Georg Lukacs was the son a wealthy Hungarian banker. Lukacs began his political life as
an agent of the Communist International. His book History and Class Consciousness
gained him recognition as the leading Marxist theorist since Karl Marx. Lukacs believed
that for a new Marxist culture to emerge, the existing culture must be destroyed. He
said, “I saw the revolutionary destruction of society as the one and only solution to the
cultural contradictions of the epoch,” and, “Such a worldwide overturning of values
cannot take place without the annihilation of the old values and the creation of new ones
by the revolutionaries.”
When he became Deputy Commissar for Culture in the Bolshevik Bela Kun regime in
Hungary in 1919, Lukacs launched what became known as “Cultural Terrorism.” As part
of this terrorism he instituted a radical sex education program in Hungarian schools.
Hungarian children were instructed in free love, sexual intercourse, the archaic nature of
middle-class family codes, the out-datedness of monogamy, and the irrelevance of
religion, which deprives man of all pleasures. Women, too, were called to rebel against
the sexual mores of the time. Lukacs’s campaign of “Cultural Terrorism” was a precursor
to what Political Correctness would later bring to Western European schools.
In 1923, Lukacs and other Marxist intellectuals associated with the Communist Party of
Germany founded the Institute of Social Research at Frankfurt University in Frankfurt,
Germany. The Institute, which became known as the Frankfurt School, was modelled
after the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow. In 1933, when Nazis came to power in
Germany, the members of the Frankfurt School fled. Most came to the United States.
The members of the Frankfurt School conducted numerous studies on the beliefs,
attitudes and values they believed lay behind the rise of National Socialism in Germany.
The Frankfurt School’s studies combined Marxist analysis with Freudian psychoanalysis to
criticise the bases of Western culture, including Christianity, capitalism, authority, the
family, patriarchy, hierarchy, morality, tradition, sexual restraint, loyalty, patriotism,
nationalism, heredity, ethnocentrism, convention and conservatism. These criticisms,
known collectively as Critical Theory, were reflected in such works of the Frankfurt School
as Erich Fromm’s Escape from Freedom and The Dogma of Christ, Wilhelm’s Reich’s The
Mass Psychology of Fascism and Theodor Adorno’s The Authoritarian Personality.
The Authoritarian Personality, published in 1950, substantially influenced Western
European psychologists and social scientists. The book was premised on one basic idea,
that the presence in a society of Christianity, capitalism, and the patriarchal-authoritarian
family created a character prone to racial and religious prejudice and German fascism.
The Authoritarian Personality became a handbook for a national campaign against any
kind of prejudice or discrimination on the theory that if these evils were not eradicated,
another Holocaust might occur on the European continent. This campaign, in turn,
provided a basis for Political Correctness.
Critical Theory incorporated sub-theories which were intended to chip away at specific
elements of the existing culture, including “matriarchal theory,” “androgyny theory,”
“personality theory,” “authority theory,” “family theory,” “sexuality theory,” “racial theory,”
“legal theory,” and “literary theory.” Put into practice, these theories were to be used to
overthrow the prevailing social order and usher in social revolution.
To achieve this, the Critical Theorists of the Frankfurt School recognised that traditional
beliefs and the existing social structure would have to be destroyed and then replaced.
The patriarchal social structure would be replaced with matriarchy; the belief that men
and women are different and properly have different roles would be replaced with
androgyny; and the belief that heterosexuality is normal would be replaced with the
belief that homosexuality is equally “normal.”
As a grand scheme intended to deny the intrinsic worth of native Christian European,
heterosexual males, the Critical Theorists of the Frankfurt School opened the door to the
racial and sexual antagonisms of the Trotskyites. Many believed that oppressed Muslims,
non European minorities and others like Feminists and Homosexuals could be the
vanguard of a communist revolution in Europe.
Trotsky’s ideas were adopted by many of the student leaders of the 1960s counterculture
movement, who attempted to elevate minority revolutionaries to positions of leadership
in their movement.
The student revolutionaries were also strongly influenced by the ideas of Herbert
Marcuse, another member of the Frankfurt School. Marcuse preached the “Great Refusal,”
a rejection of all basic Western concepts, sexual liberation and the merits of feminist and
black revolution. His primary thesis was that university students, ghetto blacks, the
alienated, the asocial, and the Third World could take the place of the proletariat in the
Communist revolution. In his book An Essay on Liberation, Marcuse proclaimed his goals
of a radical transvaluation of values; the relaxation of taboos; cultural subversion; Critical
Theory; and a linguistic rebellion that would amount to a methodical reversal of meaning.
As for racial conflict, Marcuse wrote that white men are guilty and that blacks are the
most natural force of rebellion.
Marcuse may be the most important member of the Frankfurt School in terms of the
origins of Political Correctness, because he was the critical link to the counterculture of
the 1960s. His objective was clear: “One can rightfully speak of a cultural revolution,
since the protest is directed toward the whole cultural establishment, including morality
of existing society…” His means was liberating the powerful, primeval force of sex from its
civilised restraints, a message preached in his book, Eros and Civilisation, published in
1955. Marcuse became one of the main gurus of the 1960s adolescent sexual rebellion;
he himself coined the expression, “make love, not war.” With that role, the chain of
Marxist influence via the Frankfurt School was completed: from Lukacs’ service as Deputy
Commissar for Culture in the Bolshevik Hungarian government in 1919 to Western
European and American students burning the flag and taking over college administration
buildings in the 1960s. Today, many of these same colleges are bastions of Political
Correctness, and the former student radicals have become the faculties.
One of the most important contributors to Political Correctness was Betty Friedan.
Through her book The Feminine Mystique, Friedantied Feminism to Abraham Maslow’s
theory of self-actualisation. Maslow was a social psychologist who in his early years did
research on female dominance and sexuality. Maslow was a friend of Herbert Marcuse at
Brandeis University and had met Erich Fromm in 1936. He was strongly impressed by
Fromm’s Frankfurt School ideology. He wrote an article, “The Authoritarian Character
Structure,” published in 1944, that reflected the personality theory of Critical Theory.
Maslow was also impressed with the work of Wilhelm Reich, who was another Frankfurt
School originator of personality theory.
The significance of the historical roots of Political Correctness cannot be fully appreciated
unless Betty Friedan’s revolution in sex roles is viewed for what it really was – a
manifestation of the social revolutionary process begun by Karl Marx. Friedan’s reliance
on Abraham Maslow’s reflection of Frankfurt School ideology is only one indicator. Other
indicators include the correspondence of Friedan’s revolution in sex roles with Georg
Lukacs’ annihilation of old values and the creation of new ones, and with Herbert
Marcuse’s transvaluation of values. But the idea of transforming a patriarchy into a
matriarchy – which is what a sex-role inversion is designed to do – can be connected
directly to Friedrich Engels book The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State.
First published in 1884, this book popularised the now-accepted feminist belief that deep-
rooted discrimination against the oppressed female sex was a function of patriarchy. The
belief that matriarchy was the solution to patriarchy flows from Marx’s comments in The
German Ideology, published in 1845. In this work Marx advanced the idea that wives and
children were the first property of the patriarchal male. The Frankfurt School’s
matriarchal theory and its near-relation, androgyny theory, both originated from these
When addressing the general public, advocates of Political Correctness – or cultural
Marxism, to give it its true name – present their beliefs attractively. It’s all just a matter
of being “sensitive” to other people, they say. They use words such as “tolerance” and
“diversity,” asking, “Why can’t we all just get along?”
The reality is different. Political Correctness is not at all about “being nice,” unless one
thinks gulags are nice places. Political Correctness is Marxism, with all that implies: loss
of freedom of expression, thought control, inversion of the traditional social order, and,
ultimately, a totalitarian state. If anything, the cultural Marxism created by the Frankfurt
School is more horrifying than the old, economic Marxism that ruined Russia. At least the
economic Marxists did not exalt sexual perversion and attempt to create a matriarchy, as
the Frankfurt School and its descendants have done.
This short essay has sought to show one critical linkage, that between classical Marxism
and the ingredients of the “cultural revolution” that broke out in Western Europe in the
1960s. Of course, the action does not stop in the ‘60s; the workings of the Frankfurt
School are yet very much with us, especially in the field of education. That topic, and
other present-day effects of Frankfurt School thinking, will be further analysed.
Cultural Marxist profiles
• He began his political life as a Kremlin agent of the Communist International.
• His History and Class-Consciousness gained him recognition as the leading Marxist
theorist since Karl Marx.
• In 1919 he became the Deputy Commissar for Culture in the Bolshevik Bela Kun
Regime in Hungary. He instigated what become known as “Cultural Terrorism.”
