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35
Design and Develop the 
Knowledge Exchange
Table 8: The Basics of measuring Results
The baseline 
value at the start 
of the initiative
A quantitative or qualitative statement that explains the value of a 
measure before the knowledge exchange is implemented or at its 
beginning. Identifying the baseline value for each measure allows 
practitioners to later assess any changes in the measured value that 
could be attributed to the program.  
Targets or 
benchmarks 
for progress at 
various intervals 
or stages (e.g., 
after specific 
events) 
Targeted outcomes can only be confirmed if target value(s) are 
established at the beginning of the initiative. The target value should be 
expressed in terms that are comparable to the baseline value. Consider 
what is feasible given the people involved, the instruments, activities, 
and delivery modes used, and the available timeframe of the exchange.  
Specify the estimated confirmation date of each capacity outcome. 
Some capacity outcomes can be assessed during the program (i.e. 
after a specific event), whereas others might need more time to be 
confirmed.  
Methods, tools, 
and roles/
responsibilities 
for collecting 
and analyzing 
the monitoring 
information
The achievement of capacity outcomes can be analyzed by monitoring 
changes in the indicators over time. This is why regularly tracking 
program progress is critical. The data collection methods and the tools 
necessary to utilize them should be clarified and responsible agents 
identified in order to ensure implementation. Example monitoring 
methods and tools include: 
Method: Rapid appraisal, participatory method 
Data Collection Tools: Surveys, focus groups, structured interviews, 
network analysis, awareness campaign effectiveness measures/analysis, 
monitoring the passing of certain laws for reform
Monitoring 
and evaluation 
outputs to 
improve the 
knowledge 
exchange 
initiative
Regularly review the results of activity surveys or feedback sessions with 
participants. Make adjustments as necessary to make sure participants 
are getting the most out of each activity. This will better help 
participants reach their desired capacity outcomes. 
Plans for 
disseminating 
the performance 
information at 
regular intervals
Develop a clear dissemination and consultation plan with your 
stakeholders to discuss lessons, findings, and evidence. 
The documentation of capacity outcomes and results, coupled with the 
detailed description of project activities, lets you, your clients and others 
know what interventions have been effective and under what conditions. 
This information can be used to ensure better planning in the future.  
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37
CASE STUDIES
PRoBlEMS In CoMMon: BRAzIl, InDonESIA 
AnD MExICo ConvERgE to HElP BolIvIA wItH 
ExtREME PovERtY 
Despite  Bolivia’s  best  efforts  to  alleviate  poverty 
through targeted social programs, vast populations of 
their nation - 59% of the indigenous and 62% of rural 
populations - still live in extreme poverty.    Bolivia’s 
Ministry  of  Development  Planning  approached 
the World Bank to help identify countries that have 
successful poverty reduction programs focusing on 
indigenous and rural populations.  
Brazil, Mexico, and Indonesia were identified as nations 
who  had  made  strides  towards  alleviating  poverty 
among rural populations by using innovate Conditional 
Cash  transfer  (CCt)  and  Community-Driven 
Development  (CDD)  programs,  and  a  knowledge 
exchange was arranged by the Bank between officials, 
planners, and experts from the four countries in order to 
explore ways to improve the operational effectiveness 
of Bolivia’s social programs.  
NEW mEAsuREs 
WiLL HELp 
mATERNAL 
AND iNFANT 
HEALTHCARE 
AND LOWER 
iNFANT 
mORTALiT
EXpERT visiTs
GLOBAL 
DiALOGs
sTuDy visiTs/
TOuRs
37
CAsE sTuDy
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38
CASE STUDIES
Through  expert  visits,  global  dialogues  and  a  study  tour,  the 
knowledge and skills that Bolivian planners gained from the exchange 
saved a great  deal of trial and error  in  how to better design and 
implement  social  programs  for  Bolivia’s  neediest  people.  Bolivian 
officials also became aware of how social programs could be improved 
through smart monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems.  The exchange 
was almost derailed when Bolivia’s elections and subsequent changes 
in government made communications difficult, but the team coalesced 
on multiple levels within the Bank and worked in collaboration with the 
Bolivian government to push through the challenges.   The Knowledge 
Exchange triumphed, resulting in a large number of ongoing social 
programs improvements. 
outcomes include:
Q
Raised awareness about innovative social programs.
Q
Improved consensus about the importance of M&E.
Q
Enhanced the skills of Bolivian officials to design and implement 
social programs.
Q
Increased implementation
Bolivia now plans to apply rigorous M&E techniques that have been 
used successfully in Mexico to enact a conditional cash transfer program 
for maternal and infant healthcare.  The new M&E approach has the 
potential to lower infant mortality rates in by ensuring that mothers and 
children receiving program benefits follow program requirements; such 
as attending doctor visits, taking medications, and getting vaccinations.
“tHE BolIvIAnS 
wERE ABlE to 
unDERStAnD tHAt 
ConDItIonAl CASH 
tRAnSFERS ARE not 
vERY EFFECtIvE 
wItHout EnSuRIng 
tHAt ‘ConDItIonS’ 
FoR RECEIvIng 
FunDS ARE BEIng 
MEt.”
said Samuel Freije-Rodriguez, a 
Senior Economist in the World 
Bank’s Latin American region.
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39
CASE STUDIES
lEARnIng to DEAl wItH DEvAStAtIon 
The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 left 
most of the country’s housing infrastructure in sham-
bles.   While he Haitian government strove to provide 
emergency and temporary shelters, it was unable to 
focus adequate attention on long-term housing.   The 
Haitian government turned to Indonesia for informa-
tion, as the nation had successfully adopted transpar-
ent community-based approaches to housing recon-
struction after the devastation of the 2004 tsunami.    
The World Bank subsequently fostered an exchange 
of experience between Haitian decision-makers and 
Indonesian reconstruction experts, government offi-
cials, and community members.  
Through the Knowledge Exchange, peer consulta-
tions, conferences and a study tour provided op-
portunities to discuss the similarities and differences 
of both nations’ experiences. Haitian officials sought 
to enhance their knowledge on ways to respond to 
disasters, focusing on planning and implementation 
tools for community-based housing reconstruction. 
usiNG LEssONs 
FROm HORRiFiC 
TsuNAmi, 
iNDONEsiA HELps 
HAiTi sHORE 
up HOusiNG 
iNFRAsTRuCTuRE 
AFTER 
EARTHquAKE 
THROuGH 
KNOWLEDGE 
EXCHANGE
CAsE sTuDy
sTuDy visiTs/
TOuRs
pEER 
CONsuLTATiONs
CONFERENCEs 
39
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40
CASE STUDIES
Haitian authorities received knowledge from public officials, com-
munity members, and representatives of international communities 
engaged in Indonesia’s reconstruction process.  
Capacity outcomes included:
Q
Raised Awareness
Q
Improved Consensus and teamwork
Q
Enhanced networks
The Indonesian concept of ‘gotong Royong’ (meaning mutual help) 
was  key to Indonesia’s community  housing reconstruction, and  this 
same concept helped the Haitian Government in promoting communi-
ty development and forming coalitions to assist in implementing com-
munity based housing projects.  Importantly, Haitian officials leveraged 
the learning from this exchange to develop a blueprint for the first set of 
housing units. In addition, the exchange made the Government of Haiti 
aware of the needs to amend housing policy and establish and imple-
ment new policies to facilitate the reconstruction process.
The exchange also fostered international ties between Haitian decision 
makers and community members and their Indonesian counterparts, 
and strengthened linkages with experts in urban planning and housing 
reconstruction. This contributed to the rebuilding process in Haiti, and 
is expected to enable more effective management of the urban land-
scape over the medium to long term.
“tHE InDonESIAn 
ConCEPt oF ‘gotong 
RoYong’ (MEAnIng 
MutuAl HElP) wAS 
KEY to InDonESIA’S 
CoMMunItY HouSIng 
REConStRuCtIon, 
AnD tHIS SAME 
ConCEPt HElPED 
tHE HAItIAn 
govERnMEnt…”
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41
CASE STUDIES
A lESSon FRoM CHInA:  Don’t Put All YouR 
ClotHES In onE BASKEt
garment  production alone accounts for nearly 90 
percent of annual Cambodian exports, leaving the 
country vulnerable to economic shocks such as the re-
cent global economic downturn, which halted nearly a 
decade of consistent economic growth in Cambodia.  
In order to shore up the Cambodian economy against 
such shocks, the Bank’s Cambodia Office team orga-
nized a multi-tiered Knowledge Exchange between 
Cambodia and China.  Through the Knowledge Ex-
change, Cambodian economic and planning officials 
travelled to China in order to learn about the People’s 
Republic of China’s industrial “cluster” policies and 
Special Economic Zones (SEZs), which played a major 
role in facilitating the growth of China’s now famous 
export industries.  The Cambodian delegation came 
away from China with:
Q
Increased  implementation know-how  by high-
lighting how some of China’s reform experiences 
might be adapted and applied in Cambodia.
FROm THE 
KNOWLEDGE 
EXCHANGE: 
NuRTuRiNG 
spECiAL 
ECONOmiC 
zONEs (sEzs) 
AND CLusTERs 
iN CAmBODiA
CAsE sTuDy
sTuDy visiTs/
TOuRs
COmmuNiTiEs 
OF pRACTiCE
pEER 
CONsuLTATiONs
CONFERENCEs 
41
42
CASE STUDIES
Q
Raised awareness about the multidisciplinary nature of SEZ devel-
opment requiring input from many Ministries
Q
Improved consensus about the potential for SEZs to stimulate eco-
nomic growth and private sector investment.
Impressed with public administration reforms they had seen in China, 
the Cambodian Development Council (CDC) expressed a desire to be-
gin implementing a computerized system to automate SEZ investment 
approvals.  Several Chinese government officials and entrepreneurs ex-
pressed interest in cooperating with or potentially investing in Cambo-
dia in the future.
“tHIS tYPE oF 
BottoM-uP lEARnIng 
IS REAllY IMPoRtAnt. I 
wAntED to joIn tHE 
ACtIvItY AnD MAKE 
SuRE All CAMBoDIAn 
oFFICIAlS SEE AnD 
HEAR tHE tHInKIng 
BEHInD tHESE 
PolICIES,”
said H.E. Sok Chenda, Minister 
attached to the prime minister 
in charge of Special Economic 
Zones.
43
CASE STUDIES
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