mvc view pdf : How to insert text into a pdf file SDK application API .net html asp.net sharepoint 5papers3-part1403

-31-
onlyunmarkedspatialadjectivescantakemeasurephrases.Forexample,Theroadisten
mileslongisacceptable;themeasurephrase,tenmiles,describesthe
LENGTH
oftheroad.
Butwhentheantonymisused,asin*Theroadistenmilesshort,theresultisnot
acceptable(unlesstheroadisshortofsomegoal).Thus,theprimarymember,long,isthe
unmarkedterm;thesecondarymember,short,ismarkedanddoesnottakemeasure
phrasesexceptinspecialcircumstances.Notethattheunmarkedmember,long,lendsits
nametotheattribute,
LENGTH
.
Measurephrasesareinappropriatewithmanyattributes,yetmarkednessisageneral
phenomenonthatcharacterizesnearlyalldirectantonyms.Innearlyeverycase,one
memberofapairofantonymsisprimary:morecustomary,morefrequentlyused,less
remarkable,ormorphologicallyrelatedtothenameoftheattribute.Theprimarytermis
thedefaultvalueoftheattribute,thevaluethatwouldbeassumedintheabsenceof
informationtothecontrary. MarkednesshasnotbeencodedinWordNet;ithasbeen
assumedthatthemarkedmemberofthepairisobviousandsoneedsnoexplicit
indicator. However,thenounthatnamestheattribute—e.g.,
LENGTH
—andallthe
adjectivesexpressingvaluesofthatattribute(inthiscase,long,short,lengthy,etc.)are
linkedinWordNetbyapointer. Inafewcases(e.g.,wet/dry,easy/difficult)itisarguable
whichtermshouldberegardedasprimary,butforthevastmajorityofpairsthemarkeris
morphologicallyexplicitintheformofanegativeprefix:un+pleasant,in+decent,
im+patient,il+legal,ir+resolute,forexample.
PolysemyandSelectionalPreferences:JustesonandKatz(1993)findthatthe
differentsensesofpolysemousadjectiveslikeold,right,andshortoccurwithspecific
nouns(orspecificsensesofpolysemousnouns). Forexample,thesenseofoldmeaning
‘‘notyoung’’frequentlymodifiesnounslikeman,whereasoldmeaning‘‘notnew’’was
foundtofrequentlymodifynounslikehouse. JustesonandKatznotethatthenoun
contextthereforeoftenservestodisambiguatepolysemousadjectives.
Analternativeview,putforthbyMurphyandAndrew(1993),holdsthatadjectives
aremonosemousbutthattheyhavedifferentextensions; MurphyandAndrewassertthat
speakerscomputetheappropriatemeaningsincombinationwiththemeaningsofthe
nounsthattheadjectivesmodify.MurphyandAndrewfurtherargueagainsttheclaim
thatantonymyisarelationbetweentwowordformsonthebasisofthefactthatspeakers
generatedifferentantonymsforanadjectivelikefreshdependingonwhetheritmodifies
shirtorbread. WordNettakesthepositionthatthesefactspointtothepolysemyof
adjectiveslikefresh;thisviewisalsoadoptedbyJustesonandKatz(1993),whopoint
outthatthedifferentantonymscanservetodisambiguatepolysemousadjectives.
Adjectivesareselectiveaboutthenounstheymodify. Thegeneralruleisthatifthe
referentdenotedbyanoundoesnothavetheattributewhosevalueisexpressedbythe
adjective,thenthatadjective-nouncombinationrequiresafigurativeoridiomatic
interpretation.Forexample,abuildingorapersoncanbetallbecausebuildingsand
personshave
HEIGHT
asanattribute,butstreetsandstoriesdonothave
HEIGHT
,sotall
streetortallstorydonotadmitliteralreadings.Nordoantonymyrelationsholdwhen
nounslackthepertinentattribute. Compareshortstorywithtallstory,orshortorder
withtallorder. Itisreallyacommentonthesemanticsofnouns,therefore,whenitis
How to insert text into a pdf file - insert text into PDF content in C#.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
XDoc.PDF for .NET, providing C# demo code for inserting text to PDF file
adding text fields to pdf acrobat; add text to pdf reader
How to insert text into a pdf file - VB.NET PDF insert text library: insert text into PDF content in vb.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
Providing Demo Code for Adding and Inserting Text to PDF File Page in VB.NET Program
how to add text to a pdf file in reader; how to add text field to pdf
-32-
saidthatadjectivesvarywidelyintheirbreadthofapplication.Adjectivesexpressing
evaluations(good/bad,desirable/undesirable)canmodifyalmostanynoun;those
expressingactivity(active/passive,fast/slow)orpotency(strong/weak,brave/cowardly)
alsohavewiderangesofapplicability(cf.Osgood,Suci,andTannenbaum,1957). Other
adjectivesarestrictlylimitedwithrespecttotherangeoftheirheadnouns
(mown/unmown;dehiscent/indehiscent).
Thesemanticcontributionofadjectivesissecondaryto,anddependenton,thehead
nounsthattheymodify.EdwardSapir(1944)seemstohavebeenthefirstlinguistto
pointoutexplicitlythatmanyadjectivestakeondifferentmeaningswhentheymodify
differentnouns. Thus,talldenotesonerangeofheightsforabuilding,anotherforatree,
andstillanotherforaperson. Itappearsthatpartofthemeaningofeachofthenouns
building,tree,andpersonisarangeofexpectedvaluesfortheattribute
HEIGHT
Tallis
interpretedrelativetotheexpectedheightofobjectsofthekinddenotedbythehead
noun:atallpersonissomeonewhoistallforaperson.
Therefore,inadditiontocontainingamerelistofitsattributes,anominalconceptis
usuallyassumedtocontaininformationabouttheexpectedvaluesofthoseattributes:for
example,althoughbothbuildingsandpersonshavetheattributeof
HEIGHT
,theexpected
heightofabuildingismuchgreaterthantheexpectedheightofaperson. Theadjective
simplymodifiesthosevaluesaboveorbelowtheirdefaultvalues.Thedenotationofan
adjective-nouncombinationsuchastallbuildingcannotbetheintersectionoftwo
independentsets,thesetoftallthingsandthesetofbuildings,forthenallbuildings
wouldbeincluded.
Howadjectivalinformationmodulatesnominalinformationisnotaquestiontobe
settledintermsoflexicalrepresentations.Weassumethattheinteractionsbetween
adjectivesandnounsarenotprestoredbutarecomputedasneededbysomeon-line
interpretativeprocess. AssuggestedbyMillerandJohnson-Laird,‘‘Thenominal
informationmustbegivenpriority;theadjectivalinformationisthenevaluatedwithin
therangeallowedbythenominalinformation’’(MillerandJohnson-Laird,1976,p.358).
ThenounclassesofWordNethavebeenorganizedinsuchawayastomakethe
statementofanadjective’sselectionalpreferencesassimpleaspossible(Miller,this
volume),butasthisaccountisbeingwrittenthoserelationshavenotyetbeencodedin
WordNet.
Syntax:Descriptiveadjectivessuchasbigandheavyaresyntacticallythefreest:
theycanbeusedattributively(inprenominalposition)orpredicatively(afterbe,become,
remain,stay,andafewotherlinkingverbs). Someidentifyingadjectives,suchasbest
andleft,occurmostlyattributively:Thebestessayvs.*Theessayisbest(butincontext,
asentencelikeTheessaybyMarywasbestisacceptable).Reference-modifyingand
relationaladjectives,tobediscussedbelow,arealsorestrictedtoattributiveuse.
Reference-ModifyingAdjectives
Bolinger(1967)wasthefirsttonotethedistinctionbetweenreference-modifying
andreferent-modifyingadjectives. Hepointedoutthatinaphraseliketheformer
president,whatisformeristhepresident-hoodofthereferent,notthereferenthimself:
C# PDF Page Insert Library: insert pages into PDF file in C#.net
editor library control, RasterEdge XDoc.PDF, offers easy & mature APIs for developers to add & insert an (empty) page into an existing PDF document file.
add text to pdf document in preview; add text box in pdf
VB.NET PDF Page Insert Library: insert pages into PDF file in vb.
of PDF page adding in C# class, we suggest you go to C# Imaging - how to insert a new empty page to PDF file. DLLs for Adding Page into PDF Document in VB.NET
how to insert text box in pdf file; add text block to pdf
-33-
thepersonisformerquapresident. Onlythereferencetothepersonaspresidentisbeing
qualifiedbyformer. Thenounsmodifiedbyadjectiveslikeformer,present,alleged,and
likelygenerallydenoteafunctionorsocialrelation. Inthephrasemyoldfriend,the
adjectivecanbeinterpretedasreference-modifying,qualifyingthefriendshipbetween
thespeakerandthe(possiblyyoung)referentofthenoun. Underthereferent-modifying
interpretationofthatsameadjective,thefriendisold(aged),butthefriendshipneednot
be.Notethatthetwosensesofthisadjectivehavedifferentantonyms:thereference-
modifyingsenseisopposedtothe(reference-modifying)adjectivesrecentornew,
whereasthereferent-modifyingadjectivehasyoungasitsantonym.Reference-modifying
adjectivesareaclosedclasscomprisingafewdozenadjectives. Manyrefertothe
temporalstatusofthenoun(former,present,last,past,late,recent,occasional);others
haveanepistemologicalflavor(potential,reputed,alleged);stillothersareintensifying
(mere,sheer,virtual,actual).Theadjectivesexpressdifferentvaluesofattributesthat
seemnottobelexicalized,suchas‘‘degreeofcertainty.’’ Onlysomeoftheadjectives
havenominalizations(likelihood,possibility,andafewothers).
Thereference-modifyingadjectivesoftenfunctionlikeadverbs:Myformerteacher
meanshewasformerlymyteacher;theallegedkillerstatesthatsheisallegedlyakiller
orsheallegedlykilled;andalighteaterissomeonethateatslightly.
Reference-modifyingadjectivescanoccuronlyattributively,butnotpredicatively;
compareTheallegedburglarwith*Theburglarisalleged. Andthepredicativeuseof
oldasinMyfriendisolddisambiguatesthatadjective,rulingoutthelong-standing
readinginfavoroftheagedinterpretation. InthecurrentversionofWordNet,most
reference-modifyingadjectivesaremarkedasoccurringprenominallyonly.
Somereference-modifyingadjectivesresembledescriptiveadjectivesinthatthey
havedirectantonyms:thepossible/impossibletask;thepast/presentdirector. Thosethat
donothavedirectantonymsusuallyhaveindirectantonyms.
ColorAdjectives
Onelargeandintensivelystudiedclassofadjectivesisorganizeddifferently,and
deservesspecialcomment.
Englishcolortermsareexceptionalinseveralways. Theycanserveaseithernouns
oradjectives,yettheyarenotnominaladjectives:theycanbegraded,nominalized,and
conjoinedwithotherdescriptiveadjectives. Butthepatternofdirectandindirect
antonymythatisobservedforotherdescriptiveadjectivesdoesnotholdforcolor
adjectives.
Onlyonecolorattributeisclearlydescribedbydirectantonyms:
LIGHTNESS
,whose
polarvaluesareexpressedbylight/dark.Studentsofcolorvisioncanproduceevidence
ofoppositionsbetweenredandgreen,andbetweenyellowandblue,butthosearenot
treatedasdirectantonymsinlayspeech. Theorganizationofcolortermsisgivenbythe
dimensionsofcolorperception:lightness,hue,andsaturation,whichdefinethewell-
knowncolorsolid. InWordNet,however,theoppositioncolored/colorless(cross-
referencedtochromatic/achromatic)isusedtointroducethenamesofcolors.Huesare
codedassimilartocolored,andtheshadesofgrayfromwhitetoblackarecodedas
C# PDF File Split Library: Split, seperate PDF into multiple files
C#.NET control for splitting PDF file into two or multiple files online. Support to break a large PDF file into smaller files. Divide PDF File into Two Using C#.
add text pdf acrobat; how to add text to a pdf file in acrobat
VB.NET PDF File Split Library: Split, seperate PDF into multiple
Split PDF file into two or multiple files in ASP.NET webpage online. Support to break a large PDF file into smaller files in .NET WinForms.
adding text to pdf in preview; adding text pdf files
-34-
similartogrey,whichisinatripartiteclusterwithwhiteandblack,providingfora
gradedcontinuum.
Thereissomereasontosuspectthattheelaboratecolorterminologyavailableinthe
languagesofindustrializedcountriesisaconsequenceoftechnologicalprogressandnot
anaturallinguisticdevelopment. Speculationabouttheevolutionofcolorterminology
(BerlinandKay,1969)suggeststhatitbeginswithasingle,conventionalattribute,
LIGHTNESS
.Exoticlanguagesarestillspokenthathaveonlytwocolortermstoexpress
valuesofthatattribute,andithasbeenshownthatthislexicallimitationisnota
consequenceofperceptualdeficits(Heider,1972;HeiderandOlivier,1972). As
technologydevelopsandmakespossiblethemanipulationandcontrolofcolor,theneed
forgreaterterminologicalprecisiongrowsandmorecolortermsappearinthelanguage.
Theyarealwaysaddedalonglinesdeterminedbyinnatemechanismsofcolorperception
ratherthanbyestablishedpatternsoflinguisticmodification.
RelationalAdjectives
Anotherkindofadjectivecomprisesthelargeandopenclassofrelational
adjectives. These,too,canoccuronlyinattributiveposition,althoughforsome
adjectives,thisconstraintissomewhatrelaxed. Relationaladjectives,whichwerefirst
discussedatlengthbybyLevi(1978),meansomethinglike‘‘of,relating/pertainingto,or
associatedwith’’somenoun,andtheyplayarolesimilartothatofamodifyingnoun.
Forexample,fraternal,asinfraternaltwinsrelatestobrother,anddental,asin
dentalhygiene,isrelatedtotooth. Someheadnounscanbemodifiedbyboththe
relationaladjectiveandthenounfromwhichitisderived:bothatomicbombandatom
bombareadmissible.
Somenounsgiverisetotwohomonymousadjectives;onerelationaladjective
restrictedtopredicativeuse,theotherdescriptive. Forexample,musicalhasadifferent
meaninginmusicalinstrumentandmusicalchild:thefirstnounphrasedoesnotreferto
aninstrumentthatismusicalbutaninstrumentusedinmusic. Similarly,theadjectivein
criminallawisnotthesameasincriminalbehavior;thisisreflectedinthefactthatthe
secondadjective,butnotthefirst,isreferent-modifyingandcanbeusedpredicatively.
Relationaladjectivesdonotcombinewellwithdescriptiveadjectivesinmodifyingthe
sameheadnounwhenthetwoadjectivesarelinkedbyaconjunction:nervousandlife-
threateningdiseaseandmusicalbutnotextraordinarytalentsounddistinctlyodd.
(Concatenationslikelife-threateningnervousdiseasearefine,indicatingthatthe
relationaladjectiveactslikeamodifyingnoun.) Ontheotherhand,relationaladjectives
caneasilybeconjoinedwithmodifyingnouns:atomandnuclearbombs,theKoreanand
Vietnamwar.
RelationaladjectivesaremostoftenderivedfromGreekorLatinnouns,andless
oftenfromtheappropriateAnglo-Saxonnoun. TheEnglishlexiconfrequentlyhas
several(synonymous)adjectivesderivedfromnounsindifferentlanguagesthatexpress
thesameconcept:Greek-basedrhinalandAnglo-Saxonnasalbothrelatetonose;the
relationaladjectivescorrespondingtowordareverbal(fromLatin)andlexical(fromthe
Greek). Inmanycases,thesesynonymseachpickouttheirownheadnounsandarenot
C# PDF File Merge Library: Merge, append PDF files in C#.net, ASP.
PDF document splitting, PDF page reordering and PDF page image and text extraction. Description: Combine the source PDF streams into one PDF file and save
adding text pdf; adding text box to pdf
C# PDF File & Page Process Library SDK for C#.net, ASP.NET, MVC
C# File: Split PDF; C# Page: Insert PDF pages; C# Page: Delete PDF pages; C# Read: PDF Text Extract; C# Read: PDF Image Extract; C# Write: Insert text into PDF;
how to add text to a pdf document using reader; add text to a pdf document
-35-
substitutableinagivencontext;comparenasal/*rhinalpassageandrhinal/*nasal
surgery.
Conversely,asinglerelationaladjectivesometimespointstoseveralnouns:
chemicalhassensescorrespondingtothetwonounschemical(asinchemicalfertilizer)
andchemistry(asinchemicalengineer).
Somehomonymousrelationaladjectiveshaveacommonoriginbuttheirmeanings
havedriftedapartovertime;consequentlytheypointtotwodistinctnounsynsets:one
senseofclericalpointstoclergy(clericalleader);anothersenseislinkedtoclerk
(clericalwork).
SomerelationaladjectivesdonotpointtomorphologicallyrelatedEnglishnouns;
theLatinorGreeknounsthattheyarederivedfromhavenoexactEnglishequivalents.
Forexample,fictilerelatestopottery,andcomesfromtheLatinwordfictilis,meaning
madeormoldedofclay;thereisnocorrespondingEnglishnounexpressingthisconcept.
Anadjectivelikeruralconnectstoseveralrelatedconcepts(country,asopposedtocity,
andfarming). Insuchcases,severalsensesoftheadjectivehavebeenenteredwith
pointerstodifferentnouns.
WordNetalsohasanumberofadjectivesthatarederivedfromotherrelational
adjectivesviasomeprefix;theseadjectives,whichincludeinterstellar,extramural,and
premedicaldonotpointtoanynounbutarelinkedinsteadtotheun-prefixedadjectives
(stellar,mural,andmedical,respectively),fromwhichtheyarederived.
Semantics: Relationaladjectivesdifferfromdescriptiveadjectivesinthattheydo
notrelatetoanattribute:thereisnoscaleofcriminalityormusicalityonwhichthe
adjectivesincriminallawandmusicaltrainingexpressavalue. Theadjectiveandthe
relatednounrefertothesameconcept,buttheydifferformally(morphologically).
Relationaladjectivesdonotrefertoapropertyoftheirheadnouns. Thiscanbe
seenfromtheabsenceofcorrespondingnominalizations:thedescriptiveuseofnervous
inthenervouspersonadmitssuchconstructionsastheperson’snervousness,butits
relationaluseinthenervousdisorderdoesnot.Relationaladjectives,likenounsand
unlikedescriptiveadjectives,arenotgradable:*theextremelyatomicbomb,like*the
extremelyatombombor*theverybaseballgame,arenotacceptable.Relational
adjectivesdonothavedirectantonyms;althoughtheycanoftenbecombinedwithnon-,
suchformsdonotexpresstheoppositevalueofanattributebutsomethinglike
‘‘everythingelse’’;theseadjectiveshaveaclassifyingfunction. Inafewcases,
relationaladjectivesenterintoanoppositiononthebasisoftheirprefixes:extracellular
vs.intracellular.Morefrequently,relationaladjectivesenterintoN-wayoppositionsin
combinationwithaspecificheadnoun(e.g.,civilopposescriminalincombinationwith
law(yer),andmechanical,electrical,etc.,incombinationwithengineer(ing).)
Sincerelationaladjectivesdonothaveantonyms,theycannotbeincorporatedinto
theclustersthatcharacterizedescriptiveadjectives. Andbecausetheirsyntacticand
semanticpropertiesareamixtureofthoseofadjectivesandthoseofnounsusedasnoun
modifiers,ratherthanattemptingtointegratethemintoeitherstructureWordNet
maintainsaseparatefileofrelationaladjectiveswithpointerstothecorrespondingnouns.
VB.NET PDF File Merge Library: Merge, append PDF files in vb.net
Combine multiple specified PDF pages in into single one file. This part illustrates how to combine three PDF files into a new file in VB.NET application.
adding text fields to pdf; how to add a text box in a pdf file
C# PDF insert image Library: insert images into PDF in C#.net, ASP
NET PDF image edit control, enable users to insert vector images to PDF file. Import graphic picture, digital photo, signature and logo into PDF document.
how to add text fields to pdf; add text boxes to a pdf
-36-
Some1,700relationaladjectivesynsetscontainingover3,000individuallexemes
arecurrentlyincludedinWordNet. Eachsynsetconsistsofoneormorerelational
adjectives,followedbyapointertotheappropriatenoun. Forexample,theentry
{stellar,astral,sidereal,noun.object:star}indicatesthatstellar,astral,siderealrelateto
thenounstar.
Syntax:Thesemanticrelationbetweenaheadnounandthenounfromwhichthe
adjectiveisderivedmaydifferwithdifferentheadnouns.Forexample,musicalevening
means‘‘aneveningwithmusic,’’whereasmusicalinstrumentis‘‘aninstrumentfor
(producing)music.’’Bartning(1980)observesthatwhentheheadnounisdeverbal,
predicationisoftenpossiblesolongastheheadnoundenotesastateratherthanan
action. Forexample,economicrestructuringreferstoanaction,andpredicationis
possible:Therestructuringwaseconomic. Bycontrast,economicslumpisastate,and
thesentence*theslumpiseconomicisbad.
Bartning(1980)observedfurtherthatifthereisatight,obviousgrammatical
relation,theadjectivecannotbeusedpredicatively;however,whentherelationbetween
theadjectiveanditsheadnounislessobvious,predicationispossible. Thus,inthenoun
phrasepresidentialelection,presidentistheobjectofelect;here,thegrammatical
relationbetweenadjectiveandheadnounistransparent,andpredicationisnotpossible:
*theelectionispresidential. Similarly,thePopeisclearlythesubjectinthephrase
papalvisit,andpredicationisbad(*Thevisitwaspapal). If,however,therelationisone
wherethebasenounisanadjunctoftheheadnoun,predicationismorelikelytobe
acceptable.Manuallaboris‘‘labor
WITH/BY
hand’’,andthephrase‘‘Thislaboris
(mostly)manual’’isfine. Thesyntacticbehaviorofsomerelationaladjectivesthat
differswiththesemanticrelationtotheparticularheadnouncannotpresentlybe
accountedforinWordNet. Therelationaladjectivesarenotprovidedwithsyntactic
codes.
Predicationisalsopossiblewhentherelationbetweenthenounandthebasenoun
oftheadjectiveis‘‘like’’:Nixonianpoliticsarepoliticsreminiscentofthoseofaformer
president;apresidentialspeechisaspeechthatislikethatofapresident. Bothallow
predication:ThesepoliticsaretrulyNixonian;Hisspeechwasratherpresidential.
Arguably,themeaningofpresidentialisnotthesameinpresidentialspeechandin
presidentialelection(wheretheadjectivecannotbeusedpredicatively). InWordNet,
suchdistinctionshavegenerallynotbeenmade,becausetherearetoomanysemantic
relationsbetweenarelationaladjectiveanditsdifferentheadnounstoclassifythe
adjectivesintodistinctsenses.
Virtuallyallrelationaladjectivescanbeusedpredicativelyincontrastivecontexts:
Theseweaponsarenotchemicalorbiological,butnuclear;Theyhiredacriminalnota
corporatelawyer. However,thesecasesarguablyinvolveellipsisoftheheadnoun.
Coding
ThesemanticorganizationofdescriptiveadjectivesillustratedinFigureis1coded
byorganizingthemintobipolarclusters. Thereareover2,500oftheseclusters,onefor
eachpairofantonyms;theycanbelikenedtothesubjectfilesfornounsandverbs. Each
-37-
bipolarclusterstandsalone,andcodingisrestrictedtowithin-clusterrelations.
Theclusterforwet/dry,whichdefinetheattribute
WETNESS
or
MOISTNESS
,
illustratesthebasiccodingdevicesused,andshowsthevarietyandrangeofsensesthat
canberepresentedwithinacluster.
[{ [WET1, DRY1,!] bedewed,& boggy,& clammy,& damp,& drenched,&
drizzling,& hydrated,& muggy,& perspiring,& saturated2,&
showery,& tacky,& tearful,& watery2,& WET2,& }
{ bedewed, dewy, wet1,& }
{ boggy, marshy, miry, mucky, muddy, quaggy, swampy, wet1,& }
{ clammy, dank, humid1, wet1,& }
{ damp, moist, wet1,& }
{ drenched, saturated1, soaked, soaking, soppy, soused, wet1,& }
{ drizzling, drizzly, misting, misty, wet1,& }
{ hydrated, hydrous, wet1,& ((chem) combined with water molecules) }
{ muggy, humid2, steamy, sticky1, sultry, wet1,& }
{ perspiring, sweaty, wet1,& }
{ saturated2, sodden, soggy, waterlogged, wet1,& }
{ showery, rainy, wet1,& }
{ sticky2, tacky, undried, wet1,& ("wet varnish") }
{ tearful, teary, watery1, wet1,&
}
{ watery2, wet1,& (filled with water; "watery soil") }
-
{ [DRY1, WET1,!] anhydrous,& arid,& dehydrated,& dried,& dried-up1,&
dried-up2,& DRY2,& rainless,& thirsty,& }
{ anhydrous, dry1,& ((chem) with all water removed) }
{ arid, waterless, dry1,& }
{ dehydrated, desiccated, parched, dry1,& }
{ dried, dry1,& ("the ink is dry") }
{ dried-up1, dry1,& ("a dry water hole") }
{ dried-up2, sere, shriveled, withered, wizened, dry1,&
(used of vegetation) }
{ rainless, dry1,& }
{ thirsty, dry1,& }]
Eachhalfoftheclusterisheadedbywhatiscalledaheadsynset. Thefirsttwo
itemsineachheadsynsetaretheantonymouspairthatdefinetheattributerepresented;
headwordsarecodedassuchbybeingcapitalized.Theseheadwordsarefollowedby
&-pointers,onetoeachsynsetinthehalfcluster,eachofwhichhasareciprocalpointer
backtotheheadword.Thenumeralsfollowingcertainitemsdistinguishdifferent
subsensesordifferentprivilegesofoccurrence—forexample,thedried-up1ofawater
holeinonesynsetandthedried-up2ofautumnleavesorfruitinanother.Eachofthese
cases,furthermore,containsparentheticalinformationdesignedtohelpdistinguishthese
particularsensesorindicateacceptablecontexts.
Asalreadymentioned,manyadjectivesarelimitedastothesyntacticpositionsthey
canoccupy,andthatlimitationisusuallycodedinWordNet. Becauseitisaword-form
limitation,itiscodedforindividualadjectivesratherthanforsynsets. Considerthe
-38-
clusterawake/asleep,bothofwhicharelimitedtopredicateposition. Althoughtheseare
theheadwordsofthecluster,thelimitationdoesnotholdforallofthesynonymsinthe
cluster. Therefore,theindividualwordssolimitedareallcodedwith(p).
[{ [AWAKE(p), ASLEEP,!] ALERT,& astir(p),& AWARE(p),& CONSCIOUS,&
insomniac,& unsleeping,& }
{ astir(p), out_of_bed(p), up(p), awake,& }
{ insomniac, sleepless, wakeful, awake,& }
{ unsleeping, wide-awake, awake,& }
-
{ [ASLEEP(p), AWAKE,!] at_rest(p),& benumbed,& DEAD,& dormant,& drowsing,&
drowsy,& unconscious,& UNAWARE,& UNCONSCIOUS,& }
{ at_rest(p), resting, asleep,& }
{ benumbed, insensible, numb, unfeeling, asleep,& ("my foot is asleep") }
{ dormant, inactive, hibernating, torpid, asleep,& }
{ drowsing, dozing, napping, asleep,& }
{ drowsy, nodding, sleepy, slumberous, slumbrous, somnolent, asleep,& }
{ unconscious, asleep,& }]
Foradjectiveslimitedtoprenominal(attributive)position,thecodeis(a):for
example,{putative(a),reputed(a),supposed(a),}asintheputativefatherbutnotthe
fatherisputative,and{bare(a),mere(a),}asinthebareminimumbutnottheminimumis
bare.Asalreadymentioned, formerisusedonlyprenominally,andsoareseveralofits
synonyms,{preceding(a),previous(a),prior(a),}.When,however,previousisused
predicativelythesensebecomes{premature,toosoon(p),},asinourcondemnationof
himwasabitprevious.
And,finally,forthosefewadjectivesthatcanappearonlyimmediatelyfollowinga
noun,thecodeis(ip)for‘‘immediatelypostnominal’’:galoreasingoregalore,elect
asinpresidentelect,andaforethoughtasinmaliceaforethought.Inmanycasesthe
adjectivesconstitutepartofwhatisessentiallyafrozenconstruction.
Inadditiontothelowercasewithin-clusterpointers,manyheadsynsetscontain
pointerstoother,relatedclusters.Inthis
AWAKE/ASLEEP
cluster,thecapitalizedpointer
ALERT
,&pointstotheheadwordofthe
ALERT/UNALERT
cluster.Thesecapitalized
pointersareplannedtoserveas‘‘seealso’’cross-referencestorelatedclusters,even
thoughthepresentsystemsoftwareisnotyetabletomakeuseofthem,beingtightly
restrictedtowithin-clustercoding.
Therestrictedwithin-clustercodingleadstoaproblemwhencloselyrelated
attributesareexpressedbymorethanonepairofantonyms. Insuchcases,exactlythe
samesetofsynsetscanberelatedtotwodifferentantonymouspairs,someofwhichare
presentlyindifferentclusters. Considerlarge/smallandbig/little.Big/littleand
large/smallareequallysalientasantonyms:manysynsetscouldjustaswellbecodedas
similartobigastolarge. Therefore,asingleclusterhasbeencreatedheadedbyboth
pairs,thusavoidingunnecessaryredundancy. Inaddition,aparticularsynsetcanbe
codedwithtwopointers,onetoitsownclusterhead,theothertotheheadofanoutside
cluster.
-39-
Afinalwordaboutlarge/smallandbig/little:althoughlargeisclearlyopposedto
little,thepairlargeandlittlearesimplynotacceptedasantonyms. Overwhelmingly,
associationdataandco-occurrencedataindicatethatbigandlittleareconsideredapair
andsoarelargeandsmall. Thesetwopairsconstituteaprimedemonstrationthat
antonymyisasasemanticrelationbetweenwordsratherthanbetweenlexicalized
concepts.
-40-
EnglishVerbsasaSemanticNet
ChristianeFellbaum
ThispaperdescribesthesemanticnetworkofEnglishverbsinWordNet. Thesemantic
relationsusedtobuildnetworksofnounsandadjectivescannotbeappliedwithout
modification,buthavetobeadaptedtofitthesemanticsofverbs,whichdiffersubstantially
fromthoseoftheotherlexicalcategories. Thenatureoftheserelationsisdiscussed,asistheir
distributionthroughoutdifferentsemanticgroupsofverbs,whichdeterminescertain
idiosyncraticpatternsoflexicalization. Inaddition,fourvariantsoflexicalentailmentare
distinguished,whichinteractinsystematicwayswiththesemanticrelations. Finally,the
lexicalpropertiesofthedifferentverbgroupsareoutlined.
Verbsarearguablythemostimportantlexicalandsyntacticcategoryofalanguage.
AllEnglishsentencesmustcontainatleastoneverb,but,asgrammaticalsentenceswith
‘‘dummy’’subjectslikeItissnowingshow,theyneednotcontaina(referential)noun.
Manylinguistshavearguedforamodelofsentencemeaninginwhichverbsoccupythe
corepositionandfunctionasthecentralorganizersofsentences(Chafe,1970;Fillmore,
1968;andothers). Theverbprovidestherelationalandsemanticframeworkforits
sentence. Itspredicate-argumentstructure(orsubcategorizationframe)specifiesthe
possiblesyntacticstructuresofthesentencesinwhichitcanoccur. Thelinkingofnoun
argumentswiththematicrolesorcases,suchas
INSTRUMENT
,determinesthedifferent
meaningsoftheeventsorstatesdenotedbythesentence,andtheselectionalrestrictions
specifythesemanticpropertiesofthenounclassesthatcanfleshouttheframe. This
syntacticandsemanticinformationisgenerallythoughttobepartoftheverb’slexical
entry,thatistosay,partoftheinformationabouttheverbthatisstoredinaspeaker’s
mentallexicon. Becauseofthecomplexityofthisinformation,verbsareprobablythe
lexicalcategorythatismostdifficulttostudy.
Polysemy
EventhoughgrammaticalEnglishsentencesrequireaverbthoughnotnecessarilya
noun,thelanguagehasfarfewerverbsthannouns. Forexample,theCollinsEnglish
Dictionarylists43,636differentnounsand14,190differentverbs. Verbsaremore
polysemousthannouns:thenounsinCollinshaveontheaverage1.74senses,whereas
verbsaverage2.11senses.2
Thehigherpolysemyofverbssuggeststhatverbmeaningsaremoreflexiblethan
nounmeanings. Verbscanchangetheirmeaningsdependingonthekindsofnoun
argumentswithwhichtheyco-occur,whereasthemeaningsofnounstendtobemore
stableinthepresenceofdifferentverbs. GentnerandFrance(1988)havedemonstrated
whattheycallthehighmutabilityofverbs. Theypresentedsubjectswithsentences
2
WeareindebtedtoRichardBeckwithforcomputingthesefigures.
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested