mvc view pdf : Acrobat add text to pdf SDK Library API .net asp.net web page sharepoint 5papers0-part1400

IntroductiontoWordNet:AnOn-lineLexicalDatabase
GeorgeA.Miller,RichardBeckwith,ChristianeFellbaum,
DerekGross,andKatherineMiller
(RevisedAugust1993)
WordNetisanon-linelexicalreferencesystemwhosedesignisinspiredbycurrent
psycholinguistictheoriesofhumanlexicalmemory. Englishnouns,verbs,andadjectivesare
organizedintosynonymsets,eachrepresentingoneunderlyinglexicalconcept. Different
relationslinkthesynonymsets.
Standardalphabeticalproceduresfororganizinglexicalinformationputtogether
wordsthatarespelledalikeandscatterwordswithsimilarorrelatedmeanings
haphazardlythroughthelist. Unfortunately,thereisnoobviousalternative,noother
simplewayforlexicographerstokeeptrackofwhathasbeendoneorforreaderstofind
thewordtheyarelookingfor. Butafrequentobjectiontothissolutionisthatfinding
thingsonanalphabeticallistcanbetediousandtime-consuming. Manypeoplewho
wouldliketorefertoadictionarydecidenottobotherwithitbecausefindingthe
informationwouldinterrupttheirworkandbreaktheirtrainofthought.
Inthisageofcomputers,however,thereisananswertothatcomplaint. One
obviousreasontoresorttoon-linedictionaries—lexicaldatabasesthatcanbereadby
computers—isthatcomputerscansearchsuchalphabeticallistsmuchfasterthanpeople
can. Adictionaryentrycanbeavailableassoonasthetargetwordisselectedortyped
intothekeyboard. Moreover,sincedictionariesareprintedfromtapesthatarereadby
computers,itisarelativelysimplemattertoconvertthosetapesintotheappropriatekind
oflexicaldatabase. Puttingconventionaldictionariesonlineseemsasimpleandnatural
marriageoftheoldandthenew.
Oncecomputersareenlistedintheserviceofdictionaryusers,however,itquickly
becomesapparentthatitisgrosslyinefficienttousethesepowerfulmachinesaslittle
morethanrapidpage-turners. Thechallengeistothinkwhatfurtherusetomakeof
them. WordNetisaproposalforamoreeffectivecombinationoftraditional
lexicographicinformationandmodernhigh-speedcomputation.
This,andtheaccompanyingfourpapers,isadetailedreportofthestateofWordNet
asof1990. Inordertoreduceunnecessaryrepetition,thepapersarewrittentoberead
consecutively.
Psycholexicology
Murray’sOxfordEnglishDictionary(1928)wascompiled‘‘onhistorical
principles’’andnoonedoubtsthevalueoftheOEDinsettlingissuesofworduseor
sensepriority. Byfocusingonhistorical(diachronic)evidence,however,theOED,like
otherstandarddictionaries,neglectedquestionsconcerningthesynchronicorganization
oflexicalknowledge.
Acrobat add text to pdf - insert text into PDF content in C#.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
XDoc.PDF for .NET, providing C# demo code for inserting text to PDF file
add text pdf professional; how to add text fields to a pdf
Acrobat add text to pdf - VB.NET PDF insert text library: insert text into PDF content in vb.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
Providing Demo Code for Adding and Inserting Text to PDF File Page in VB.NET Program
how to insert text in pdf reader; add text boxes to a pdf
-2-
Itisnowpossibletoenvisionwaysinwhichthatomissionmightberepaired. The
20thCenturyhasseentheemergenceofpsycholinguistics,aninterdisciplinaryfieldof
researchconcernedwiththecognitivebasesoflinguisticcompetence. Bothlinguistsand
psycholinguistshaveexploredinconsiderabledepththefactorsdeterminingthe
contemporary(synchronic)structureoflinguisticknowledgeingeneral,andlexical
knowledgeinparticular—MillerandJohnson-Laird(1976)haveproposedthatresearch
concernedwiththelexicalcomponentoflanguageshouldbecalledpsycholexicology.
Aslinguistictheoriesevolvedinrecentdecades,linguistsbecameincreasinglyexplicit
abouttheinformationalexiconmustcontaininorderforthephonological,syntactic,and
lexicalcomponentstoworktogetherintheeverydayproductionandcomprehensionof
linguisticmessages,andthoseproposalshavebeenincorporatedintotheworkof
psycholinguists. Beginningwithwordassociationstudiesattheturnofthecenturyand
continuingdowntothesophisticatedexperimentaltasksofthepasttwentyyears,
psycholinguistshavediscoveredmanysynchronicpropertiesofthementallexiconthat
canbeexploitedinlexicography.
In1985agroupofpsychologistsandlinguistsatPrincetonUniversityundertookto
developalexicaldatabasealonglinessuggestedbytheseinvestigations(Miller,1985).
Theinitialideawastoprovideanaidtouseinsearchingdictionariesconceptually,rather
thanmerelyalphabetically—itwastobeusedincloseconjunctionwithanon-line
dictionaryoftheconventionaltype. Astheworkproceeded,however,itdemandeda
moreambitiousformulationofitsownprinciplesandgoals. WordNetistheresult.
Inasmuchasitinstantiateshypothesesbasedonresultsofpsycholinguisticresearch,
WordNetcanbesaidtobeadictionarybasedonpsycholinguisticprinciples.
Howtheleadingpsycholinguistictheoriesshouldbeexploitedforthisprojectwas
notalwaysobvious. Unfortunately,mostresearchofinterestforpsycholexicologyhas
dealtwithrelativelysmallsamplesoftheEnglishlexicon,oftenconcentratingonnouns
attheexpenseofotherpartsofspeech. Alltoooften,aninterestinghypothesisisput
forward,fiftyorahundredwordsillustratingitareconsidered,andextensiontotherest
ofthelexiconisleftasanexerciseforthereader. OnemotivefordevelopingWordNet
wastoexposesuchhypothesestothefullrangeofthecommonvocabulary. WordNet
presentlycontainsapproximately95,600differentwordforms(51,500simplewordsand
44,100collocations)organizedintosome70,100wordmeanings,orsetsofsynonyms,
andonlythemostrobusthypotheseshavesurvived.
ThemostobviousdifferencebetweenWordNetandastandarddictionaryisthat
WordNetdividesthelexiconintofivecategories:nouns,verbs,adjectives,adverbs,and
functionwords. Actually,WordNetcontainsonlynouns,verbs,adjectives,andadverbs.1
TherelativelysmallsetofEnglishfunctionwordsisomittedontheassumption
(supportedbyobservationsofthespeechofaphasicpatients:Garrett,1982)thattheyare
probablystoredseparatelyaspartofthesyntacticcomponentoflanguage. The
realizationthatsyntacticcategoriesdifferinsubjectiveorganizationemergedfirstfrom
studiesofwordassociations. FillenbaumandJones(1965),forexample,askedEnglish-
1
Adiscussionofadverbsisnotincludedinthepresentcollectionofpapers.
.NET PDF Document Viewing, Annotation, Conversion & Processing
Redact text content, images, whole pages from PDF file. Add, insert PDF native annotations to PDF file. Print. Support for all the print modes in Acrobat PDF.
how to add text to pdf file; add text to pdf document online
C# PDF Converter Library SDK to convert PDF to other file formats
independently, without using other external third-party dependencies like Adobe Acrobat. If you need to get text content from PDF file, this C# PDF to
how to insert text box in pdf document; how to add text to a pdf file in reader
-3-
speakingsubjectstogivethefirstwordtheythoughtofinresponsetohighlyfamiliar
wordsdrawnfromdifferentsyntacticcategories. Themodalresponsecategorywasthe
sameasthecategoryoftheprobeword:nounprobeselicitednounsresponses79%ofthe
time,adjectiveselicitedadjectives65%ofthetime,andverbselicitedverbs43%ofthe
time. Sincegrammaticalspeechrequiresaspeakertoknow(atleastimplicitly)the
syntacticprivilegesofdifferentwords,itisnotsurprisingthatsuchinformationwouldbe
readilyavailable. Howitislearned,however,ismoreofapuzzle:itisrareinconnected
discourseforadjacentwordstobefromthesamesyntacticcategory,soFillenbaumand
Jones’sdatacannotbeexplainedasassociationbycontinguity.
