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RInstallation and Administration
Version3.3.0(2016-05-03)
RCore Team
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ThismanualisforR,version3.3.0(2016-05-03).
Copyright  c c 2001–2016RCoreTeam
Permissionisgrantedtomakeanddistributeverbatimcopiesofthismanualprovided
thecopyrightnoticeandthispermissionnoticearepreservedonallcopies.
Permissionisgrantedtocopyanddistributemodifiedversionsofthismanualunder
theconditionsforverbatimcopying,providedthattheentireresultingderivedwork
isdistributedunderthetermsofapermissionnoticeidenticaltothisone.
Permissionis grantedtocopyanddistributetranslations of thismanualinto an-
otherlanguage,undertheaboveconditions formodifiedversions,exceptthatthis
permissionnoticemaybestatedinatranslationapprovedbytheRCoreTeam.
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Table of Contents
1 Obtaining R:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1
1.1 Gettingandunpackingthesources:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::1
1.2 Gettingpatchedanddevelopmentversions::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1
1.2.1 UsingSubversionandrsync:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::1
2 Installing R under Unix-alikes:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 3
2.1 Simplecompilation:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 3
2.2 Helpoptions:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::4
2.3 Makingthemanuals:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::4
2.4 Installation::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::6
2.5 Uninstallation::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 8
2.6 Sub-architectures::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::8
2.6.1 Multilib:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::9
2.7 OtherOptions:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::9
2.7.1 OpenMPSupport::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::10
2.8 TestinganInstallation::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::10
3 Installing R under Windows::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 12
3.1 Buildingfromsource::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::12
3.1.1 Gettingthetools:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::12
3.1.2 Gettingthesourcefiles:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::12
3.1.3 Buildingthecorefiles::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::13
3.1.4 Buildingthecairodevices::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::14
3.1.5 UsingICUforcollation:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 14
3.1.6 Supportforlibcurl:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::14
3.1.7 Checkingthebuild:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::14
3.1.8 Buildingthemanuals:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 15
3.1.9 BuildingtheInnoSetupinstaller:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::15
3.1.10 BuildingtheMSIinstaller:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::16
3.1.11 64-bitWindowsbuilds::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::17
3.2 TestinganInstallation::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::17
4 Installing R under OS X::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 18
4.1 RunningRunderOSX:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::18
4.2 UninstallingunderOSX::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::19
4.3 Multipleversions::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 19
5 Running R:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::21
6 Add-on packages:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 22
6.1 Defaultpackages::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::22
6.2 Managinglibraries::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::22
6.3 Installingpackages::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::22
6.3.1 Windows:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 23
6.3.2 OSX::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::24
6.3.3 Customizingpackagecompilation:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::25
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6.3.4 Multiplesub-architectures::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::26
6.3.5 Byte-compilation:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::26
6.3.6 Externalsoftware::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::27
6.4 Updatingpackages::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::27
6.5 Removingpackages:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::28
6.6 Settingupapackagerepository:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::28
6.7 Checkinginstalledsourcepackages::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::29
7 Internationalization and Localization::::::::::::::::::::::::30
7.1 Locales:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::30
7.1.1 LocalesunderUnix-alikes::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::30
7.1.2 LocalesunderWindows::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::30
7.1.3 LocalesunderOSX::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::31
7.2 Localizationofmessages::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::31
8 Choosing between 32- and 64-bit builds :::::::::::::::::::: 33
9 The standalone Rmath library:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::34
9.1 Unix-alikes::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 34
9.2 Windows:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::35
Appendix A
Essential and useful other
programs under a Unix-alike::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::37
A.1 Essentialprogramsandlibraries::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::37
A.2 Usefullibrariesandprograms:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::39
A.2.1 Tcl/Tk::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::40
A.2.2 Javasupport::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::40
A.2.3 Othercompiledlanguages::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 41
A.3 Linearalgebra::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::41
A.3.1 BLAS:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::41
A.3.1.1 ATLAS:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::42
A.3.1.2 ACML::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 43
A.3.1.3 GotoandOpenBLAS:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::43
A.3.1.4 IntelMKL::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::43
A.3.1.5 SharedBLAS:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::44
A.3.2 LAPACK::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 44
A.3.3 Caveats:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::45
Appendix B
Configuration on a Unix-alike::::::::::::::::::: 46
B.1 Configurationoptions:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 46
B.2 Internationalizationsupport::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::47
B.3 Configurationvariables:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::47
B.3.1 Settingpapersize::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 47
B.3.2 Settingthebrowsers:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::47
B.3.3 Compilationflags::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::48
B.3.4 Makingmanuals:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::48
B.4 Settingtheshell::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::48
B.5 Usingmake:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 48
B.6 UsingFORTRAN::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::48
B.7 Compileandloadflags:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::49
B.8 Maintainermode:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::50
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Appendix C
Platform notes:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 52
C.1 X11issues::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::52
C.2 Linux::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::53
C.2.1 Clang:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::54
C.2.2 Intelcompilers:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 55
C.2.3 OracleSolarisStudiocompilers::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::55
C.3 OSX:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 56
C.3.1 ElCapitan::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::58
C.3.2 Tcl/Tkheadersandlibraries:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::58
C.3.3 Java:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::58
C.3.4 Frameworks:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::59
C.3.5 BuildingR.app::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::59
C.4 Solaris:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::60
C.4.1 Usinggcc::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 62
C.5 AIX::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::63
C.6 FreeBSD:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::64
C.7 OpenBSD::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::65
C.8 Cygwin:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 65
C.9 Newplatforms::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 65
Appendix D
The Windows toolset:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::67
D.1 LAT
E
X::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::68
D.2 TheInnoSetupinstaller::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::68
D.3 Thecommandlinetools::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::68
D.4 TheMinGW-w64toolchain:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::68
D.5 Usefuladditionalprograms:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::69
Function and variable index::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::70
Concept index:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::71
Environment variable index::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::72
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1
1 Obtaining R
Sources, binaries and documentation for R R canbe obtainedvia
CRAN
, the “Comprehensive
R Archive Network”whose current members are listed at https://CRAN.R-project.org/
mirrors.html.
1.1 Getting and unpacking the sources
ThesimplestwayistodownloadthemostrecentR-x.y.z.tar.gzfile,andunpackitwith
tar -xf R-x.y.z.tar.gz
onsystems thathaveasuitable
1
tar installed. Onother r systemsyouneedtohavethegzip
programinstalled,whenyoucanuse
gzip -dc R-x.y.z.tar.gz | tar -xf -
Thepathnameofthedirectoryintowhichthesourcesareunpackedshouldnotcontainspaces,
asmostmakeprograms(andspecifically
GNU
make)donotexpectspaces.
Ifyouwantthebuildtobeusablebyagroupofusers,setumaskbeforeunpackingsothat
thefileswillbereadablebythetargetgroup(e.g.,umask022tobeusablebyallusers). Keep
thissettingofumaskwhilstbuildingandinstalling.
Ifyouuse arecent
GNU
versionof taranddothis as aroot account(whichonWindows
includes accounts withadministrator privileges) you maysee many y warnings about changing
ownership. Inwhichcaseyoucanuse
tar --no-same-owner -xf R-x.y.z.tar.gz
andperhapsalsoincludetheoption--no-same-permissions. (Theseoptionscanalsobeset
intheTAR_OPTIONSenvironmentvariable: ifmorethanoneoptionisincludedtheyshouldbe
separatedbyspaces.)
1.2 Getting patched and development versions
Apatchedversionof the current release, ‘r-patched’, andthe current development version,
‘r-devel’,areavailable as daily tarballsandviaaccesstotheR Subversionrepository. (For
thetwoweekspriortothereleaseofaminor(3.x.0)version,‘r-patched’tarballsmayreferto
beta/releasecandidatesoftheupcomingrelease,thepatchedversionofthecurrentreleasebeing
availableviaSubversion.)
The tarballs are available from https://stat.ethz.ch/R/daily.
Download
R-patched.tar.gzorR-devel.tar.gz(orthe.tar.bz2versions)andunpackasdescribedin
theprevioussection.TheyarebuiltinexactlythesamewayasdistributionsofRreleases.
1.2.1 Using Subversionand rsync
Sourcesarealsoavailableviahttps://svn.R-project.org/R/,theRSubversionrepository. If
youhaveaSubversionclient(seehttps://subversion.apache.org/),youcancheckoutand
updatethe current‘r-devel’fromhttps://svn.r-project.org/R/trunk/ andthecurrent
‘r-patched’from‘https://svn.r-project.org/R/branches/R-x-y-branch/’(wherexandy
arethemajorandminornumberofthecurrentreleasedversionofR).E.g.,use
svn checkout https://svn.r-project.org/R/trunk/ path
to check out ‘r-devel’ into directory path (which will be created if necessary).
The alpha, beta and RC versions of an upcoming x.y.0 release are available from
‘https://svn.r-project.org/R/branches/R-x-y-branch/’inthe four-week period prior to
therelease.
1
e.g.
GNU
tarversion1.15orlater,orthatfromthe‘libarchive’(asusedonOSXversions10.6andlater)
or‘HeirloomToolchest’distributions.
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Notethat‘https:’isrequired
2
,andthattheSSLcertificatefortheSubversionserverofthe
Rprojectshouldberecognizedasfromatrustedsource.
Notethatretrievingthesourcesbye.g.wget-rorsvnexportfromthatURLwillnotwork
(andwillgiveaerrorearlyinthemakeprocess):theSubversioninformationisneededtobuild
R.
TheSubversionrepositorydoesnotcontainthecurrentsourcesfortherecommendedpack-
ages,whichcanbeobtainedbyrsyncordownloadedfrom
CRAN
. Tousersynctoinstallthe
appropriatesourcesfortherecommendedpackages,run./tools/rsync-recommendedfromthe
top-leveldirectoryoftheRsources.
If downloading manually from
CRAN
, do ensure that you have the correct versions of
the recommended packages: if the number in the file VERSION is ‘x.y.z’ you need to
download the contents of ‘https://CRAN.R-project.org/src/contrib/dir’, where dir is
‘x.y.z/Recommended’for r-develor x.y-patched/Recommendedforr-patched,respectively,to
directory src/library/Recommended d in the sources s you have unpacked. After downloading
manually youneedtoexecute tools/link-recommended fromthetoplevelofthesources to
makethe requisite links insrc/library/Recommended. Asuitable incantationfromthe top
leveloftheRsourcesusingwgetmightbe(forthecorrectvalueofdir)
wget -r -l1 --no-parent -A\*.gz -nd -P src/library/Recommended \
https://CRAN.R-project.org/src/contrib/dir
./tools/link-recommended
2
forsomeSubversionclients‘http:’mayappeartowork,butrequirescontinualredirection.
3
2 Installing R under Unix-alikes
R will configure and build under most common Unix and Unix-alike platforms including
‘cpu-*-linux-gnu’for the ‘alpha’, ‘arm’, ‘hppa’, ‘ix86’, ‘m68k’,‘mips’, ‘mipsel’, ‘powerpc’,
‘s390’,‘sparc’,and‘x86_64’
CPU
s,‘x86_64-apple-darwin’,‘i386-sun-solaris’and‘sparc-
sun-solaris’aswellasperhaps(itistestedlessfrequentlyontheseplatforms)‘i386-apple-
darwin’,‘i386-*-freebsd’, ‘x86_64-*-freebsd’, ‘i386-*-netbsd’, ‘x86_64/*-openbsd’and
‘powerpc-ibm-aix6*’
Inaddition,binarydistributionsareavailableforsomecommonLinuxdistributionsandfor
OSX(formerlyMacOS).Seethe
FAQ
forcurrentdetails.Theseareinstalledinplatform-specific
ways,sofortherestofthischapterweconsideronlybuildingfromthesources.
Cross-buildingisnotpossible:installingRbuildsaminimalversionofRandthenrunsmany
Rscriptstocompletethebuild.
2.1 Simple compilation
First review the essentialand usefultools s andlibraries in Appendix x A[Essentialand useful
otherprogramsunderaUnix-alike],page37,andinstallthoseyouwantorneed. Ensurethat
theenvironment variableTMPDIRis either unset (and /tmp p exists andcanbe writteninand
scriptscanbeexecutedfrom)orpointstotheabsolutepathtoavalidtemporarydirectory(one
fromwhichexecutionofscriptsisallowed)whichdoesnotcontainspaces.
1
Choose a directory to installthe R tree (R is not just abinary, but t has additional data
sets,helpfiles,fontmetricsetc). LetuscallthisplaceR
HOME. Untarthesourcecode. This
shouldcreatedirectoriessrc,doc,andseveralmoreunderatop-leveldirectory:changetothat
top-leveldirectory(AtthispointNorthAmericanreadersshouldconsultSectionB.3.1[Setting
papersize],page47.) Issuethefollowingcommands:
./configure
make
(SeeSectionB.5[Usingmake],page48,ifyourmakeisnotcalled‘make’.) UsersofDebian-based
64-bitsystems
2
mayneed
./configure LIBnn=lib
make
Thencheckthebuiltsystemworkscorrectlyby
make check
Failures are not necessarily problems as they might t be causedby missing functionality, but
youshouldlookcarefullyatanyreporteddiscrepancies.(Somenon-fatalerrorsareexpectedin
localesthatdonotsupportLatin-1,inparticularintrueClocalesandnon-UTF-8non-Western-
Europeanlocales.) Afailurein tests/ok-errors.R R may indicate inadequate resource limits
(seeChapter5[RunningR],page21).
Morecomprehensivetestingcanbedoneby
make check-devel
or
make check-all
seefiletests/READMEandSection2.8[TestingaUnix-alikeInstallation],page10,forthepossibil-
itiesofdoingthisinparallel.Notethatthesechecksareonlyruncompletelyiftherecommended
packagesareinstalled.
1
Mostaspectswillworkwithpathscontainingspaces,butexternalsoftwareusedbyR,e.g.texi2dviversion
4.8,maynot.
2
whichuselibratherthanlib64fortheirprimary64-bitlibrarydirectories.
Chapter2:InstallingRunderUnix-alikes
4
Ifthecommandconfigureandmakecommandsexecutesuccessfully,ashell-scriptfront-end
calledRwillbecreatedandcopiedtoR_HOME/bin. Youcanlinkorcopythisscripttoaplace
whereusers caninvokeit, for r example to /usr/local/bin/R. Youcouldalsocopy y the man
pageR.1toaplacewhereyourmanreaderfindsit,suchas/usr/local/man/man1. Ifyouwant
toinstallthecompleteRtreeto,e.g.,/usr/local/lib/R,seeSection2.4[Installation],page6.
Note: youdonotneed toinstallR:youcanrunitfromwhereitwasbuilt.
YoudonotnecessarilyhavetobuildRinthetop-levelsourcedirectory(say,TOP_SRCDIR).
TobuildinBUILDDIR,run
cd BUILDDIR
TOP_SRCDIR/configure
make
andsoon,as describedfurther below. Thishastheadvantageofalwayskeepingyour r source
treecleanandisparticularlyrecommendedwhenyouworkwithaversionofRfromSubversion.
(Youmayneed
GNU
maketoallowthis,andyouwillneednospacesinthepathtothebuild
directory.Itisunlikelytoworkifthesourcedirectoryhaspreviouslybeenusedforabuild.)
Now rehash if necessary, type R, and read the R manuals and the R
FAQ
(files FAQ or
doc/manual/R-FAQ.html, or https://CRAN.R-project.org/doc/FAQ/R-FAQ.html which
alwayshastheversionforthelatestreleaseofR).
Note: ifyoualready y haveRinstalled,checkthatwhereyouinstalledRreplacesorcomes
earlierinyourpaththanthepreviousinstallation. Somesystemsaresetuptohave/usr/bin
(thestandardplaceforasysteminstallation) aheadof /usr/local/bin(thedefaultplacefor
installationofR)intheirdefaultpath,andsomedonothave/usr/local/binonthedefault
path.
2.2 Help options
Bydefault
HTML
helppagesarecreatedwhenneededratherthanbeingbuiltatinstalltime.
Ifyouneedtodisabletheserverandwant
HTML
help,thereistheoptiontobuild
HTML
pages
whenpackagesareinstalled(includingthoseinstalledwithR).Thisisenabledbytheconfigure
option--enable-prebuilt-html.WhetherRCMDINSTALL(andhenceinstall.packages)pre-
builds
HTML
pages is determined by y looking at the R installation and is reportedby RCMD
INSTALL--help: it t can be overridden by specifying one of the INSTALL L options --html or
--no-html.
The server is disabled by setting the environment variable R_DISABLE_HTTPD to a non-
empty value, either r before R is started or within the R R session before
HTML
help (includ-
ing help.start) is s used. It t is also possible that system security measures will prevent t the
server from being started, for example if the loopback interface has been disabled. See
?tools::startDynamicHelpformoredetails.
2.3 Making the manuals
Thereisasetofmanualsthatcanbebuiltfromthesources,
‘fullrefman’
Printedversionsofallthehelppagesforbaseandrecommendedpackages(around
3500pages).
‘refman’
Printedversionsofthehelppagesforselectedbasepackages(around2000pages)
‘R-FAQ’
R
FAQ
‘R-intro’ “AnIntroductiontoR”.
‘R-data’
“RDataImport/Export”.
Chapter2:InstallingRunderUnix-alikes
5
‘R-admin’ “RInstallationandAdministration”,thismanual.
‘R-exts’
“WritingRExtensions”.
‘R-lang’
“TheRLanguageDefinition”.
Tomakethese(with‘fullrefman’ratherthan‘refman’),use
make pdf
tocreatePDFversions
make info
tocreateinfofiles(not‘refman’nor‘fullrefman’).
Youwillnot be able tobuild any y of theseunless you have texi2any y version5.1or later
installed, and for r PDFyoumust have texi2dvi andtexinfo.tex installed(whichare part
ofthe
GNU
texinfodistributionbutare,especiallytexinfo.tex,oftenmadepartofthe T
E
X
packageinre-distributions). Forhistoricalreasons,thepathtotexi2anycanbesetbymacro
‘MAKEINFO’inconfig.site(makeinfoisnowadaysalinktotexi2any).
The PDFversions canbe viewedusinganyrecentPDFviewer: theyhavehyperlinks s that
canbefollowed.TheinfofilesaresuitableforreadingonlinewithEmacsorthestandalone
GNU
infoprogram.ThePDFversionswillbecreatedusingthepapersizeselectedatconfiguration
(defaultISOa4): thiscanbe overriddenbysettingR_PAPERSIZE onthe makecommandline,
orsettingR_PAPERSIZEintheenvironmentandusingmake-e. (Ifre-makingthemanualsfora
differentpapersize,youshouldfirstdeletethefiledoc/manual/version.texi.Theusualvalue
forNorthAmericawouldbe‘letter’.)
There are some issues with making the PDF reference manual, fullrefman.pdf or
refman.pdf. ThehelpfilescontainbothISOLatin1characters(e.g.intext.Rd)andupright
quotes, neither r of which are contained inthe standard LAT
E
XComputer Modern fonts. We
haveprovidedfouralternatives:
times
(The default.) Using standard PostScript fonts, Times Roman, Helvetica and
Courier. This s works wellbothfor on-screen viewing andfor r printing. One dis-
advantage is s that the Usage and Examples s sections may y come out rather wide:
thiscanbeovercomeby usingin addition eitheroftheoptions inconsolata (on
aUnix-alikeonlyiffoundbyconfigure)or beramono,whichreplacetheCourier
monospacedfontbyInconsolataorBeraSansmonorespectively. (Youwillneeda
recentversionoftheappropriateLAT
E
Xpackageinconsolata
3
orberainstalled.)
NotethatinmostLAT
E
Xinstallationsthiswillnotactuallyusethestandardfonts
for PDF, but rather r embed the URWclones s NimbusRom, NimbusSans s and(for
Courier,ifused)NimbusMon.
ThisneedsLAT
E
Xpackagestimes,helveticand(ifused)courierinstalled.
lm
Using the Latin Modern fonts. These are not often installed as s part of a T
E
X
distribution,butcanobtainedfromhttps://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/fonts/
ps-type1/lm/ andmirrors. This s uses fontsrather similar toComputer Modern,
butisnotsogoodon-screenastimes.
cm-super Usingtype-1versionsoftheComputerModernfontsbyVladimirVolovich.Thisis
alargeinstallation,obtainablefromhttps://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/fonts/
ps-type1/cm-super/anditsmirrors.Thesetype-1fontshavepoorhintingandso
arenowherenearasreadableon-screenastheotherthreeoptions.
ae
Apackagetousecomposites ofComputerModernfonts. Thisworkswellmostof
thetime,andits PDFis morereadable on-screenthanthe previous twooptions.
Therearethreefontsforwhichitwillneedtousebitmappedfonts,tctt0900.600pk,
3
Instructions on how to install the latest version are at https://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/fonts/
inconsolata/.
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested