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DataFiles
Adatafilecontainsinformationcorrespondingtothesynsetsthatweredefinedin
thelexicographers’fileswithpointersresolvedtobyteoffsetsindata.posfiles.
Eachdatafilebeginswithseverallinescontainingacopyrightnotice,version
numberandlicenseagreement. Thisisfollowedbyalistofthenamesofalltheinput
filesthatwerespecifiedtotheGrinder,intheorderthattheyweregivenonthecommand
line,followedbythedatalines. Eachlineofdatacontainsanencodingofthe
informationenteredbythelexicographerforasynset,aswellasadditionalinformation
providedbytheGrinderwhichisusefultotheretrievalsoftwareandotherprograms.
Eachdatalineisterminatedwithanend-of-linecharacter. Inthedatafiles,wordforms
inasynsetmatchtheorthographicrepresentationenteredinthelexicographers’files.
Thefirstpieceofinformationoneachlineisthebyteoffset,oraddress,ofthe
synset. Thisisslightlyredundant,sincealmostanycomputerprogramthatreadsasynset
fromadatafileknowsthebyteoffsetthatitreaditfrom;howeverthispieceof
informationisusefulwhenusingUNIXutilitieslikegreptotracesynsetsandpointers
withouttheuseofsophisticatedsoftware. Italsoprovidesaunique‘‘key’’forasynset,
ifauser’sapplicationrequiresone. Aninteger,correspondingtothelocationinthelist
offilenamesofthefilefromwhichthesynsetoriginated,follows. Thiscanbeusedby
retrievalsoftwaretoannotatethedisplayofasynsetwiththenameoftheoriginatingfile,
andcanbehelpfulfordistinguishingsenses. Alistofwordforms,relationalpointers,
andverbframesfollows. Anoptionaltextualglossisthefinalcomponentofadataline.
Relationalpointersarerepresentedbyseveralpiecesofinformation. Thesymbol
forthepointercomesfirst,followedbytheaddressofthetargetsynsetanditssyntactic
category(necessaryforpointersthatcrossoverintoadifferentsyntacticcategory),
followedbyafieldwhichdifferentiateslexicalandsemanticpointers. Ifalexicalpointer
isbeingrepresented,thisfieldindicateswhichwordformsinthesourceandtarget
synsetsthepointerpertainsto. Forasemanticpointer,thisfieldis0.
RetrievingLexicalInformation
Inordertogiveauseraccesstoinformationinthedatabase,aninterfaceisrequired.
Interfacesenableenduserstoretrievethelexicaldataanddisplayitviaawindow-based
toolorthecommandline. Whenconsideringtheroleoftheinterface,itisimportantto
recognizethedifferencebetweenaprinteddictionaryandalexicaldatabase. WordNet’s
interfacesoftwarecreatesitsresponsestoauser’srequestsonthefly. Unlikeanon-line
versionofaprinteddictionary,whereinformationisstoredinafixedformatand
displayedondemand,WordNet’sinformationisstoredinaformatthatwouldbe
meaninglesstoanordinaryreader. Theinterfaceprovidesauserwithavarietyofways
toretrieveanddisplaylexicalinformation. Differentinterfacescanbecreatedtoserve
thepurposesofdifferentusers,butallofthemwilldrawonthesameunderlyinglexical
database,andmayusethesamesoftwarefunctionsthatinterfacetothedatabasefiles.
UserinterfacestoWordNetcantakeonmanyforms. ThestandardinterfaceisanX
Windowsapplication,whichhasbeenportedtoseveralcomputerplatforms. Microsoft
WindowsandMacintoshinterfaceshavealsobeenwritten. Analternativecommandline
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interfaceallowstheusertoretrievethesamedata,withexactlythesameoutputasthe
window-basedinterfaces,althoughthespecificationoftheretrievalcriteriaismore
cumbersome,andthewholeeffectislessimpressive. Nevertheless,thecommandline
interfaceisusefulbecausesomeusersdonothaveaccesstowindowingenvironments.
Shellscriptsandotherprogramscanalsobewrittenaroundthecommandlineinterface.
Thesearchprocessisthesameregardlessofthetypeofsearchrequested. Thefirst
stepistoretrievetheindexentrylocatedintheappropriateindexfile. Thiswillcontaina
listofaddressesofthesynsetsinthedatafileinwhichthewordappears. Theneachof
thesynsetsinthedatafileissearchedfortherequestedinformation,whichisretrieved
andformattedforoutput. Searchingiscomplicatedbythefactthateachsynset
containingthesearchwordalsocontainspointerstoothersynsetsinthedatafilethatmay
needtoberetrievedanddisplayed,dependingonthesearchtype. Forexample,each
synsetinthehypernymicpathwaypointstothenextsynsetinthehierarchy. Ifauser
requestsarecursivesearchonhypernymsarecursiveretrievalprocessisrepeateduntila
synsetisencounteredthatcontainsnofurtherpointers.
TheuserinterfacestoWordNetandothersoftwaretoolsrelyuponalibraryof
functionsthatinterfacetothedatabasefiles. Afairlycomprehensivesetoffunctionsis
provided:theyperformsearchesandretrievals,morphology,andvariousotherutility
functions.AppendixCcontainsabriefdescriptionofthesefunctions. Thestructured,
flexibledesignofthelibraryprovidesasimpleprogramminginterfacetotheWordNet
database. Low-level,complex,andutilityfunctionsareincluded. Theuserinterface
softwaredependsuponthemorecomplexfunctionstoperformtheactualdataretrieval
andformattingofthesearchresultsfordisplaytotheuser.Low-levelfunctionsprovide
basicaccesstothelexicaldataintheindexanddatafiles,whileshieldingthe
programmerfromthedetailsofopeningfiles,readingfiles,andparsingalineofdata.
Thesefunctionsreturntherequestedinformationinadatastructurethatcanbe
interpretedandusedasrequiredbytheapplication. Utilityfunctionsallowsimple
manipulationsofthesearchstrings.
Thebasicsearchingfunction,findtheinfo(),receivesasitsinputargumentsaword
form,syntacticcategory,andsearchtype;findtheinfo()callsalow-levelfunctiontofind
thecorrespondingentryintheindexfile,andforeachsensecallstheappropriatefunction
totracethepointercorrespondingtothesearchtype. Mosttracesaredonewiththe
functiontraceptrs(),butspecializedfunctionsexistforsearchtypeswhichdonot
conformtothestandardhierarchicalsearch.Asasynsetisretrievedfromthedatabase,it
isformattedasrequiredbythesearchtypeintoalargeoutputbuffer. Theresulting
buffer,containingalloftheformattedsynsetsforallofthesensesofthesearchword,is
returnedtothecaller. Thecallingfunctionsimplyhastoprintthebufferreturnedfrom
findtheinfo().
Thisgeneralsearchandretrievalalgorithmisusedinseveraldifferentwaysto
implementtheuserinterfacestoWordNet. Searchtypesvarybysyntacticcategorybut
correspondtotherelationalpointerslistedinTable2. Hierarchicalsearchesmaybe
performedonallrelationalpointersexceptforantonymsand‘‘alsosee’’. Inaddition,a
calltofindtheinfo()mayretrievepolysemyinformation,verbsentenceframes,ornoun
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coordinateterms(thosewiththesamehypernymasthesearchstring).
Thesearchingfunctiondoesnotperformmorphologicaloperations;thereforecalls
tofindtheinfo()aremadefromwithinaloopthatcallsmorphstr()totranslatethesearch
stringintooneormorebaseformsbeforecallingthesearchingfunction.
XWindowsInterface
AnattemptismadeheretogivethereaderanideaofthelookandfeeloftheX
WindowsinterfacetotheWordNetdatabase. TheMicrosoftWindowsandMacintosh
interfacesareverysimilar. Thecommandlineinterfaceprovidesthesamefunctions,but
theusermustspecifythesearchstringandsearchtype,aswellasotheroptions,onthe
commandline. Thecommandlineinterfaceallowsmultiplesearchesonasearchstring
withasinglecommand,butaseparatecommandlinemustbeconstructedforeachsearch
word.
Thecommandxwnrunsthexwordnetprograminthebackground,freeingupthe
windowfromwhichitwasstartedforothertasks. Thexwordnetwindowprovidesfull
accesstotheWordNetdatabase.ThestandardXWindowsmousefunctionsareusedto
openandclosethexwordnetwindow,movethewindow,andchangeitssize. Helpon
thegeneraloperationofxwordnetcanbeobtainedbypressingthemiddlemousebutton
withthecursorinthetoppartofthewindow.
