledge  about  the  requirements  of,  the  obstacles  to  and
possibilities for achieving and maintaining peace, training in skills for
interpreting  the  knowledge,  and  development  of  reflective  and
participatory  capacities  for  applying  the  knowledge  to  overcome
problems and achieving possibilities." The paper asserts that peace
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53
education  needs  exposure  and  further  integration  into  teacher
education discourse and practice. It begins defining peace education,
explaining how the purposes and goals of peace education already
align with peace theory, and suggesting how a move from implicit to
explicit peace education may strengthen the overall momentum of
peace pedagogy in building a culture of peace. The paper also surveys
the  scholarly  literature  pertaining  to  the  integration  of  peace
education into teacher education (noting that it has been excluded
from  mainstream  teacher  education  rhetoric),  and  it  reviews how
peace education has been and can be further integrated into teacher
education  rhetoric  and  practice.  It  concludes  by  discussing
approaches to peace education, a semantic field for peace education,
and building a culture of peace through teacher education.
20. In  an  educational  report  by  Bjerstedt,  Ake     (2003)  entitled
“Developing  Preparedness  for  Peace:  Objectives,  Methods,
Difficulties  and  Possibilities  in  Peace-Related  Education”,  the
educators at the Malmo School of Education (Sweden) have carried
out a series of studies within the area of school and peace. As an
informal umbrella  heading  for  the  project  group  conducting such
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studies  the  term  "Preparedness  for  Peace"  has  been  used.  The
overriding aim of the group's work has been to increase knowledge
(in a broad sense) about hindrances and possibilities in the schools
work with global survival issues. This overview report collects notes
about the work of the project group and the process they have been
involved in. The report also presents some of the group's views on
possible  and  fruitful  ways  of  dealing  with  conflict  and  peace
education that have resulted from the group's work (the product). It is
divided 
into 
nine 
sections:
(1)  Introduction;  (2)  What  Is  Preparedness  for  Peace?  A
Discussion about the Ambitions and Specific Objectives of Peace
Education; (3) What Can We Do in School to Promote Preparedness
for Peace? (4) Some "Difficulties" with Peace Education; (5) Peace
Education and Teacher Training; (6) Developing Students' Materials
and  Teachers'  Manuals;  (7)  Continued  Work:  Need  for  Flexible
Fact-Finding";  (8)  Issues  for  Thought  and  Dialogue;  and
(9) Postscriptum. These nine sections successfully deal with conflict
and peace education.
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21.  The study by  Yaacov B. Yablon and Yaacov J. Katz  (2001) entitled
“Internet-Based Group Relations: A High School Peace Education
Project  in  Israel”,  describes  how  the  Internet-based  group
communications  was  used  as  the  major  strategy  to  promote  the
societal  values  of  understanding,  equality,  tolerance  and  peace
between  Israeli  Jewish  and  Bedouin  high  school  students.  The
Internet based  communications  project  formed the  backbone  of a
project  designed to confront  one of  the major  conflicts in Israeli
society, which  focuses  on the  Jewish-Arab axis.  Israeli Jews and
Arabs  are  wary  of  each  other  and  latent  hostility  permeates  the
atmosphere between the two societal groups and is directly related to
the  Israeli-Arab  conflict.  In  the  project  the  societal  values  of
understanding, equality, tolerance and peace were intensely promoted
through the medium  of  three different  complementary educational
strategies. Students participated in workshops conducted by experts
trained  in  the  art  of  mediation  and  bridge  building,  and  in  two
day-long  face-to-face  meetings.  The  major  strategy  was  an
Internet-based weekly chat-room and e-mail session which lasted for
the  full  length  of  the  project.  All  three  strategies  were  specially
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designed  to promote  understanding,  equality,  tolerance  and  peace
between Jewish and Bedouin Arab students. The results of the project
indicate  that  Jewish  students  adopted  more  favourable  attitudes
toward  Bedouins  and  those  Bedouin  students'  attitudes  towards
Jewish  students  remained  positive  throughout  the  duration  of the
project. The prognosis for long-term change and cooperation between
the Jewish and Bedouin students who participated in the project is
also discussed.
b.
Researches done in the related field
1.
Bogart,  Louise  Berry,  2000,    “A  qualitative  study  of  classroom
culture  in  two  elementary  environments  in  which  teachers  who
identify  themselves  as  peace  educators  are  implementing  peace
education practices with first grade children”  Ph.D., University of
Hawaii at Manoa
Objective of the study:
The objective was to learn about the ways in which teachers educated
children  for  positive  peace.  It  explored  factors  that  influenced  teacher
commitment to peace education.
Method: Case study method
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Tool: Questionnaire, interview and observation
Sample: Teachers of Hawaiian Public schools and Roman Catholic Teachers
Result:  Caring  and  cooperation  offered  assistance  to  the  children  in
academic  and  social  situations.  The  classroom  was  a  safe  place  both
emotionally and physically. Teachers shared power by giving children a
voice in decisions that concerned them. Conflict resolution involved the use
of problem solving skills including appropriate language. The data provide
two  portraits  of  how  peace  education  might  be  approached  in  primary
classrooms. Both concentrated on the quality of live experience rather than
on introducing curriculum. The study showed that peace education can be
cultivated by two different teachers in different settings and still produce
similar results of positive, non-violent behaviour.
2.
Brown,Warren  Donald,  2000,  “School  Children’s  perception  of
conflict  :  A  view  from  the  urban  inner-city”,  Ph.D.,  Nova
Southeastern University
Objective of the study:
To  bring  peaceful  environment  in  schools  and  society  by
implementing conflict resolution programme.
Method: Case study method
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