very poorly made, but not in the other batches. There will hardly be any so just ignore this
1 L of liquid is saturated with 15 g of pure PA so this fact allows you to measure the yield of your
yellow PA powder and the number of grams you can expect to purify. 50g of yellow PA powder in
my case yielded from 10-50% of pure PA crystals. My poorest yield was my first batch. 300 g of PA
powder was almost inert and yielded only 30 g of pure PA crystals. The other batches of PA powder
was a better yield ranging from 15-50%.
When the liquid is saturated (you should have 1,8L of PA liquid), filter hot into glass containers.
Filtering hot is not very important unless your PA powder is very unclean, like my batches (it was
everything from bugs to other small impurities like pieces of plastic). I filtered 1,8 L into 4 x 500 ml
beakers but since I only had 10 of these beakers I eventually started using all types of glassware.
Since the crystals (when cooling slowly) "grow" slowly like bacteria I assumed using items which
they use to boost bacteria growth would work in these cases as well. I experimented with various
glass containers, different shapes and sizes. I used flat, long (long drink glasses), small, with
everything from glass rods and plastic sucking straws in.
My findings were not 100% conclusive, in fact I'm still very uncertain, but I got the impression that
certain shapes and sizes will allow for a greater yield. Smaller containers seemed better than large
containers and adding plastic sucking straws so the crystals got more "surfaces" to grow from was
a slight bonus. Beakers larger than 600ml yielded a lower result. I ended up buying 18 long drink
glasses (each 300ml) which yielded an ok result. I was surprised to learn that the best yield was
from a large circular glass bowl (5 liters) which I placed 1 liter of liquid in. It was an unclean bowl I
had previously used to store my bananas in (in a plastic bag). In any case; the yield of pure PA
crystals was 100-200% better than in other containers. I do not exactly know why; perhaps it was
the dust particles in the bowl or possibly bacteria that promoted the increased growth. In any case;
it indicates that the described purification method is flawed and the issue is worth investigating
further. For obvious reasons, I don't have time for more research into this issue. Also keep in mind
that larger glass containers uses considerably longer to cool (several extra hours).
Cool the two 600 ml beakers to room temp. For a 500 ml beaker this took 4,5 hours and a few
hours extra for the 2L beakers. I notices, however, that when I let the beakers sit overnight (for a
total of 12 hours) there was considerably more PA crystals generated. However, I do not know for
sure if this will impact the total of crystals generated after you have further cooled it down in the
When the beakers and other glassware you might have used are at room temp (don't hesitate to
let it stand for several extra hours, perhaps up to a day or two, after it has hit room temp) - then,
put the beakers in the fridge. It said in another guide that I was to put it in the fridge for one hour
but I'm pretty sure he meant that I chill the liquid down to 4C. Considering that I was purifying 1kg
of unpurified PA powder and I had A LOT of beakers and other glass containers, it took 12 hours in
the fridge for the beakers to reach 4C (since the room temped containers raised the refrigerator
temperature from 4C to 12C within the first hour...:-) So, if you have a small fridge, like I did,
consider chilling the containers in a "transit location", if possible, in order to shorten the "fridge
time". I used the cellar floor which holds 8C. This saved me a total of 36 hours of "fridge time".
Filter once the liquid hits 4-5C (perhaps we can even increase generation rate if we let stand even
longer. I am really not sure about this but it is worth investigating further.
The other guide said: scoop the crystals out of the filter. However, I like to save the crystals in the
filter until I have a large enough batch to process as it maintains the moisture well and keeps it
cool. I also like to process the filter papers all at once by using a 2m x 1m plastic board. I open the
"seam" on the coffee filter papers and flatten it out like a pancake. Then I use a plastic/rubber
spoon like object (the item used to smear cream on cakes) to get all of the content out.
When you have taken out all the crystals from the filters, put them in a plastic box and keep them
with at least 20% water content (no problem if you take them out of the moist filters - newly moist
filters = aprox 100% water content).
These should be used within 2-3 weeks or they may start to deteriorate and/or may increase
sensitivity and thus become more dangerous to transport (according to another guide). If you store
them saturated with alcohol in a sealed glass container, you can basically store them safely for 100
years +.put in oven for an hour.
Drying before use
Dry in oven for 30 mins to 4 hours based on water content between 50-80C before use. I dried the
unpurified PA substance in the oven (no problem) but haven't yet confirmed with pure PA crystals.
It should be safe because I dried DDNP in the oven the same way, which should be considerably
Preparing 1800kg of AN prills (CAN 27-0-0)
There are large 300-600L diesel tanks in most farms (for fueling the tractor) so just call the supply
company and order the required amount of diesel. My 300L tank was almost half full so I ordered
an additional 150L this way. I also bought 5 x 20L gas tanks to transport the diesel from the
equipment building (where the diesel tank was) to the barn cellar (where I was going to
manufacture the ANFO). Since a 20L plastic tank is too heavy to handle efficiently I poured the
content into 5 x 4L plastic bottles which I had leftover from all the distilled water used previously.
When you make the order at your local farming supplier (the supplier near the farm you are
renting) you should order twice as many "dummy fertilizer). Obviously, before you can make an
order in the first place you need to register a "farming company" and acquire a "producing number"
from your government. In other words, you have to register as an "official farmer" or you will not
be able to make an order from the farming supplier. You should also have enough farming land to
justify the order you are placing. 50-90 decares (5-9 hectares) should allow you to easily justify
the purchase of 4-5 tons of fertilizer whereas half being CAN 27-0-0. If you do not take these
precautions there is a chance you may not pass the scrutiny of the farming supplier as red flags
will arise. Also. f example when you order 3 x 600kg bags of CAN27 you should also order at least
3 x bags of the two other types of fertilizer. I ordered 5 x 600kg bags of CAN27 and 5 x of 600kg
"dummy bags" which proved to be too much for one person to process.
I then told the office to place the CAN inside of the equipment building and the rest outside. The
supply truck uses a "hook" that can place the bag in a 3m radius of the truck. The positive thing
about this is that I could close the building sliding door (3 x 3m) and further process the AN
without anyone outside noticing.
I then brought 14 x 50kg fertilizer bags (previously ordered from a Chinese company, the bag has
two layers, a carry layer and an inner plastic bag that prevents moisture getting in or out) and
filled up the bags, transporting them to the barn basement by car (the barn basement is 100m
away from the equipment building). When I had emptied 3 x 600kg bags I had around 36 x 50kg
bags which I had transferred to the barn basement. Don't worry about water absorption at this
point as the prills have a layer that prevents the prills from absorbing liquid.
I bought several different blenders (both stationary and handheld) and found a suitable machine,
which I bought 8 of. This blender, a stationary Electrolux machine with an ice crushing function
offered optimal circulation of grinded material vs. prills which allowed me to grind 1kg every 30
seconds. I set up 4 of these blenders 5cm from each other on a work bench with an empty 50kg
fertilizer bag next to a bag filled with 45kg of AN prills (placed just below the 4 blenders so you can
empty the blender glass containers quickly and pour it into the empty bag). You fill up each blender
and put it on the lowest strength grinding (you don't really need more grinding power than this and
higher power will most likely wear out the blenders considerably faster). I made a nice rotation
ensuring that the uptime of the 4 blenders. I then prepared 12 x 4L containers of diesel close by.
Although ANFO requires 7% diesel for optimal detonation you should add 10% or perhaps even
13% like I did to account for any evaporation etc.
As you crush the prills to fine powder it will immediately start to absorb water from the air, so as
soon as you have grinded a portion you must hurry to pour the content in the empty bag. Once I
had filled up 1/4 of the bag I added 1,7L of diesel, before continuing. You add approximately 1,7L
at as you fill up the bag with 1/4, 2/4, 3/4 and 4/4. When completed I wrapped the inner bag (like
the way you make a pig tail on hair) and closed it with 10 cm of duct tape. Then continuing to
wrap, I left 2 cm of empty space before doing the same again. I then bent the upper wrapping
down on the lower wrapping and closed it with more duct tape. I then wrapped the outer bag with
two portions of 20cm duct tape. I don't know for sure if this is optimal, but I couldn't think of a
more efficient way to seal the bag properly. After I had grinding 600kg of prills the first blender
broke down (the knife handle broke). The second machine broke down shortly after. I replaced
these with the backup blenders and continued until I was done preparing 34 bags x 50kg ANFO. By
that Time 3 blenders had completely broken down and one more was partly dysfunctional.
Time required to prepare 1 x 50kg bag of ANFO using the above method
It took around 30-40 minutes to prepare each 50kg bag of ANFO. So I spent around 3-4 nights
(from 23.00 to 8.00) working this way until I was completely done. I chose to work at nighttime
because I wanted to do everything I could to prevent detection. I covered the windows and closed
the door on the inside (I had to install a closing mechanism on the door). Due to the loud noise
made from the 4 blenders you can't really hear anyone approaching so I wrote a note on the door
of the main building which encouraged them to call my mobile if they needed my presence (add a
smiley<3). This work is very tedious so I had my iPod on for most of the time at max volume. I
took a 5 minute break for every 2 bags I completed (so basically every 120 minutes). Occasionally,
I would have to drive to the equipment building and fill up my 20L diesel containers.
I originally planned to process 2 more 600kg bags of AN prills but I was so exhausted that I
decided 1800kg would have to do.
Mixing in aluminium powder and micro balloons in the ANFO
Adding 10% (by weight) of aluminium powder and 2-3% (by weight) of micro balloons will increase
the sensitivity and power of your ANFO substantially. Considering the fact that we do not have
access to 34-0-0 (much purer AN) I assumed adding at least the micro balloons would be required
to ensure detonation.
Considering the fact that AN powder will absorb water so quickly I concluded that it would be
appropriate to add the AL and MB after I had saturated the AN powder with diesel.
You now have around 36 x 50kg bags packed with ANFO
Adding aluminium powder and micro balloons
Commercial ANFO contains approximately 2-3% of micro balloons according to a couple of sources,
which makes the ANFO more sensitive and thus requires only a standard blasting cap to detonate.
However, commercial ANFO is much purer than the 27-0-0 CAN available to farmers.
I'm now going to mix in the AL and MB using:
45kg of ANFO
5kg of AL (I'm using 400 mesh(62 microns) leafed AL
1,2kg of micro balloons
For a total of 51,2kg per bag
The 150kg of AL came in 4 hermetically sealed drums each containing around 37kg of AL. After
reading the "security precautions", however, I was completely freaked out. The drum openings
where wielded with a soft metallic substance so it was not going to be easy to open them without
extreme risk (I thought). According to the warnings; contact with oxygen will risk detonation of the
AL, contact with metal, concrete and even plastic will significantly increase the chance of static
electricity which can cause a detonation. Friction and shock can also cause detonation. Close
proximity of oxidizers (gas, diesel) or close proximity to electrical outputs etc can cause detonation.
At first, I thought I would manage to create enough picric acid booster material (1,5kg in total) to
disregard the addition of AL powder. But considering the fact that I only managed to produce 200-
300g of booster I had no choice than to continue the AL addition.
I first planned on creating an outdoor mechanism that allowed me to thrust a steel spear like
object, by using gravity, creating a 3 cm hole in the top of the drum. However, I ended up taking a
regular knife and starting to file down the wielded enclosement, even if it involved high risk.
Eventually, I manage to file open the enclosement. I then considered putting the drum upside down
in one of my empty fertilizer bags to prevent the presence of an abundance of oxygen.
This method proved to be too exhausting since I had to hold up the 37kg drum with my hands. I
ended up with putting a large 3 x 4m plastic sheet on the concrete floor and carefully pouring the
AL powder out of the opening. Small clouds of dust began to generate but nothing happened. I
carefully continued until the drum was empty rolling the side of the drum in a circular pattern from
the center of the AL powder already poured out, until the drum was empty. There were small
clouds of AL powder generated but the biggest one was aprox 20 cm in diameter, which settled
down after a while. I continued after the small clouds had settled. It's also worth noting that I had
closed all the windows of the cellar basement so the humidity was relatively high, while oxygen
level was below average.
In any case, this method worked well and I had gathered all the AL powder on the sheet, and thus
preparing it for the addition to the ANFO.
I plan to mix up 1,2kg of micro balloons per 45kg ANFO. I have a total of 40kg of MB in 5 large
bags. It is a powder-like substance and inert. But according to the sources; when mixed with ANFO
or ANALFO it will generate hot spots and thus making the ANFO or ANALFO more sensitive. I just
hope I have the correct type of micro balloons... I assumed that the micro balloons were 2 mm in
diameter but these seems to be 0,2 mm or so.
The optimal approach to DDNP manufacturing
This guide reflects the suggestions and requirements for the manufacturing of 3 batches of DDNP
totaling approx 20-45g of pure DDNP crystals within 45 hours. This should be enough for four
detonators (5-8g per detonator) and some additional material for testing.
General information and comments:
DDNP or dinol stands for Diazodinitrophenol and has the reputation of being one of the best
primaries out there when it comes to performance.
VoD: 7000 m/s @ 1,63g/cc.
Despite all the misinformation out there, stating it is so difficult to make... - DDNP IS an
EXTREMELY easy primary explosive to manufacture. I managed to create it on the first try and
none of my batches failed. Sure, there are many steps to follow, but each step is very simple
requiring only basic lab equipment. I must admit I was discouraged reading all the misinformation
out there regarding the difficulty level and the dangers involved, seeing that I had ZERO
experience from chemistry. But seriously, If I can make it with ease, then ANYONE can! Sure
enough, the 4 individual guides I located were lacking and incorrect. But after merging them, and
correcting with my personal experience acquired, it proved surprisingly easy. DDNP is around 10
times as stable as AP and I believe it is the primary explosive used by armed forces worldwide atm.
Good properties for storage. Used to detonate a secondary high explosive such as picric acid. The
following guide will result in high grade DDNP with very few impurities. I found synthesizing picric
acid to be more difficult than that of DDNP, even though PA is probably the easiest secondary you
Suggested equipment used:
6 x 2L beakers (required if you want to complete all DDNP manufacturing within 45 hours)
4 x 1L beakers, 2 x long glass temperature rods (works excellently as stirring rods as well)
6 funnels, filter paper (coffee filters are ok)
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested