6. It's important for me to keep busy.
7. I hardly ever expect things to go my way.
8. I don't get upset too easily.
9. I rarely count on good things happening to me.
10. Overall, I expect more good things to happen to me than bad.
1. Reverse code items 3, 7, and 9 prior to scoring (0=4) (1=3) (2=2) (3=1) (4=0).
2. Sum items 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 to obtain an overall score.
Note: Items 2, 5, 6, and 8 are filler items only. They are not scored as part of the
The revised scale was constructed in order to eliminate two items from the original scale,
which dealt more with coping style than with positive expectations for future outcomes. The
correlation between the revised scale and the original scale is .95.
Scheier, M.F., Carver C.S., and Bridges, M.W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from
neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A re-evaluation of the Life
Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063-1078.
Admin. Assistant to Michael F. Scheier, Head
Department of Psychology
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Carnegie Mellon University
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Ph: 412-268-3151; Fax: 412-268-3464