SearchingtheDatabase
Thetoppartofthexwordnetwindowprovidesabufferforenteringasearchstring
andbuttonscorrespondingtosyntacticcategoriesandoptions. Belowthisareaastatus
lineindicateswhichtypeofsearchisbeingdisplayedinthelargebufferbelow.
TosearchtheWordNetdatabase,ausermovesthecursorintothelarge,horizontal
boxbelow"EnterSearchWord:"andentersasearchstring,followedbyacarriage
return. Asingleword,hyphenatedword,orcollocationmaybeentered.Ahighlighted
buttonindicateseachsyntacticcategoryintheWordNetdatabasethatcontainsthesearch
string.Ifthesearchstringisnotpresentexactlyastyped(exceptforcase,whichis
ignored),amorphologicalprocessisappliedtothesearchstringinanattemptto
automaticallygenerateaformthatispresentinWordNet. SeethesectiononMorphy
foradiscussionofthisprocess.
Holdinganymousebuttononahighlightedpart-of-speechbuttonrevealsapull-
downmenuofsearchesspecifictothatsyntacticcategory. Allofthesearchesavailable
forthesearchstringarehighlighted.Theuserselectsasearchbyscrollingdownwiththe
mouseuntilthedesiredsearchtypeisinreversevideo,thenreleasingthemousebutton.
Theretrievalisthenperformedandtheformattedresultsaredisplayedinthelower
window. Thestatuslineshowsthetypeofsearchthatwasselected.
Althoughmostsearchesreturnveryquickly,theWordNethierarchiescanbequite
deepandbroad,andsomeretrievalscantakealongtime. Whileasearchisrunning,the
mousepointerdisplaysasawatchfacewhenthemouseisintheupperpartofthewindow
(abovetheoutputbuffer),andthemessageSearching...isdisplayedintheoutputbuffer.
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Bydefault,allofthesensesfoundinWordNetthatmatchtheselectedsearchare
displayed. Thesearchmayberestrictedtooneormorespecificsensesbyenteringa
comma-separatedlistofsensenumbersinthe"SenseNumber:"box. Thesenumbers
areusedforonesearchonly,andtheboxisclearedafterthesearchiscompleted.
Options
TheOptionsmenudisplaysalistofoptionsthatarenotdirectlyassociatedwith
WordNetsearches. TheHelp,TextualGloss,andLogoptionsaretoggles. HelpandLog
areinitiallyOff,andTextualGlossisinitiallyOn. Anoptionistoggledbyhighlighting
theoptionandreleasingthemousebutton. Thefollowingoptionsareavailable:
[1]TheHelpoptionisusedtodisplayinformationthatishelpfulinunderstanding
thesearchresults. Thehelpinformationisdisplayedintheoutputbufferbefore
thesearchresults.
[2]ManyWordNetsynsetshaveatextualglosswhichoftenprovidesan
explanationofwhatthesynsetrepresents. TheTextualGlossoptioncontrols
thisdisplay.
[3]Inadditiontobeingviewedintheoutputbuffer,searchresultsmaybeappended
toafile. WhentheLogoptionisOn,searchresultsareappendedtothefile
namedwhentheoptionisdisplayed. Bydefaultthisfileiswnoutput.log.Ifthe
WNLOGenvironmentvariableisset,thefilenameisthevalueofthevariable
with.logappended.
[4]DisplaylicenseallowsausertoviewtheWordNetcopyrightnotice,version
number,andlicense.
[5]SelectingQuitexitsxwordnet.
Output
TheoutputofaWordNetsearchisintendedtobeself-explanatory,giventhatthe
userknowswhattypeofsearchwasrequested. Visualcues,suchasindentationto
representlevelsinretrievedhierarchies,arereliedupontoaideauserininterpretingthe
formattedsearchresults. Thecomplexnatureoftheadjectivestructure,unfortunately,
makesforlessstraightforwardoutputofretrievedadjectivesynsets. Inanattemptto
clarifythedisplayofadjectivalinformation,directantonyms,whicharegenerally
representedonlybyheadsynsets,arealwaysdisplayedtogether. Thisallowsauserto
distinguishheadsynsetsfromsatellitesynsets,aswellasdifferentsensesofahead
synset.
Theoutputofasearchisdisplayedinthelargebufferbelowthestatusline. Both
horizontalandverticalscrollbarsareusedtoviewdatathatexceedsthewindow’s
borders. Theoutputconsistsofanordinalsensenumber(simplyindicatingpositionin
thelistofsenses),followedbyalinewiththesynsetthatthesearchstringisin,followed
bythesearchresults.Eachlineofsearchoutputisprecededbyamarkerandthesynset
containingtherequestedinformation. Ifasearchtraversesmorethanonelevelofthe
tree,thensuccessivelinesareindentedbyspacescorrespondingtoitslevelinthe
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hierarchy. Ifasearchdoesn’tapplytoallsensesofthesearchstring,thesearchresults
areheadedbyastringsuchas:
2of5sensesoftable
When‘‘Samplesentencesforverb_____’’isselected,verbframesthatare
acceptableforallwordsinasynsetareprecededbythestring‘‘*>’’. Ifaframeis
acceptableforthesearchstringonly,itisprecededbythestring‘‘=>’’.
Whenanadjectiveisprinted,itsdirectantonym,ifithasone,isalsoprintedin
parentheses. Sinceadjectivescanbeineitherheadsynsets,satellitesynsets,orboth,any
headsynsetsthatthewordappearsinareprintedfirst,followedbyallofthesatellite
synsetsthatthewordappearsin,withanindicationoftheheadsynsetthattheadjective
isasatelliteof. Whenthesearchstringisinaheadsynset,alloftheheadsynset’s
satellitesarealsodisplayed. Thepositionofanadjectiveinrelationtothenounmaybe
restrictedtotheprenominal,postnominal,orpredicativeposition. Wherepresent,these
restrictionsarenotedinparentheses.
Whenanadverbisderivedfromanadjective,thespecificadjectivalsenseonwhich
itisbasedisprinted,alongwiththerelevantadjectivesynset. Iftheadjectivesynset
indicatedisasatellitesynset,thenthepertinentheadsynsetisprintedfollowingthe
satellitesynset.
Morphy
Manydictionarieshangtheirinformationonuninflectedheadwordswithout
separatelistingsforinflectional(ormanyderivational)formsoftheword. Inaprinted
dictionary,thatpracticecauseslittletrouble;withafewhighlyirregularexceptions,
morphologicallyrelatedwordsaregenerallysimilarenoughinspellingtothereference
formthattheeye,aidedbyboldfacetype,quicklypicksthemup. Inanelectronic
dictionary,ontheotherhand,whenaninflectedformisrequested,theresponseislikely
tobeafrustratingannouncementthatthewordisnotinthedatabase;usersarerequired
toknowthereferenceformofeverywordtheywanttolookup. InWordNet,onlybase
formsofwordsaregenerallyrepresented. Inordertospareusersthetroubleofaffix
stripping,andtoassistwiththecreationofprogramsthatuseWordNettoautomatically
processnaturallanguagetexts,theWordNetsoftwaresuiteincludesfunctionsthatgive
WordNetsomeintelligenceaboutEnglishmorphology. Atthepresenttimeno
morphologicalprocessesareperformedonadverbs.
TheWordNetmorphologicalprocessingfunctions,Morphy,handleawiderangeof
morphologicaltransformations. Morphyusestwotypesofprocessestotrytoconverta
wordformintoaformthatisfoundintheWordNetdatabase. Therearelistsof
inflectionalendings,basedonsyntacticcategory,thatcanbedetachedfromindividual
wordsinanattempttofindaformofthewordthatisinWordNet. Therearealso
exceptionlistsforeachsyntacticcategoryinwhichasearchforaninflectedformmaybe
done. Morphytriestousethesetwoprocessesinanintelligentmannertotranslatethe
wordformpassedtotheformfoundinWordNet. Morphyfirstchecksforexceptions,
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thenusestherulesofdetachment.
TheMorphyfunctionsarepartoftheWordNetlibraryandareusedbytheretrieval
softwareandvariousapplications. Theprimaryinterfacefunctionispassedastring(a
wordformorcollocation)andasyntacticcategory. Sincesomewords,suchasaxescan
havemorethanonebaseform(axeandaxis),Morphyissetuptoworkinthefollowing
manner. ThefirsttimethatMorphyiscalledwithaspecificstring,itreturnsabaseform.
Foreachsubsequentlookupofthesamestring,Morphyreturnsanalternativebaseform.
WheneverMorphycannotperformatransformation,NULLisreturned.
ExceptionLists
Thereisoneexceptionlistforeachsyntacticcategory(exceptadverbs).The
exceptionlistscontainthemorphologicaltransformationsforwordsthatarenotregular
andthereforecannotbeprocessedinanalgorithmicmanner.Eachlineofanexception
listcontainsaninflectedformofaword,followedbyoneormorebaseformsofthe
word. Thelistiskeptinalphabeticalorderandabinarysearchisusedtofindwordsin
theselists.
SingleWords
Ingeneral,singlewordsarerelativelyeasytoprocess. Morphyfirstlooksforthe
wordformintheexceptionlist. Ifitisfound,thenthefirstbaseformisreturned.
Subsequentlookupsforthesamewordformreturnalternativebaseforms,ifpresent. A
NULLisreturnedwhentherearenomorebaseformsoftheword.
Ifthewordisnotfoundintheexceptionlistcorrespondingtothesyntacticcategory,
thenanalgorithmicprocessthatlooksforamatchingsuffixisapplied. Ifamatching
suffixisfound,acorrespondingendingisapplied,ifnecessary,andWordNetisconsulted
toseeiftheresultingwordisfoundinWordNet. RefertoTable4foralistofsuffixes
andendingsforeachsyntacticcategory.
Collocations
Asopposedtosinglewords,collocationscanbequitechallengingtotransforminto
abaseformthatispresentinWordNet. Ingeneral,onlybaseformsofwords,eventhose
comprisingcollocationssuchasattorneygeneral,arestoredinWordNet. Transforming
thecollocationattorneysgeneralisthensimplyamatteroffindingthebaseformsofthe
individualwordscomprisingthecollocation. Thisusuallyworksfornouns,therefore
non-conformingnouns,suchascustomsdutyarepresentlyenteredinthenounexception
list(atransformationoneachwordresultsinthebaseformcustomduty,whichisnotin
WordNet).
Verbcollocationsthathaveprepositions,suchasstandinline,aremoredifficult.
Aswithsinglewords,theexceptionlistissearchedfirst. Ifthecollocationisnotfound,
specialcodeinMorphydetermineswhetheraverbcollocationhasaprepositioninit. If
itdoes,thefollowingprocessisappliedtotrytofindthebaseform. Itisassumedthat
thefirstwordinthecollocationisaverbandthatthelastwordisanoun. Thealgorithm
thenbuildsasearchstringwiththebaseformsoftheverbandnoun,leavingthe
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MorphySuffixesandEndings
Noun
Verb
Adjective
Sufffix
Ending
Suffix
Ending
Suffix
Ending
s
s
er
ses
s
ies
y
est
xes
x
es
e
er
e
zes
z
es
est
e
ches
ch
ed
e
shes
sh
ed
ing
e
ing
Table4
remainderofthecollocation(usuallyjustthepreposition,butmorewordsmaybe
involved)inthemiddle. Forexample,passedstandinginlines,thedatabasesearch
wouldbeperformedwithstandinline,whichisfoundinWordNet,andtherefore
returnedfromMorphy. Ifaverbcollocationdoesnotcontainapreposition,thenthebase
formofeachwordinthecollocationisfoundandWordNetissearchedfortheresulting
string.
Hyphenation
HyphenationalsopresentsspecialdifficultieswhensearchingWordNet. Itisoften
asubjectivedeterminationwhetherawordishyphenated,isclosedup,orisacollocation
ofseveralwords,andwhichofthevariousformsareenteredintoWordNet. When
Morphybreaksastringinto‘‘words’’,itlooksforbothspacesandhyphensasdelimiters.
FutureWork
Sincemanynouncollocationscontainsprepositions,suchaslineofproducts,an
algorithmsimilartothatusedforverbsshouldbewrittenfornouns. Inthepresent
scheme,ifMorphyispassedlinesofproducts,thesearchstringbecomeslineofproduct,
whichisnotinWordNet. Morphyshouldalsobeabletoworkinbothdirections—
whenpassedabaseform,itshouldbepossibletoobtaininflectedformsoftheword.
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AppendixA
Lexicographers’Files
noun.Tops
uniquebeginnersfornouns
noun.act
nounsdenotingactsoractions
noun.animal
nounsdenotinganimals
noun.artifact
nounsdenotingman-madeobjects
noun.attribute
nounsdenotingattributesofpeopleandobjects
noun.body
nounsdenotingbodyparts
noun.cognition
nounsdenotingcognitiveprocessesandcontents
noun.communication
nounsdenotingcommunicativeprocessesand
contents
noun.event
nounsdenotingnaturalevents
noun.feeling
nounsdenotingfeelingsandemotions
noun.food
nounsdenotingfoodsanddrinks
noun.group
nounsdenotinggroupingsofpeopleorobjects
noun.location
nounsdenotingspatialposition
noun.motive
nounsdenotinggoals
noun.object
nounsdenotingnaturalobjects(notman-made)
noun.person
nounsdenotingpeople
noun.phenomenon
nounsdenotingnaturalphenomena
noun.plant
nounsdenotingplants
noun.possession
nounsdenotingpossessionandtransferofpossession
noun.process
nounsdenotingnaturalprocesses
noun.quantity
nounsdenotingquantitiesandunitsofmeasure
noun.relation
nounsdenotingrelationsbetweenpeopleorthingsor
ideas
noun.shape
nounsdenotingtwoandthreedimensionalshapes
noun.state
nounsdenotingstablestatesofaffairs
noun.substance
nounsdenotingsubstances
noun.time
nounsdenotingtimeandtemporalrelations
-79-
verb.body
verbsofgrooming,dressingandbodilycare
verb.change
verbsofchangeofsize,temperature,intensity,etc.
verb.cognition
verbsofthinking,judging,analyzing,doubting,etc.
verb.communication
verbsoftelling,asking,ordering,singing,etc.
verb.competition
verbsoffighting,athleticactivities,etc.
verb.consumption
verbsofeatinganddrinking
verb.contact
verbsoftouching,hitting,tying,digging,etc.
verb.creation
verbsofsewing,baking,painting,performing,etc.
verb.emotion
verbsoffeeling
verb.motion
verbsofwalking,flying,swimming,etc.
verb.perception
verbsofseeing,hearing,feeling,etc.
verb.possession
verbsofbuying,selling,owning,andtransfer
verb.social
verbsofpoliticalandsocialactivitiesandevents
verb.stative
verbsofbeing,having,spatialrelations
verb.weather
verbsofraining,snowing,thawing,thundering,etc.
adj.all
alladjectiveclusters
adj.pert
relationaladjectives(pertainyms)
adv.all
alladverbs
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AppendixB
VerbSentenceFrames
1 Something----s
2 Somebody----s
3 Itis----ing
4 Somethingis----ingPP
5 Something----ssomethingAdjective/Noun
6 Something----sAdjective/Noun
7 Somebody----sAdjective
8 Somebody----ssomething
9 Somebody----ssomebody
10Something----ssomebody
11Something----ssomething
12Something----stosomebody
13Somebody----sonsomething
14Somebody----ssomebodysomething
15Somebody----ssomethingtosomebody
16Somebody----ssomethingfromsomebody
17Somebody----ssomebodywithsomething
18Somebody----ssomebodyofsomething
19Somebody----ssomethingonsomebody
20Somebody----ssomebodyPP
21Somebody----ssomethingPP
22Somebody----sPP
23Somebody’s(bodypart)----s
24Somebody----ssomebodytoINFINITIVE
25Somebody----ssomebodyINFINITIVE
26Somebody----sthatCLAUSE
27Somebody----stosomebody
28Somebody----stoINFINITIVE
29Somebody----swhetherINFINITIVE
30Somebody----ssomebodyintoV-ingsomething
31Somebody----ssomethingwithsomething
32Somebody----sINFINITIVE
33Somebody----sVERB-ing
34It----sthatCLAUSE
35Something----sINFINITIVE
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