UNIT 2 / Americans
This inventor started work at age twelve. As a young man, he created and manufac
tured useful machines for stock brokers and telegraph services. After 1876, his research
led to many useful inventions, such as the light bulb, movie projector, and phonograph.
This businessman changed factory production in America with assemblyline methods
to lower costs. He worked for the Edison Company in Detroit until 1899 and then began
manufacturing automobiles. His earliest cars were the Model T and the Model A. In
1932, his company began to sell cars with eightcylinder engines. For many years, he
refused to allow unions in his factories, but he signed his ﬁrst contract with the United
Auto Workers (UAW) in 1941.
This Japanese immigrant studied bacteria and snake venom (poison) in the laboratory.
His work of twentyﬁve years at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New
York led to discoveries about polio and other diseases and a vaccine for yellow fever.
But when he was doing research in Africa, he got yellow fever and died of it.
This wife of a famous President used her position to help humanity. She supported
young people’s organizations, child welfare, the improvement of housing, and equal
rights for everyone. After her husband’s death, she became a delegate to the United
Nations. She was chairperson of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights and helped
write the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
This creator of big band jazz wrote music, played piano, and led large orchestras. His
music combined special sounds with the talents of great musicians. Besides big band
music, he wrote for opera, ballets, Broadway shows, and ﬁlms.
This son of German immigrants learned English only after he left the farm at age
twentyone. He became a famous American T.V. host and big band leader. To his co
workers, he represented familylike cooperation, hard work, honesty, and healthy living.
He encouraged children to work hard to develop their talents and increase their chances
This union organizer began and continues to lead the United Farm Workers of America
(UFW). In the 1960s, he led successful battles to help grape and lettuce pickers. Grow
ers tried to stop him in the 1970s with their support of another union, the Teamsters,
but the UFW won the right to organize and represent all ﬁeld workers. In 1988 he led a
fast (refusal to eat) and a grape boycott (refusal to buy) to call attention to the harmful
effects of pesticides (insect poisons) on workers.
Answers to Exercise C: 1. i 2. a 3. b 4. c 5. e 6. f 7. h 8. j 9. k 10. g 11. l 12. d
Module 2C / Historical Figures
Who are these facts about? On each line, write the name of
one of the people from page 21.
was an automobile manufacturer and the ﬁrst to sell cars with
wrote newspaper stories and spoke on issues such as the respon
sibility of the white man toward other peoples. He was the author of Tom Sawyer, Huckle
berry Finn, and other famous stories.
was the wife of a President. She worked for many causes. As a
U.N. delegate, she was a leader in the ﬁght for human rights.
led the battle for women’s rights, especially the right to vote. She
fought against slavery and for Black rights. She was for prohibition.
made discoveries about polio and other diseases. His work led to
a vaccine for yellow fever.
was a Founding Father of the United States. He wrote, pub
lished, created useful inventions, worked on the Declaration of Independence and the U.S.
Constitution, and was a diplomat to other countries.
loved nature and painted pictures of birds. A society named after
him works to protect birds.
was a T.V. host and band leader. He represented American
values such as cooperation, hard work, honesty, and healthy living.
wrote jazz and music for opera, ballets, shows, and ﬁlms. He was
the creator of big band jazz.
started the American Red Cross. She worked to help the victims
of wars and natural disasters.
created machines for stock brokers and telegraph services, the
light bulb, the movie projector, the phonograph, and other useful inventions.
led the protests of ﬁeld workers against grape and lettuce grow
ers and began the United Farm Workers of America. His union continues to organize
boycotts and protest the use of pesticides.
Turn back to page 21. In groups, tell one fact about each of
the famous people in the pictures.
Do you know facts about other famous American historical
ﬁgures? Tell the class.
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UNIT 2 / Americans
Some Immigration Stories
Work in groups of four. Each of you studies a different one
of these immigration stories.
Catherine Galligher is my name. I am Irishborn and a
Catholic. In my native country, the Protestant English kept
my brothers and me from getting the goodpaying jobs in the
city. Then the potato crop failed in all of Ireland. In 1849, I
paid $25 to travel by ship to the United States. America was
good to me. I worked as a maid in the house of a wealthy
Boston family for twenty years. I also married an Irishman. He
ﬁrst laid tracks for the railroad and later became a union
leader in Boston.
But life in the New World wasn’t perfect. Many people discriminated against the Irish. For
example, signs on stores and businesses said “No Irish need apply.” In 1849, the secret “Know
Nothing Party” started to work against immigrant groups, especially Catholics. After 1887, the
American Protective Association opposed us in the same way. But we Irish kept trying to succeed.
We are proud of our great railroad and canal builders, as well as our writers and politicians.
Although my family wanted to leave China for a long time,
they couldn’t enter the United States because of laws against
Asian immigration. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 kept
the Chinese out of the country until World War II. In 1924, the
National Origins Act excluded all Asians. I guess some
Americans were worried about the inﬂuence and power of
people from other countries. They didn’t want foreigners to
take their jobs or use public services, so the government
limited the number of immigrants.
Anyway, in 1952, the McCarranWalter Act allowed Asians to immigrate to the United States.
I came here the next year. My name at birth was Ling Chiao, but I changed it to Charlie Ling
because few Americans can pronounce my real name. Now I work as a shipping agent in San
Pedro, California. The Immigration Act of 1965 abolished quotas for immigration from Asian
nations, so now it will be easier for some of my relatives to come to America.
Module 2D / Some Immigration Stories
My name is Yacob Wolf. I was born in Russia before it became
the Soviet Union. In my native country, violent mobs of Rus
sians burnt down my father’s butcher shop and the community
synagogue (place of worship). There is a long tradition of
learning in my family, so my sisters and I were hoping to
attend a university in Moscow and become writers and doctors.
But Russian universities refused to admit us, so my whole
family immigrated to the United States in 1910.
At ﬁrst my father worked in a butcher shop in Chicago, Illinois. He bought his own store a few
years later, and it soon became a small market. My mother opened a school for young girls. But
not everything was perfect in our new country. My sister Elena couldn’t enter Harvard Univer
sity, even though her grades were perfect in high school, because no Jewish students were al
lowed. Happily, some excellent universities and colleges changed their policies in later years.
Today both my sisters teach science, and I own a small publishing company in New York.
I am Juan Rivera. My grandparents, Jose and Maria Sanchez,
came to California from Oaxaca, Mexico, in 1920. For forty
years, they picked vegetables and fruits from the ﬁelds and
orchards of California. They were very poor, but they raised
eleven children. The children helped their parents on the
farms, so they couldn’t go to school. But my mother, Rosa
Sanchez, learned to read and ﬁnished high school at night.
Later she ﬁnished college and learned the skills to be an
My mother married my father, Armando Rivera, in 1945. He is a lawyer. I’m glad my grand
parents immigrated to the United States because everyone in my family used the opportunities
here to give their children better lives. I am a ﬂight engineer with the U.S. Space Program. I am
thankful for my ﬁne education and proud to be a thirdgeneration MexicanAmerican.
Some of my cousins came to this country illegally in the 1970s, but the Immigration Reform
and Control Act of 1986 allowed them to apply for legal status. Now they are temporary residents
of the United States. They are studying English and American history and government so they
can become permanent residents and later U.S. citizens. They are happy and thankful for the
opportunity to improve their lives.
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UNIT 2 / Americans
Write T for true and F for false. (You can look back at the
stories on the previous two pages for facts about
immigration.) Correct the false sentences.
Catherine Galligher is a typical Russian Jewish name.
In Ireland in the 1800s, the Protestants often discriminated against the Catholics.
Many Irish came to the United States in the 1840s because the clothing industry failed.
European immigrants in the 1800s paid thousands of dollars to travel to the New
World by plane.
Many Irishmen build railroads or canals or became writers or politicians.
There was no discrimination against the Irish in the United States because they are
white and Catholic.
The secret “KnowNothing Party” and the American Protective Association worked to
increase immigration from European countries.
Americans don’t worry about inﬂuence, power, or jobs, so there have never been any
laws against Asian immigrants.
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the National Origins Act of 1924 limited immi
gration to the United States.
Some immigrants change their real names when they come to America.
In 1965 an immigration law abolished quotas (limits on numbers of immigrants from
In the early 1900s, there was discrimination and violence against Jewish people in
Famous American universities, such as Harvard, have refused to admit some groups of
Many Mexican workers have picked vegetables and fruit in the ﬁelds and orchards of
America is a land of educational opportunity.
Many people who entered the United States illegally have become legal residents and
may become citizens.
The Geography of the United States
The Geography of the United States
The United States is the fourth largest country in the world in land area. Fortyeight of
the ﬁfty states are in the middle of the North American continent between the Atlantic
Ocean on the east and the Paciﬁc Ocean on the west. It is about 3000 miles (4800 kilometers)
from the east coast to the west coast and about 1500 miles (2400 kilometers) from the Cana
dian border on the north to the Mexican border on the south. The island state of Hawaii is in
the Paciﬁc Ocean, and the state of Alaska is northwest of Canada.
The map on the next page shows the geography of the United States. The two main
mountain ranges run north and south—the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern part of
the United States and the Rocky Mountains in the west. Between them are the Great Plains.
There is another mountain chain west of the Rockies—the Sierra Nevada and the Cascade
The longest river in the United States is the Mississippi. The Missouri and Ohio Rivers
ﬂow into the Mississippi, and the Mississippi ﬂows south into the Gulf of Mexico. The major
rivers in the western part of the United States are the Colorado and the Rio Grande. The
highest mountains of the Rockies form the Continental Divide. Rivers to the east of the
divide ﬂow east, and rivers to the west of it ﬂow into the Paciﬁc Ocean.
The Great Lakes on the northern border of the country are Lake Superior, Lake Michi
gan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario. The Great Salt Lake is in a desert area in
the western part of the United States. The Mojave, the Gila, and the Painted Deserts are in
the southwestern part of the country.
Write O for oceans, M for mountains, R for rivers, L for
lakes, and D for deserts.
the Sierra Nevada Range
the Mojave and the Gila
Michigan and Huron
the Cascade Range
Erie and Ontario
Module 3A / The Geography of the United States
Write T for true and F for false. Correct the false sentences.
In land area, the United States is the largest country in the world.
All the states except Hawaii and Alaska are together on the North American continent
between the Atlantic and Paciﬁc Oceans.
It is farther from the Canadian border to the Mexican border than from the east coast
to the west coast.
The two main mountain ranges in the United States are the Hurons and the Eries.
Between the mountain chains are the Great Plains, and there is also a low plain along
the Atlantic Ocean.
The longest river in the United States is the Gulf of Mexico.
The rivers west of the Rockies ﬂow into the Paciﬁc Ocean, and the rivers east of the
Rockies ﬂow east.
The ﬁve Great Lakes are in the southwestern part of the country.
The Mojave Desert is west of the Mississippi River.
The Great Salt Lake is south of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains.
Use the Scale of Miles on the map. Write the shortest
1. The Atlantic Ocean and the Paciﬁc Ocean:
2. The Canadian and the Mexican borders:
3. The Appalachian and the Rocky Mountains:
4. The Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada:
5. The Mississippi and the Colorado Rivers:
6. Lake Michigan and the Gulf of Mexico:
7. The Great Salt Lake and the Rio Grande:
8. The Mojave and the Gila Deserts:
UNIT 3 / Geography
Write the letters from the map on the lines.
the Hawaiian Islands
the Gulf of Mexico
the Ohio River
the Missouri River
the Colorado River
the Rio Grande
the Rocky Mountains
the Cascade Mountains
the Sierra Nevada
the Great Plains
the Great Salt Lake
the Painted Desert
the Gila Desert
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested