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2002-17REV
Final Report 
BEST PRACTICES FOR THE 
DESIGN AND 
CONSTRUCTION OF LOW 
VOLUME ROADS 
REVISED
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Technical Report Documentation Page
1. Report No. 
2. 
3. Recipients Accession No. 
MN/RC –2002-17REV 
4. Title and Subtitle 
5. Report Date 
November 2003 
6. 
BEST PRACTICES FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 
OF LOW VOLUME ROADS 
REVISED 
7. Author(s) 
8. Performing Organization Report No. 
Eugene L. Skok, David H. Timm, Marcus L. Brown, Timothy R. Clyne 
and Eddie Johnson 
9. Performing Organization Name and Address 
10. Project/Task/Work Unit No. 
11. Contract (C)  or Grant (G) No. 
Department of Civil Engineering 
University of Minnesota 
500 Pillsbury Drive SE 
Minneapolis, MN 55455 
(c) 74708 (wo) 123 
12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address 
13. Type of Report and Period Covered 
Final Report  
14. Sponsoring Agency Code 
Minnesota Department of Transportation 
Research Services Section 
395 John Ireland Boulevard Mail Stop 330 
St. Paul, Minnesota 55155 
15. Supplementary Notes 
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/200217REV.pdf   This is a revised manual. 
16. Abstract (Limit: 200 words) 
This report presents information about the use of the mechanistic-empirical procedure (MnPAVE) in 
designing hot-mix asphalt pavements in Minnesota. Researchers developed the MnPAVE software 
program using information from the Minnesota Road Research Project (Mn/ROAD) test facility and 
from 40-year-old test sections around Minnesota. MnPAVE procedures use Equivalent Standard Axle 
Loads (ESALs) to evaluate traffic loading, and the report includes methods to estimate these values 
for design purposes over a 20-year design life, as well as a procedure to measure vehicle type 
distributions. In addition, the report presents an evaluation of subgrade soils for each thickness design 
procedure, summarizes Minnesota Department of Transportation specifications that relate to 
embankment soil construction and to construction of the pavement section materials, and recommends 
specific density or quality compaction using a control strip. It also includes best practices on setting up 
projects most effectively to follow specifications.
17. Document Analysis/Descriptors 
18.Availability Statement 
Mechanistic-Empirical                 
Soil Factor  
Pavement Section 
Construction Specifications 
R-Value  
ESAL’s 
Resilient Modulus 
Subgrade Soil 
Granular Equivalent 
Flexible Pavement Thickness 
Design 
No restrictions. Document available from: 
National Technical Information Services, 
Springfield, Virginia 22161 
19. Security Class (this report) 
20. Security Class (this page) 
21. No. of Pages 
22. Price 
Unclassified 
Unclassified 
241 
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BEST PRACTICES FOR THE DESIGN AND 
CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME 
ROADS-REVISED 
Final Report 
Prepared by: 
Eugene L. Skok 
Timothy R. Clyne 
Eddie Johnson 
David H. Timm 
Marcus L. Brown 
University of Minnesota 
Department of Civil Engineering 
November 2003  
Published by: 
Minnesota Department of Transportation 
Research Services Section  
MS 330 
395 John Ireland Boulevard 
St. Paul, MN 55155 
This report represents the results of research conducted by the authors and does not necessarily represent the views 
or policy of the Minnesota Department of Transportation/and or the Center for Transportation Studies.  This report 
does not contain a standard or specified technique 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS  
Chapter 1  I
NTRODUCTION AND 
S
UMMARY
1.1  Introduction........................................................................................................................1-1 
1.2  Minnesota Thickness Design.............................................................................................1-4 
1.2.1  Soil Factor Design Procedure...................................................................................1-4 
1.2.2  R-Value Procedure....................................................................................................1-5 
1.2.3  MnPAVE Procedure.................................................................................................1-6 
1.2.4  Procedure(s) to Use in 2001-02?...............................................................................1-7 
1.3  Traffic Estimates................................................................................................................1-8 
1.4  Subgrade (Embankment) Soil............................................................................................1-8 
1.4.1  Background...............................................................................................................1-8 
1.4.2  Drainage....................................................................................................................1-9 
1.4.3  Subgrade (Embankment) Soil Construction...........................................................1-10 
 1.4.3.1  General...........................................................................................................1-10 
 1.4.3.2  Specifications.................................................................................................1-10 
 1.4.3.3  General Design Considerations......................................................................1-10 
 1.4.3.4  Construction Notes and Procedures...............................................................1-11 
 1.4.3.5  Subgrade Enhancement..................................................................................1-12 
1.5  Pavement Section Materials.............................................................................................1-13 
1.5.1  General....................................................................................................................1-13 
1.5.2  Pavement Layer Construction.................................................................................1-14 
 1.5.2.1  General...........................................................................................................1-14 
 1.5.2.2  Specifications.................................................................................................1-14 
 1.5.2.3  Field Control Procedures to Meet Specifications..........................................1-15 
  1.5.2.3.1  General..................................................................................................1-15 
  1.5.2.3.2  Granular Bases......................................................................................1-16 
  1.5.2.3.3  Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures....................................................................1-17 
1.6  Summary and Recommendations ....................................................................................1-19 
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Chapter 2  T
HICKNESS 
D
ESIGN 
P
ROCEDURES
2.1  Background and Introduction ............................................................................................2-1 
2.2  Soil Factor Design..............................................................................................................2-1 
2.3  Stabilometer R-Value Design............................................................................................2-3 
2.4  MnPAVE Design...............................................................................................................2-5 
2.4.1  General......................................................................................................................2-5 
2.4.2  Set Up........................................................................................................................2-7 
2.4.3  Start Up.....................................................................................................................2-7 
 2.4.3.1  Control Panel ...................................................................................................2-7 
 2.4.3.2  General Operation............................................................................................2-7 
2.4.4  Inputs.........................................................................................................................2-8 
 2.4.4.1  General.............................................................................................................2-8 
 2.4.4.2  Climate Inputs (Seasonal Design)....................................................................2-8 
 2.4.4.3  Structural Inputs...............................................................................................2-9 
 2.4.4.4  Traffic Inputs .................................................................................................2-11 
2.4.5  Outputs....................................................................................................................2-12 
2.5  Which Procedure Should be Used in 2001-02?...............................................................2-12 
Chapter 3 T
RAFFIC 
P
REDICTIONS
3.1  Background and Definitions..............................................................................................3-1 
3.2  Determination of AADT....................................................................................................3-2 
3.3  Determination of HCADT.................................................................................................3-3 
3.4  ESAL Calculations.............................................................................................................3-3 
3.4.1  Estimate AADT........................................................................................................3-3 
3.4.2  Vehicle Type Distribution.........................................................................................3-4 
3.4.3  Determination of ESAL Factors by Vehicle Type....................................................3-5 
3.4.4  Determination of Growth Factor...............................................................................3-6 
3.4.5  Design Lane Distribution..........................................................................................3-7 
3.4.6  ESAL Calculation Spreadsheet.................................................................................3-7 
3.5  Summary and Conclusions ................................................................................................3-9 
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Chapter 4 S
UBGRADE 
(E
MBANKMENT
)
S
OIL 
D
ESIGN AND 
C
ONSTRUCTION
4.1 Background.........................................................................................................................4-1 
4.2 Soil Surveys and Sampling.................................................................................................4-2 
4.3 Subgrade Soil Design Factors.............................................................................................4-3 
4.3.1 General.......................................................................................................................4-3 
4.3.2 Laboratory Testing...................................................................................................  4-4 
 4.3.2.1 AASHTO Soil Classification........................................................................... 4-4 
 4.3.2.2 Stabilometer R-Value........................................................................................4-6 
 4.3.2.3 Resilient Modulus.............................................................................................4-7 
4.3.3 Field Measurements of Subgrade Resilient Modulus.............................................4-11 
 4.3.3.1 General............................................................................................................4-11 
 4.3.3.2 Falling Weight Deflectometer.........................................................................4-11 
 4.3.3.3 Dynamic Cone Penetrometer..........................................................................4-13 
 4.3.3.4 Additional In Situ Factors...............................................................................4-14 
4.3.4 Use of Subgrade Design Factors..............................................................................4-16 
 4.3.4.1 General............................................................................................................4-16 
 4.3.4.2 Soil Factor.......................................................................................................4-16 
 4.3.4.3 R-Value...........................................................................................................4-16 
 4.3.4.4 MnPAVE.........................................................................................................4-16 
4.4 Subgrade (Embankment) Soil Construction.....................................................................4-18 
4.4.1 General.....................................................................................................................4-18 
4.4.2 Specifications...........................................................................................................4-19 
4.4.3 General Design Considerations................................................................................4-21 
4.4.4 Construction Notes and Procedures.........................................................................4-21 
4.5 Subgrade Enhancement.....................................................................................................4-21 
4.5.1 General.....................................................................................................................4-21 
4.5.2 Enhancement of Existing Soils on Grade................................................................4-22 
 4.5.2.1 Drainage..........................................................................................................4-22 
4.5.2.2 Compaction.....................................................................................................4-26 
4.5.3 Enhancement Using Soil Modification....................................................................4-28 
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 4.5.3.1 General............................................................................................................4-28 
 4.5.3.2 Use of Lime for Modification.........................................................................4-29 
 4.5.3.3 Use of Bituminous Materials for Modification...............................................4-30 
  4.5.3.3.1 General...................................................................................................4-30 
  4.5.3.3.2 Asphalt Materials...................................................................................4-30 
  4.5.3.3.3 Design Factors .......................................................................................4-30 
  4.5.3.3.4 Construction...........................................................................................4-31 
 4.5.3.4 Embankment Modification using Chlorides...................................................4-33 
4.5.4 Subgrade Enhancement using Soil Stabilization.....................................................4-33 
 4.5.4.1 General............................................................................................................4-33 
 4.5.4.2 Portland Cement Stabilization Materials........................................................4-34 
 4.5.4.3 Application of P.C. Stabilization to Soils.......................................................4-34 
 4.5.4.4 Soil Stabilization using Fly Ash.....................................................................4-34 
  4.5.4.4.1 General...................................................................................................4-34 
  4.5.4.4.2 Laboratory Mixture Design....................................................................4-34 
  4.5.4.4.3 Construction Procedures and Concerns.................................................4-35 
  4.5.4.4.4 Concerns when using Fly Ash...............................................................4-38 
  4.5.4.4.4.1 High Sulfate Ashes .....................................................................4-38 
 4.5.4.4.4.2 Environmental Concerns.............................................................4-39 
  4.5.4.4.5 Summary................................................................................................4-40 
 4.5.5 Subgrade Enhancement using Geosynthetics…………………………………. 4-42 
  4.5.5.1 General......................................................................................................4-42 
  4.5.5.2 Types of Geosynthetics.............................................................................4-43 
  4.5.5.2.1 Geotextiles………………………………………………………..4-43 
  4.5.5.2.2 Geogride........................................................................................4-44 
  4.5.5.2.3 Geonets…………………………………………………………..4-45 
4.5.5.2.4 Geomembranes .............................................................................4-45 
4.5.5.2.5 Geocells.........................................................................................4-46 
  4.5.5.2.6 Geocomposites..............................................................................4-47  
`      4.5.5.3 Applications of Geosynthetics in Minnesota…………………………….4-47 
  4.5.5.3.1 General...........................................................................................4-47 
  4.5.5.3.2 Geosynthetics as a Separation Layer.............................................4-47 
 4.5.5.3.3 Geogrids used for Reinforcementof a Subgrade............................4-57 
4.5.5.3.3.1 General……………………………………………………….4-57 
  4.5.5.3.3.2 Summary of Design and Construction for Geogrids in MN..  4-57 
  4.5.5.4 Factors Effecting Lifespan of Geosynthetics............................................4-60 
  4.5.5.4.1 Factors Reducing Effective Lifespan……………………………   4-60 
  4.5.5.4.2 Creep Degradation..........................................................................4-61 
  4.5.5.4.3 Installation Damage........................................................................4-62 
4.5.5.4.4 Chemical and Biological Degradation............................................4-62 
 4.5.5.4.5 Polymeric Aging.............................................................................4-62 
  4.5.5.4.6 Summary of Effects on Lifespan....................................................4-63 
 4.5.5.5 General Geosynthetics Construction Considerations ...............................4-64 
 4.5.6 Subgrade Enhancement Using Substitution ......................................................4-68 
  4.5.6.1 General......................................................................................................4-68 
  4.5.6.2 Substitution with Select Granular.............................................................4-69 
  4.5.6.3 Substitution with Breaker Run Limestone................................................4-70 
  4.5.6.4 Use of Lightweight Fills...........................................................................4-70 
  4.5.6.4.1 Use of Wood Chips for Lightweight Fills…………………………   4-73 
 4.5.6.4.2 Use of Shredded Tires for Lightweight Fills………………………...4-78 
  4.5.6.4.2.1 Background and General Design Considerations………………. 4-78 
4.5.6.4.2.2 Summary of Design and Construction Procedures in MN………4-80 
  4.5.6.4.3 Use of Geofoam for Lightweight Fills………………………………..4-87 
 4.5.7 Recommendations for When to Use the Various Methods of Subgrade 
 Enhancement……………………………………………………………………4-91 
 4.5.7.1 General……………………………………………………………………..4-91 
 4.5.7.2 Summary of Subgrade Soil Enhancement Procedures……………………..4-92  
Chapter 5  P
AVEMENT 
S
ECTION 
M
ATERIALS
5.1  Background........................................................................................................................5-1 
5.2  Definitions..........................................................................................................................5-2 
5.2.1   Granular Subbase and Select Granular (Mn/DOT Specification 3149-B2).............5-2 
 5.2.1.1. Granular...........................................................................................................5-2 
 5.2.1.2. Select Granular.................................................................................................5-2 
 5.2.1.3. Subbase Course (Mn/DOT Specification 3138, Class 4..................................5-2 
5.2.2. Aggregate Base Course.............................................................................................5-2 
 5.2.2.1  Granular (Mn/DOT Specification 3138, Class 3, 5 and 6................................5-2 
 5.2.2.2  Salvage Materials (Mn/DOT Specification 3138, Class 7...............................5-3 
5.2.3. Stabilized Base Materials..........................................................................................5-3 
 5.2.3.1. Portland Cement, lime and/or fly ash ..............................................................5-3 
 5.2.3.2. Asphalt Cement, Emulsions, Cutbacks............................................................5-3 
5.2.4. Recycling and Reclaiming........................................................................................5-3 
 5.2.4.1. Cold In-Place Recycling..................................................................................5-3 
 5.2.4.2. Full Depth Reclamation...................................................................................5-3 
5.2.5.  Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) .........................................................................................5-3 
5.3  Pavement Design Factors...................................................................................................5-4 
5.3.1  General......................................................................................................................5-4 
5.3.2  Granular Equivalency Factors...................................................................................5-4 
5.3.3  Resilient Modulus for Pavement Materials...............................................................5-4 
5.4  Construction of the Pavement Layers................................................................................5-5 
5.4.1  Specifications Review...............................................................................................5-5 
 5.4.1.1  Granular Materials Properties and Gradations.................................................5-5 
  5.4.1.1.1  Granular Subbase (Specification 3149.2B2)...........................................5-5 
  5.4.1.1.2  Granular Base and Subbase Materials ....................................................5-6 
  5.4.1.1.3  Stabilized Base........................................................................................5-7 
  5.4.1.1.4  Recycled and Reclaimed Materials.........................................................5-7 
  5.4.1.1.5. Sampling and Testing .............................................................................5-7 
 5.4.1.2  Construction of Aggregate Base......................................................................5-8 
  5.4.1.2.1  Construction Requirements.....................................................................5-8 
   5.4.1.2.1.1  General...........................................................................................5-8 
   5.4.1.2.1.2  Placing and Mixing........................................................................5-8 
   5.4.1.2.1.3  Spreading.......................................................................................5-9 
   5.4.1.2.1.4  Compaction....................................................................................5-9 
   5.4.1.2.1.5  Workmanship and Quality.............................................................5-9 
   5.4.1.2.1.6  Aggregate in Stockpiles...............................................................5-10 
   5.4.1.2.1.7  Random Sampling Gradation Acceptance Method......................5-10 
   5.4.1.2.1.8  Payment........................................................................................5-11 
 5.4.1.3  Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Mixtures................................................................5-11 
  5.4.1.3.1  General..................................................................................................5-11 
  5.4.1.3.2  MnDOT 2360 Plant-Mixed Asphalt Pavement combined 2360/2350.......... 
    (Gyratory / Marshall Design) Specification..............................................5-11 
   0.1 Description................................................................................................5-12 
   0.2 Materials ...................................................................................................5-13 
   0.3 Mixture Design.........................................................................................5-17 
   0.4 Mixture Quality Management...................................................................5-18 
   0.5 Construction Requirements.......................................................................5-21 
   0.6 Pavement Density.....................................................................................5-22 
   0.7 Thickness and Surface Smoothness Requirements...................................5-23 
5.4.2  Field Control Procedures to Meet Specifications...................................................5-25 
 5.4.2.1  General...........................................................................................................5-25 
 5.4.2.2  Granular Subbases and Bases........................................................................5-25 
  5.4.2.2.1  General..................................................................................................5-25 
  5.4.2.2.2  Schedule of Materials Control..............................................................5-26 
  5.4.2.2.3  Standard Methods of Testing................................................................5-26 
  5.4.2.2.4  Methods of Compaction Control for Aggregate Bases.........................5-27 
  5.4.2.2.5  Job Guide for Aggregate Base Construction ........................................5-28 
 5.4.2.3  Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Construction..........................................................5-29 
  5.4.2.3.1  General..................................................................................................5-29 
  5.4.2.3.2  Standard Methods of Testing................................................................5-30 
  5.4.2.3.3  Methods of Compaction Control for HMA ..........................................5-30 
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