ThepriceofimposingthissyntacticcategorizationonWordNetisacertainamount
ofredundancythatconventionaldictionariesavoid—wordslikeback,forexample,turn
upinmorethanonecategory. Buttheadvantageisthatfundamentaldifferencesinthe
semanticorganizationofthesesyntacticcategoriescanbeclearlyseenandsystematically
exploited. Aswillbecomeclearfromthepapersfollowingthisone,nounsareorganized
inlexicalmemoryastopicalhierarchies,verbsareorganizedbyavarietyofentailment
relations,andadjectivesandadverbsareorganizedasN-dimensionalhyperspaces. Each
oftheselexicalstructuresreflectsadifferentwayofcategorizingexperience;attemptsto
imposeasingleorganizingprincipleonallsyntacticcategorieswouldbadlymisrepresent
thepsychologicalcomplexityoflexicalknowledge.
ThemostambitiousfeatureofWordNet,however,isitsattempttoorganizelexical
informationintermsofwordmeanings,ratherthanwordforms. Inthatrespect,
WordNetresemblesathesaurusmorethanadictionary,and,infact,LaurenceUrdang’s
revisionofRodale’sTheSynonymFinder(1978)andRobertL.Chapman’srevisionof
Roget’sInternationalThesaurus(1977)havebeenhelpfultoolsinputtingWordNet
together.Butneitherofthoseexcellentworksiswellsuitedtotheprintedform. The
problemwithanalphabeticalthesaurusisredundantentries:ifwordW
x
andwordW
y
are
synonyms,thepairshouldbeenteredtwice,oncealphabetizedunderW
x
andagain
alphabetizedunderW
y
. Theproblemwithatopicalthesaurusisthattwolook-upsare
required,firstonanalphabeticallistandagaininthethesaurusproper,thusdoublinga
user’ssearchtime. Theseare,ofcourse,preciselythekindsofmechanicalchoresthata
computercanperformrapidlyandefficiently.
WordNetisnotmerelyanon-linethesaurus,however. Inordertoappreciatewhat
morehasbeenattemptedinWordNet,itisnecessarytounderstanditsbasicdesign
(MillerandFellbaum,1991).
TheLexicalMatrix
Lexicalsemanticsbeginswitharecognitionthatawordisaconventional
associationbetweenalexicalizedconceptandanutterancethatplaysasyntacticrole.
Thisdefinitionof‘‘word’’raisesatleastthreeclassesofproblemsforresearch. First,
whatkindsofutterancesenterintotheselexicalassociations? Second,whatisthenature
andorganizationofthelexicalizedconceptsthatwordscanexpress? Third,what
syntacticrolesdodifferentwordsplay? Althoughitisimpossibletoignoreanyofthese
questionswhileconsideringonlyone,theemphasisherewillbeonthesecondclassof
VB.NET PDF: How to Create Watermark on PDF Document within
this VB.NET Imaging PDF Watermark Add-on, you create a watermark that consists of text or image users need no external application plugin, like Adobe Acrobat.
how to insert text box in pdf file; how to insert text box on pdf
C# powerpoint - PowerPoint Conversion & Rendering in C#.NET
documents in .NET class applications independently, without using other external third-party dependencies like Adobe Acrobat. PowerPoint to PDF Conversion.
add text to pdf document in preview; how to enter text in pdf form
-4-
problems,thosedealingwiththesemanticstructureoftheEnglishlexicon.
Sincetheword‘‘word’’iscommonlyusedtoreferbothtotheutteranceandtoits
associatedconcept,discussionsofthislexicalassociationarevulnerableto
terminologicalconfusion. Inordertoreduceambiguity,therefore,‘‘wordform’’willbe
usedheretorefertothephysicalutteranceorinscriptionand‘‘wordmeaning’’toreferto
thelexicalizedconceptthataformcanbeusedtoexpress. Thenthestartingpointfor
lexicalsemanticscanbesaidtobethemappingbetweenformsandmeanings(Miller,
1986). Aconservativeinitialassumptionisthatdifferentsyntacticcategoriesofwords
mayhavedifferentkindsofmappings.
Table1isofferedsimplytomakethenotionofalexicalmatrixconcrete. Word
formsareimaginedtobelistedasheadingsforthecolumns;wordmeaningsasheadings
fortherows. Anentryinacellofthematriximpliesthattheforminthatcolumncanbe
used(inanappropriatecontext)toexpressthemeaninginthatrow. Thus,entryE
1,1
impliesthatwordformF
1
canbeusedtoexpresswordmeaningM
1
. Iftherearetwo
entriesinthesamecolumn,thewordformispolysemous;iftherearetwoentriesinthe
samerow,thetwowordformsaresynonyms(relativetoacontext).
Table1
IllustratingtheConceptofaLexicalMatrix:
F
1
andF
2
aresynonyms;F
2
ispolysemous
Word
WordForms
Meanings
F
1
F
2
F
3
. . . . F
n
M
1
E
1,1
E
1,2
M
2
E
2,2
M
3
E
3,3
.
.
.
.
.
.
M
m
E
m,n
Mappingsbetweenformsandmeaningsaremany:many—someformshaveseveral
differentmeanings,andsomemeaningscanbeexpressedbyseveraldifferentforms.
Twodifficultproblemsoflexicography,polysemyandsynonymy,canbeviewedas
complementaryaspectsofthismapping. Thatistosay,polysemyandsynonymyare
problemsthatariseinthecourseofgainingaccesstoinformationinthementallexicon:a
listenerorreaderwhorecognizesaformmustcopewithitspolysemy;aspeakerorwriter
whohopestoexpressameaningmustdecidebetweensynonyms.
Asaparentheticalcomment,itshouldbenotedthatpsycholinguistsfrequently
representtheirhypothesesaboutlanguageprocessingbybox-and-arrowdiagrams. In
thatnotation,alexicalmatrixcouldberepresentedbytwoboxeswitharrowsgoing
betweentheminbothdirections. Oneboxwouldbelabeled‘WordMeaning’andthe
other‘WordForm’;arrowswouldindicatethatalanguageusercouldstartwitha
meaningandlookforappropriateformstoexpressit,orcouldstartwithaformand
C# Windows Viewer - Image and Document Conversion & Rendering in
standard image and document in .NET class applications independently, without using other external third-party dependencies like Adobe Acrobat. Convert to PDF.
how to add text box to pdf; how to add text to a pdf in preview
C# Word - Word Conversion in C#.NET
Word documents in .NET class applications independently, without using other external third-party dependencies like Adobe Acrobat. Word to PDF Conversion.
add editable text box to pdf; add text fields to pdf
-5-
retrieveappropriatemeanings. Thisbox-and-arrowrepresentationmakesclearthe
differencebetweenmeaning:meaningrelations(intheWordMeaningbox)and
word:wordrelations(intheWordFormbox). Initsinitialconception,WordNetwas
concernedsolelywiththepatternofsemanticrelationsbetweenlexicalizedconcepts;that
istosay,itwastobeatheoryoftheWordMeaningbox. Asworkproceeded,however,
itbecameincreasinglyclearthatlexicalrelationsintheWordFormboxcouldnotbe
ignored. Atpresent,WordNetdistinguishesbetweensemanticrelationsandlexical
relations;theemphasisisstillonsemanticrelationsbetweenmeanings,butrelations
betweenwordsarealsoincluded.
Althoughthebox-and-arrowrepresentationrespectsthedifferencebetweenthese
twokindsofrelations,ithasthedisadvantagethattheintricatedetailsofthemany:many
mappingbetweenmeaningsandformsareslighted,whichnotonlyconcealsthe
reciprocityofpolysemyandsynonymy,butalsoobscuresthemajordeviceusedin
WordNettorepresentmeanings. Forthatreason,thisdescriptionofWordNethasbeen
introducedintermsofalexicalmatrix,ratherthanasabox-and-arrowdiagram.
HowarewordmeaningsrepresentedinWordNet? Inordertosimulatealexical
matrixitisnecessarytohavesomewaytorepresentbothformsandmeaningsina
computer. Inscriptionscanprovideareasonablysatisfactorysolutionfortheforms,but
howmeaningsshouldberepresentedposesacriticalquestionforanytheoryoflexical
semantics. Lackinganadequatepsychologicaltheory,methodsdevelopedby
lexicographerscanprovideaninterimsolution:definitionscanplaythesameroleina
simulationthatmeaningsplayinthemindofalanguageuser.
Howlexicalizedconceptsaretoberepresentedbydefinitionsinatheoryoflexical
semanticsdependsonwhetherthetheoryisintendedtobeconstructiveormerely
differential. Inaconstructivetheory,therepresentationshouldcontainsufficient
informationtosupportanaccurateconstructionoftheconcept(byeitherapersonora
machine). Therequirementsofaconstructivetheoryarenoteasilymet,andthereis
somereasontobelievethatthedefinitionsfoundinmoststandarddictionariesdonot
meetthem(Gross,Kegl,Gildea,andMiller,1989;MillerandGildea,1987). Ina
differentialtheory,ontheotherhand,meaningscanberepresentedbyanysymbolsthat
enableatheoristtodistinguishamongthem. Therequirementsforadifferentialtheory
aremoremodest,yetsufficefortheconstructionofthedesiredmappings. Iftheperson
whoreadsthedefinitionhasalreadyacquiredtheconceptandneedsmerelytoidentifyit,
thenasynonym(ornearsynonym)isoftensufficient. Inotherwords,thewordmeaning
M
1
inTable1canberepresentedbysimplylistingthewordformsthatcanbeusedto
expressit:{F
1
,F
2
,...}. (Hereandlater,thecurlybrackets,‘{’and‘},’surroundthe
setsofsynonymsthatserveasidentifyingdefinitionsoflexicalizedconcepts.) For
example,someonewhoknowsthatboardcansignifyeitherapieceoflumberoragroup
ofpeopleassembledforsomepurposewillbeabletopickouttheintendedsensewithno
morehelpthanplankorcommittee. Thesynonymsets,{board,plank}and{board,
committee}canserveasunambiguousdesignatorsofthesetwomeaningsofboard.
Thesesynonymsets(synsets)donotexplainwhattheconceptsare;theymerelysignify
thattheconceptsexist. PeoplewhoknowEnglishareassumedtohavealreadyacquired
VB.NET PowerPoint: VB Code to Draw and Create Annotation on PPT
free hand, free hand line, rectangle, text, hotspot, hotspot no more plug-ins needed like Acrobat or Adobe Users need to add following implementations to your
adding a text field to a pdf; adding text to pdf in preview
C# Excel - Excel Conversion & Rendering in C#.NET
Excel documents in .NET class applications independently, without using other external third-party dependencies like Adobe Acrobat. Excel to PDF Conversion.
how to insert text into a pdf file; adding text pdf file
-6-
theconcepts,andareexpectedtorecognizethemfromthewordslistedinthesynset.
Alexicalmatrix,therefore,canberepresentedfortheoreticalpurposesbya
mappingbetweenwrittenwordsandsynsets. SinceEnglishisrichinsynonyms,synsets
areoftensufficientfordifferentialpurposes. Sometimes,however,anappropriate
synonymisnotavailable,inwhichcasethepolysemycanberesolvedbyashortgloss,
e.g.,{board,(aperson’smeals,providedregularlyformoney)}canservetodifferentiate
thissenseofboardfromtheothers;itcanberegardedasasynsetwithasinglemember.
Theglossisnotintendedforuseinconstructinganewlexicalconceptbysomeonenot
alreadyfamiliarwithit,anditdiffersfromasynonyminthatitisnotusedtogainaccess
toinformationstoredinthementallexicon. Itfulfillsitspurposeifitenablestheuserof
WordNet,whoisassumedtoknowEnglish,todifferentiatethissensefromotherswith
whichitcouldbeconfused.
Synonymyis,ofcourse,alexicalrelationbetweenwordforms,butbecauseitis
assignedthiscentralroleinWordNet,anotationaldistinctionismadebetweenwords
relatedbysynonymy,whichareenclosedincurlybrackets,‘{’and‘}’,andotherlexical
relations,whichwillbeenclosedinsquarebrackets,‘[’and‘]’. Semanticrelationsare
indicatedbypointers.
WordNetisorganizedbysemanticrelations. Sinceasemanticrelationisarelation
betweenmeanings,andsincemeaningscanberepresentedbysynsets,itisnaturalto
thinkofsemanticrelationsaspointersbetweensynsets. Itischaracteristicofsemantic
relationsthattheyarereciprocated:ifthereisasemanticrelationRbetweenmeaning{x,
x¢,...}andmeaning{y,y¢,...},thenthereisalsoarelationR¢between{y,y¢,...}and
{x,x¢,...}. Forthepurposesofthepresentdiscussion,thenamesofthesemantic
relationswillserveadualrole:iftherelationbetweenthemeanings{x,x¢,...}and{y,
y¢,...}iscalledR,thenRwillalsobeusedtodesignatetherelationbetweenindividual
wordformsbelongingtothosesynsets. Itmightbelogicallytidiertointroduceseparate
termsfortherelationbetweenmeaningsandfortherelationbetweenforms,buteven
greaterconfusionmightresultfromtheintroductionofsomanynewtechnicalterms.
Thefollowingexamplesillustrate(butdonotexhaust)thekindsofrelationsusedto
createWordNet.
Synonymy
Fromwhathasalreadybeensaid,itshouldbeobviousthatthemostimportant
relationforWordNetissimilarityofmeaning,sincetheabilitytojudgethatrelation
betweenwordformsisaprerequisitefortherepresentationofmeaningsinalexical
matrix. Accordingtoonedefinition(usuallyattributedtoLeibniz)twoexpressionsare
synonymousifthesubstitutionofonefortheotherneverchangesthetruthvalueofa
sentenceinwhichthesubstitutionismade. Bythatdefinition,truesynonymsarerare,if
theyexistatall. Aweakenedversionofthisdefinitionwouldmakesynonymyrelativeto
acontext:twoexpressionsaresynonymousinalinguisticcontextCifthesubstitutionof
onefortheotherinCdoesnotalterthetruthvalue. Forexample,thesubstitutionof
plankforboardwillseldomaltertruthvaluesincarpentrycontexts,althoughthereare
othercontextsofboardwherethatsubstitutionwouldbetotallyinappropriate.
BMP to PDF Converter | Convert Bitmap to PDF, Convert PDF to BMP
Also designed to be used add-on for .NET Image SDK, RasterEdge Bitmap Powerful image converter for Bitmap and PDF files; No need for Adobe Acrobat Reader &
adding text pdf files; adding text to pdf form
JPEG to PDF Converter | Convert JPEG to PDF, Convert PDF to JPEG
It can be used standalone. JPEG to PDF Converter is able to convert image files to PDF directly without the software Adobe Acrobat Reader for conversion.
add text field to pdf; adding text fields to pdf acrobat
-7-
Notethatthedefinitionofsynonymyintermsofsubstitutabilitymakesitnecessary
topartitionWordNetintonouns,verbs,adjectives,andadverbs. Thatistosay,if
conceptsarerepresentedbysynsets,andifsynonymsmustbeinterchangeable,then
wordsindifferentsyntacticcategoriescannotbesynonyms(cannotformsynsets)
becausetheyarenotinterchangeable. Nounsexpressnominalconcepts,verbsexpress
verbalconcepts,andmodifiersprovidewaystoqualifythoseconcepts. Inotherwords,
theuseofsynsetstorepresentwordmeaningsisconsistentwithpsycholinguistic
evidencethatnouns,verbs,andmodifiersareorganizedindependentlyinsemantic
memory. Anargumentmightbemadeinfavorofstillfurtherpartitions:somewordsin
thesamesyntacticcategory(particularlyverbs)expressverysimilarconcepts,yetcannot
beinterchangedwithoutmakingthesentenceungrammatical.
Thedefinitionofsynonymyintermsoftruthvaluesseemstomakesynonymya
discretematter:twowordseitheraresynonymsortheyarenot. Butassome
philosophershaveargued,andmostpsychologistsacceptwithoutconsideringthe
alternative,synonymyisbestthoughtofasoneendofacontinuumalongwhich
similarityofmeaningcanbegraded. Itisprobablythecasethatsemanticallysimilar
wordscanbeinterchangedinmorecontextsthancansemanticallydissimilarwords. But
theimportantpointhereisthattheoriesoflexicalsemanticsdonotdependontruth-
functionalconceptionsofmeaning;semanticsimilarityissufficient. Itisconvenientto
assumethattherelationissymmetric:ifxissimilartoy,thenyisequallysimilartox.
Thegradabilityofsemanticsimilarityisubiquitous,butitismostimportantfor
understandingtheorganizationofadjectivalandadverbialmeanings.
Antonymy
Anotherfamiliarrelationisantonymy,whichturnsouttobesurprisinglydifficultto
define. Theantonymofawordxissometimesnot-x,butnotalways. Forexample,rich
andpoorareantonyms,buttosaythatsomeoneisnotrichdoesnotimplythattheymust
bepoor;manypeopleconsiderthemselvesneitherrichnorpoor. Antonymy,which
seemstobeasimplesymmetricrelation,isactuallyquitecomplex,yetspeakersof
Englishhavelittledifficultyrecognizingantonymswhentheyseethem.
Antonymyisalexicalrelationbetweenwordforms,notasemanticrelationbetween
wordmeanings. Forexample,themeanings{rise,ascend}and{fall,descend}maybe
conceptualopposites,buttheyarenotantonyms;[rise/fall]areantonymsandsoare
[ascend/descend],butmostpeoplehesitateandlookthoughtfulwhenaskedifriseand
descend,orascendandfall,areantonyms.Suchfactsmakeapparenttheneedto
distinguishbetweensemanticrelationsbetweenwordformsandsemanticrelations
betweenwordmeanings. Antonymyprovidesacentralorganizingprincipleforthe
adjectivesandadverbsinWordNet,andthecomplicationsthatarisefromthefactthat
antonymyisasemanticrelationbetweenwordsarebetterdiscussedinthatcontext.
-8-
Hyponymy
Unlikesynonymyandantonymy,whicharelexicalrelationsbetweenwordforms,
hyponymy/hypernymyisasemanticrelationbetweenwordmeanings:e.g.,{maple}isa
hyponymof{tree},and{tree}isahyponymof{plant}. Muchattentionhasbeen
devotedtohyponymy/hypernymy(variouslycalledsubordination/superordination,
subset/superset,orthe
ISA
relation). Aconceptrepresentedbythesynset{x,x¢,...}is
saidtobeahyponymoftheconceptrepresentedbythesynset{y,y¢,...}ifnative
speakersofEnglishacceptsentencesconstructedfromsuchframesasAnxisa(kindof)
y. Therelationcanberepresentedbyincludingin{x,x¢,...}apointertoits
superordinate,andincludingin{y,y¢,...}pointerstoitshyponyms.
Hyponymyistransitiveandasymmetrical(Lyons,1977,vol.1),and,sincethereis
normallyasinglesuperordinate,itgeneratesahierarchicalsemanticstructure,inwhicha
hyponymissaidtobebelowitssuperordinate. Suchhierarchicalrepresentationsare
widelyusedintheconstructionofinformationretrievalsystems,wheretheyarecalled
inheritancesystems(Touretzky,1986):ahyponyminheritsallthefeaturesofthemore
genericconceptandaddsatleastonefeaturethatdistinguishesitfromitssuperordinate
andfromanyotherhyponymsofthatsuperordinate. Forexample,mapleinheritsthe
featuresofitssuperordinate,tree,butisdistinguishedfromothertreesbythehardnessof
itswood,theshapeofitsleaves,theuseofitssapforsyrup,etc. Thisconvention
providesthecentralorganizingprincipleforthenounsinWordNet.
Meronymy
Synonymy,antonymy,andhyponymyarefamiliarrelations. Theyapplywidely
throughoutthelexiconandpeopledonotneedspecialtraininginlinguisticsinorderto
appreciatethem. Anotherrelationsharingtheseadvantages—asemanticrelation—isthe
part-whole(or
HASA
)relation,knowntolexicalsemanticistsasmeronymy/holonymy. A
conceptrepresentedbythesynset{x,x¢,...}isameronymofaconceptrepresentedby
thesynset{y,y¢,...}ifnativespeakersofEnglishacceptsentencesconstructedfrom
suchframesasAyhasanx(asapart)orAnxisapartofy. Themeronymicrelationis
transitive(withqualifications)andasymmetrical(Cruse,1986),andcanbeusedto
constructaparthierarchy(withsomereservations,sinceameronymcanhavemany
holonyms). Itwillbeassumedthattheconceptofapartofawholecanbeapartofa
conceptofthewhole,althoughitisrecognizedthattheimplicationsofthisassumption
deservemorediscussionthantheywillreceivehere.
Theseandothersimilarrelationsservetoorganizethementallexicon. Theycanbe
representedinWordNetbyparentheticalgroupingsorbypointers(labeledarcs)fromone
synsettoanother. Theserelationsrepresentassociationsthatformacomplexnetwork;
knowingwhereawordissituatedinthatnetworkisanimportantpartofknowingthe
word’smeaning. Itisnotprofitabletodiscusstheserelationsintheabstract,however,
becausetheyplaydifferentrolesinorganizingthelexicalknowledgeassociatedwith
differentsyntacticcategories.
-9-
MorphologicalRelations
Animportantclassoflexicalrelationsarethemorphologicalrelationsbetween
wordforms. Initially,interestwaslimitedtosemanticrelations;noplansweremadeto
includemorphologicalrelationsinWordNet. Asworkprogressed,however,itbecame
increasinglyobviousthatifWordNetwastobeofanypracticalusetoanyone,itwould
havetodealwithinflectionalmorphology. Forexample,ifsomeoneputthecomputer’s
cursoronthewordtreesandclickedarequestforinformation,WordNetshouldnotreply
thatthewordwasnotinthedatabase. Aprogramwasneededtostripoffthepluralsuffix
andthentolookuptree,whichcertainlyisinthedatabase. Thisneedledtothe
developmentofaprogramfordealingwithinflectionalmorphology.
AlthoughtheinflectionalmorphologyofEnglishisrelativelysimple,writinga
computerprogramtodealwithitprovedtobeamorecomplextaskthanhadbeen
expected. Verbsarethemajorproblem,ofcourse,sincetherearefourformsandmany
irregularverbs. Butthesoftwarehasbeenwrittenandispresentlyavailableaspartofthe
interfacebetweenthelexicaldatabaseandtheuser. Inthecourseofthisdevelopmentit
becameobviousthatprogramsdealingwithderivationalmorphologywouldgreatly
enhancethevalueofWordNet,butthatmoreambitiousprojecthasnotyetbeen
undertaken.
Thethreepapersfollowingthisintroductionhavelittletosayaboutlexicalrelations
resultingfrominflectionalmorphology,sincethoserelations areincorporatedinthe
interfacetoWordNet,notinthecentraldatabase.
-10-
NounsinWordNet:ALexicalInheritanceSystem
GeorgeA.Miller
(RevisedAugust1993)
Definitionsofcommonnounstypicallygiveasuperordinatetermplus
distinguishingfeatures;thatinformationprovidesthebasisfororganizingnoun
filesinWordNet. Thesuperordinaterelation(hyponymy)generatesa
hierarchicalsemanticorganizationthatisduplicatedinthenounfilesbythe
useoflabeledpointersbetweensetsofsynonyms(synsets). Thehierarchyis
limitedindepth,seldomexceedingmorethanadozenlevels. Distinguishing
featuresareenteredinsuchawayastocreatealexicalinheritancesystem,a
systeminwhicheachwordinheritsthedistinguishingfeaturesofallits
superordinates. Threetypesofdistinguishingfeaturesarediscussed:attributes
(modification),parts(meronymy),andfunctions(predication),butonly
meronymyispresentlyimplementedinthenounfiles. Antonymyisalsofound
betweennouns,butitisnotafundamentalorganizingprinciplefornouns.
Coverageispartitionedintotwenty-fivetopicalfiles,eachofwhichdealswith
adifferentprimitivesemanticcomponent.
Asthisiswritten,WordNetcontainsapproximately57,000nounwordforms
organizedintoapproximately48,800wordmeanings(synsets). Thenumbersare
approximatebecauseWordNetcontinuestogrow—oneadvantageofanon-linedatabase.
Manyofthesenounsarecompounds,ofcourse;afewareartificialcollocationsinvented
fortheconvenienceofcategorization. Noattempthasbeenmadetoincludeproper
nouns;ontheotherhand,sincemanycommonnounsoncewerenames,noserious
attempthasbeenmadetoexcludethem. Intermsofcoverage,WordNet’sgoalsdiffer
littlefromthoseofagoodstandardhandheldcollegiate-leveldictionary. Itisinthe
organizationofthatinformationthatWordNetaspirestoinnovation.
Ifsomeoneaskshowtouseaconventionaldictionary,itiscustomarytoexplainthe
differentkindsofinformationpackedintolexicalentries:spelling,pronunciation,
inflectedandderivativeforms,etymology,partofspeech,definitionsandillustrativeuses
ofalternativesenses,synonymsandantonyms,specialusagenotes,occasionalline
drawingsorplates—agooddictionaryisaremarkablestoreofinformation. Butif
someoneaskshowtoimproveadictionary,itbecomesnecessarytoconsiderwhatisnot
included. Andwhen,asinthecaseofWordNet,improvementsareintendedtoreflect
psycholinguisticprinciples,thefocalconcernbecomeswhatisnotincludedinthe
definitions.
Examplesofferthesimplestwaytocharacterizetheomissions. Takeonemeaning
ofthenountree,thesensehavingtodowithtreesasplants. Conventionaldictionaries
definethissenseoftreebysomesuchglossas:aplantthatislarge,woody,perennial,
andhasadistincttrunk.Ofcourse,theactualwordingisusuallymorefelicitous—a
large,woody,perennialplantwithadistincttrunk,forexample—buttheunderlying
logicisthesame:superordinateplusdistinguishers. Thepointisthattheprototypical
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested