the people he sent to manufacture explosives blew themselves up (probably due to them
using lacking instructions, ignoring precautions and using open flames.
Required laboratory equipment
You can probably survive using kitchen ware but considering the low cost of laboratory
glass ware, I really recommend investing in the following items. The primary reason is
because laboratory grade glassware is specifically designed for heating, while kitchen
glass ware may break if heated directly on a hot plate with potentially fatal
consequences. DO NOT under any circumstances use an open flame heater. Always use
an electrical heater, preferably a hot plate stirrer. A majority of accidents relating to
explosives involves open flames or individuals dropping explosive materials on the floor
so be careful.
Safety equipment recommended:
Bucket of cold water: 5 € (any kitchen store)
Fire extinguisher: 100 € (various stores)
Hazmat suit: F example: Lakeland DuPont HazMat Suit Tychem: 11-50 USD (Ebay). A
hazmat suit with boots and hood isn’t necessarily needed for making explosives. It is
however needed for handling pure nicotine and ricin. Considering how inexpensive it is, you
might as well use one while creating explosives.
3M 6800 full face respirator with appropriate filters (choose Organic Vapor/Organic Vapor-
Acid/Organic Vapor-Acid-Gas filters) depending on the chemicals you will be working with.
You can buy this facemask with filters from Ebay for as low as 100 USD.
Obviously, we are able to follow some but not all of the following guidelines due to our
Hardware, regulators, glassware, solvents, dry chemicals, aci i ds, etc., stored i i n the laboratory must be isolated from each other in separate cooli ng bath to prevent breakage and to avoi i d other undesi i rable i i nteracti ons.
El ectri cal equipment including vari i ces, stirrers, vacuum m pumps, etc., must not be powered by extensi on cords or frayed l l ine cords. Grounded plugs must be used wi i thout exception; existi i ng ungrounded pl ugs must be changed immediately (thi i s wil l be too costly to avoid, shouldn’t be a problem with good ventilation).
Carefull y check glass vessels for star cracks, scratches or etchi ng marks before each use. Cracks can increase the likeli hood of breakage or may allow chem ical s to leak into the vessel l .
Seal glass centri fuge tubes wi i th rubber stoppers cl am ped in place. Wrap the vessel with fri i ction tape and shiel d with a metal screen. Alternati i vel y, wrap with fri i ction tape and surround the vessel w w ith multiple layers of loose cl oth, then clam m p behi nd a safety shiel d.
Glass tubes with high-pressure seal ers shoul l d be no more than 3/4 full.
Sealed bottl es and tubes of flamm m abl e materials should be w w rapped in cloth, pl aced behind a safety shield, then cooled slowly, first wi i th an ice bath, then wi i th dry i i ce.
Fricti on tape (electrical tape): The rubber based adhesi i ve makes i i t an electrical i i nsulator and provides a degree of protection from liquids and corrosion. In the past, fricti on tape was wi i del y used by electri cians, but PVC electrical tape has replaced it i i n most appli cations today.
When working with sensitive electrical components or volati i le m m ateri als (such as papers/powders/flamm m abl e li i qui ds) sparks and electrical di scharge can cause catastrophic fai i lure in sensiti ve electrical components and ignite volati i le substances. Take steps to eli i minate them: How to prevent stati i c electricity: Hai r, clothes and shoes are well l known producers of static electricity. Ground the static by touchi ng a grounded appl l iance, wi i ri ng a ground circui i t, or by applying a neutrali zi ng charge. Stati i c accumulates in areas where the charge cannot escape.
Here are som e methods to elim m inate stati c electri ci ty and/or bui ldup:
Wi re work surfaces to grounding points. Resistive "Touch M M e First" grounding pads let users drain off any stati c charge they've accum m ul ated wi i thout causing a spark or a shock. Wear static control wristbands, which are wired to groundi ng points (Do NOT wear them m when worki i ng on CRT [Cathode Ray Tube] tel evisi ons or computer monitors. More than a few people have been ki lled when the strap touched a mai i n capacitor).
If nothi i ng else is avail l abl e, touch a grounded metal object once in a while to remove any charge from your body. Touching a water tap works extrem m ely well l . (as does touching a corner of a wall l where there is m m etal stri ppi ng under the plaster) <- These mouldi i ng strips are not always grounded!
Professional devices are available that control stati i c electricity by use of al pha-emitti ng devi ces containing Pol oni um .
Sparks from electrical equi pm ent can serve as an i i gni ti on source for fl am mable or explosi i ve vapors or combusti ble m m aterial s. Ensure that you have acceptable ventilation to prevent “explosi ve fume” buil l dup near powered electrical equi pm ent.
Al l electri cal cords shoul l d have suffi ci ent i i nsulation to prevent di rect contact wi i th wi res. In a laboratory, it is parti cul arly important to check all cords before each use, since corrosi i ve chem ical s or sol vents may erode the insulati on.
Dam aged cords should be repai red or taken out of service im m mediatel y, especiall l y in wet environments such as col d rooms and near water baths.
When it i i s necessary to handle equi pm ent that i i s plugged in, be sure hands are dry and, when possible, wear nonconducti ve gloves and shoes with insulated soles.
If i i t i i s safe to do so, work wi i th onl y one hand, keepi i ng the other hand at your side or i i n your pocket, away from al l l conductive material l . Thi s precaution reduces the likeli hood of acci i dents that result i i n current passi i ng through the chest cavi i ty.
Minim ize the use of electrical equipment i i n col d rooms or other areas where condensation i i s li kel y.
If water or a chemical is spil l led onto equipment, shut off power at the main switch or circuit breaker and unplug the equipment.
Pl ug only equipment with three-prong pl ugs should be used i i n the l l aboratory. The thi i rd prong provides a path to ground for internal electri cal short circui i ts, thereby protecting the user from a potential electri cal shock.
Circuit Protection Devi ces
Circuit protection devices are designed to automatical l ly l l imi t or shut off the fl ow of electri city in the event of a ground-fault, overl l oad or short ci i rcuit in the wi i ring system . G G round-fault ci rcuit interrupters, circuit breakers and fuses are three well l -known examples of such devices.
Fuses and circuit breakers prevent over-heating of wires and com ponents that might otherwi i se create fire hazards. They disconnect the circui i t when it becom m es overl oaded. This overload protection i i s very useful for equipment that is l l eft on for extended peri i ods of time, such as stirrers, vacuum m pumps, drying ovens, Vari i acs and other el l ectrical equi pm ent.
The ground-fault circui i t interrupter, or GFCI, is designed to shutoff electric power if a ground fault is detected, protecting the user from m a potential el ectri cal shock. The GFCI i i s particularl l y useful near sinks and wet locations. Si i nce GFCIs can cause equipment to shutdown unexpectedl l y, they m m ay not be appropriate for certai i n apparatus. Portable GFCI adapters (available in m m ost safety supply catal l ogs) may be used wi i th a non-GFCI outlet.
Electrical equipment required:
Freezer: 50-100 € (second hand item, don’t put chemicals in your food freezer, to avoid
contaminating your food, you need a separate one). Most freezers are able to go as low as