• Cultural Terrorism was a precursor of what was to happen in European and American
• He launched an “explosive” sex education program. Special lectures were organised in
Hungarian schools and literature was printed and distributed to instruct children about
free love, the nature of sexual intercourse, the archaic nature of the bourgeois family
codes, the outdatedness of monogamy, and the irrelevance of religion, which deprives
man of all pleasure. Children were urged to reject and deride paternal authority and the
authority of the Church, and to ignore precepts of morality. They were easily and
spontaneously turned into delinquents with whom only the police could cope. This call to
rebellion addressed to Hungarian children was matched by a call to rebellion addressed to
• In rejecting the idea that Bolshevism spelled the destruction of civilisation and culture,
Lukacs stated: “Such a worldwide overturning of values cannot take place without the
annihilation of the old values and the creation of new ones by the revolutionaries.”
• Lukacs’ state of mind was expressed in his own words:
- “All the social forces I had hated since my youth, and which I aimed in spirit to
annihilate, now came together to unleash the First Global War.”
- “I saw the revolutionary destruction of society as the one and only solution to the
cultural contradictions of the speech.”
- “The question is: Who will free us from the yoke of Western Civilisation?”
- “Any political movement capable of bringing Bolshevism to the West would have to be
- “The abandonment of the soul’s uniqueness solves the problem of ‘unleashing’ the
diabolic forces lurking in all the violence which is needed to create revolution.”
• Lukacs’ state of mind was typical of those who represented the forces of Revolutionary
• At a secret meeting in Germany in 1923, Lukacs proposed the concept of inducing
“Cultural Pessimism” in order to increase the state of hopelessness and alienation in the
people of the West as a necessary prerequisite for revolution.
• This meeting led to the founding of the Institute for Social Research at Frankfurt
University in Germany in 1923 – an organisation of Marxist and Communist-oriented
psychologists, sociologists and other intellectuals that came to be known as the Frankfurt
School, which devoted itself to implementing Georg Lukacs’s program.
• He was an Italian Marxist on an intellectual par with Georg Lukacs who arrived by
analysis at the same conclusions as Lukacs and the Frankfurt School regarding the critical
importance of intellectuals in fomenting revolution in the West.
• He had travelled to the Soviet Union after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and made
some accurate observations that caused him to conclude that a Bolshevik-style uprising
could not be brought about by Western workers due to the nature of their Christian souls.
• Antonio Gramsci became the leader of the Italian Communist Party, which earned him a
place in one of Mussolini’s jails in the 1930s, where he wrote Prison Notebooks and other
• These works became available in English to Brits and Americans.
• His advice to the intellectuals was to begin a long march through the educational and
cultural institutions of the nation in order to create a new Soviet man before there could
be a successful political revolution.
• This reflected his observations in the Soviet Union that its leaders could not create such
a new Soviet man after the Bolshevik Revolution.
• This blueprint for mind and character change made Gramsci a hero of Revolutionary
Marxism in American education and paved the way for creation of the New American
Child in the schools by the education cartel.
• The essential nature of Antonio Gramsci’s revolutionary strategy is reflected in Charles
A. Reich’s The Greening of America: “There is a revolution coming. It will not be like
revolutions in the past. It will originate with the individual and the culture, and it will
change the political structure as its final act. It will not require violence to succeed, and it
cannot be successfully resisted by violence. This is revolution of the New Generation.”
• In his 1933 book entitled The Mass Psychology of Fascism, he explained that the
Frankfurt School departed from the Marxist sociology that set “Bourgeois” against
“Proletariat.” Instead, the battle would be between “reactionary” and “revolutionary”
• He also wrote a book entitled The Sexual Revolution which was a precursor of what was
to come in the 1960s.
• His “sex-economic” sociology was an effort to harmonise Freud’s psychology with
Marx’s economic theory.
• Reich’s theory was expressed in his words: “The authoritarian family is the
authoritarian state in miniature. Man’s authoritarian character structure is basically
produced by the embedding of sexual inhibitions and fear in the living substance of
sexual impulses. Familial imperialism is ideologically reproduced in national imperialism…
the authoritarian family…is a factory where reactionary ideology and reactionary
structures are produced.”
• Wilhelm Reich’s theory, when coupled with Georg Lukacs’ sex education in Hungary, can
be seen as the source for the American education cartel’s insistence on sex education
from kindergarten onwards and its complete negation of the paternal family, external
authority, and the traditional character structure.
• Reich’s theory encompassed other assertions that seem to have permeated American
- The organised religious mysticism of Christianity was an element of the authoritarian
family that led to Fascism.
- The patriarchal power in and outside of man was to be dethroned.
- Revolutionary sexual politics would mean the complete collapse of authoritarian
- Birth control was revolutionary ideology.
- Man was fundamentally a sexual animal.
• Reich’s The Mass Psychology of Fascism was in its ninth printing as of 1991 and is
available in most college bookstores.
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested