railroad companies: P. & R.R.R. (Philadelphia and Reading Railroad), and W.J.& S.R.R.
(West Jersey and Seashore Railroad).
On W1200 1917, Astoria is shown by the standard small street grid, again
showing in a high-quality scan what was perhaps present on the earlier charts, although
illegible on the scans. The town label has switched back to being placed along an arc
running to the southeast, but is still in title case.
Time period six shows no changes to the form of the urban landscape
representation on any of the three example charts. For MH400 1922 the only change of
note is the name change for the two adjacent towns of Hollybeach and Anglesea, which
on this chart are combined into a single name, Wildwood. On GJF200 1922 the street
grid has grown, and there may be a railroad entering town along the shore from the south,
but there are no representational changes. For E1200 1927 the same can be said, with the
caveat that an additional town is shown. Elizabeth, New Jersey, has been added as
another small street grid labeled the same way as Jersey City and Brooklyn. Meanwhile,
New Brunswick is still labeled in title case, rather than all caps.
The seventh time period has examples of all four charts. MH400 1938 shows no
representational changes, although the street grid has grown. For GJF400 1933 the
author's scan did not include Port Townsend, so a clip of a different urban locale is
shown. Victoria, British Columbia, is shown with a street plan that apparently represents
all major streets in the city as they are actually laid out. Navigationally important features
º) are represented the same way as they are on the Harbor Charts,
with a , although the size of the circle and dot symbol is small relative to the size of the
label for the feature. The city name is in a slab-serif font, all caps, while the smaller
nearby town of Craigflower is in title case.
E1200 1938 has one addition to note. At least two radio towers have been added.
They are represented by the , and labeled with ª
º, plus their call letters are included
in parentheses: ª
º, and ª
º. For W1200 1932 no changes are seen for
Astoria, but a symbol for a tall structure has been added at Pt. Adams. The appears to
be placed over the `s' in ªAdamsº, and the label ª
º appears to be stamped on,
indicating the chart has been updated by hand after printing.
The eighth time period has six clips for the four charts. MH400 1942 no longer
shows a spur line connecting Wildwood to the mainline tracks along the shore, but
otherwise has no changes. MH400 1951 shows only a single mainline railroad at Cape
May, the P.R.S. R.R. (Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines Railroad). In addition, a
canal is now shown connecting a harbor to the east of the town of Cape May, through the
peninsula to Delaware Bay.
On GJF200 1941 there is definitely a railroad south of Port Townsend, but it does
not appear to go all the way to the town. No representational changes are seen.
E1200 1943 appears to slightly change the representation of the urban street grid.
The grid looks like it is more generalized than in previous editions. While oriented
correctly, the pitch of the lines appears to be equal for all of the cities in the area, which
suggests that it does not exactly represent the location of the streets, but is instead a
standardized area fill symbol. Two other changes appear: first, a shift in the labels for the
New Jersey cities from being placed on the horizontal, to an arc from the northwest to
southeast; second, the abbreviation for `Radio Tower' is now ª
º instead of ª
For E1200 1948, no representational changes are seen, but an additional major town,
Newark, is present. Other changes include a different line type for state lines, and a
switch from sans-serif text on the horizontal to serif text along an arc for state labels (see
Layout 08Ð Topography (other)).
For W1200 1945/54, the label for Astoria has changed back to being placed on
the horizontal. To make it fit it has been displaced away from the street grid representing
the town. This grid is slightly smaller than the previous chart, as a line or two are missing
from the west edge of town. The tall structure stamped on the previous edition is absent,
but a new radio tower is located on the west edge of town. It is labeled ª
R TR (KAST)
which is a slightly different construction for the abbreviation than the radio tower labels
on E1200 1943 and 1948.
It is clear that a major change was developed over time in the conception of the
Harbor Charts. They began with the purpose of helping navigators safely make harbors,
but also for the military to wage war. No other accurate maps of the country had been
created that were tied into a geodetic system, making any topographic and cultural
information on these map/charts new and important to the country. Later, the role of
topographer for the country was handed to the U.S. Geological Survey, and most of the
topographic information that had been included was no longer needed on the nautical
charts. At the same time the needs of navigators were changing. Their vessels had deeper
draft and were faster, moving under their own propulsion. Additional navigational aids
were installed and maintained by the U.S. Coast Guard and the Light-House Board,
making navigation simpler.
Competition with other agencies (and private map publishers) eventually led to
other map series that provided land-side information. The C&GS could then focus the
charts on being nautical charts, and not imagine they would be re-purposed. For example,
no intercity roads were shown on later maps.
As the C&GS published more charts, greater effort had to go into maintaining the
accuracy of the charts already published. Removing information was a way to save
money, since it would no longer have to be updated.
The changes to the Coast and Geodetic Survey's published charts that occurred
during the 100 years chronicled in the preceding chapter were enacted for many reasons.
A large number of small changes made for unique reasons added up to wholesale change
over time. This chapter identifies and explains the most important of the reasons, and
attempts to loosely tie those reasons to specific changes noted in Chapter 4.
While not the only cause, and in many cases only a proximate cause (not an
underlying driver), changes in technology played a crucial role in the changes to the chart
end-products. Many of the changes would not have been possible without specific
Shipping and Boating
Changes to the size, draft, and speed of ships were an important driver for
changes to the charts. As Kerr and Anderson note, there was only evolutionary change in
the design, construction, and capabilities of ships between the thirteenth century and the
first half of the nineteenth century (1982, 440). These modest changes led to a doubling
in length and draft over the course of 600 years. It was not until the widespread adoption
of both powered ships and iron and steel construction that the needs of navigators began
to change. Weber, writing in 1923, provides a succinct explanation:
In the days of sailing vessels, when the draft of merchant vessels did not exceed
twenty feet, when sailing vessels often had to beat back and forth across the
harbor in order to enter it, these was no need for one deep, clearly defined
channel, but it was necessary to know the location of the dangerous shoal areas
over the entire harbor, and surveys were made accordingly.
With the introduction of steam vessels and the increase of draft which now
requires a depth of forty feet from some of them, it became necessary to seek
out in each harbor the deepest channel available¼ . This necessitated resurveys,
not so much of the entire harbors, but close examination to locate and define
these channels. (Weber 1923, 21)
Other contemporary writers made the same points, including C&GS annual
reports in 1909, 1914, 1915, 1917, and 1929 (U.S. Department of Commerce and Labor
et al. 1909; U.S. Department of Commerce et al. 1914; U.S. Department of Commerce et
al. 1915, 1917; U.S. Department of Commerce et al. 1929); Representative J. Hampton
Moore in a speech commemorating the centennial of the C&GS (U.S. Department of
Commerce et al. 1916a, 59); an agency report on nautical charts (Jones 1924, 4, 8); and
Figure 10 (a version of which is found in the 1917 annual report).
Figure 10. Increase in draft of naval and merchant vessels between 1825 and 1917. NOAA Historical
Map & Chart Project, 0_B-00-0000.sid.
The change in the motive power of ships from wind to fuel, and the increase in
draft that came with the increase in overall size that became possible with the advent of
iron and steel ship construction, led to a change in focus for hydrographic surveying and
the charts that were their end product. Initially surveyors focused on finding the hidden
dangers everywhere, and charts focused on tidal currents and sailing directions that
would help a sailor navigate along shore and into harbors with only the limited control
that sails provided. With the changes in shipbuilding technology came a focus on finding
the safest route for deep-draft vessels and charting the safest routes in the clearest
manner. Resurveys were required.
It was the increase in the speed of ships, however, which had the greatest impact
on chart design (Kerr et al. 1982). Deeper drafts requiring deeper clear zone and dredged
channels had a greater impact on surveying than on the finished charts. Increases in ship
speed, however, required the navigator to be able to identify navigationally important
chart features more quickly. Around the year 1900, American warships could achieve 18
knots. In 1943, the battleship Iowa hit 35 knots (Kerr et al. 1982). These changes to the
needs of military navigators led to pressure to simplify charts and make navigational
information more prominent.
Among the design changes noted in Chapter 4 that relate to the changing needs of
navigators are the reduction in landside detail, outlining the sides of channels, changing
navigational aids to make them more prominent, and the fact that the danger line kept
Submarines also contributed to the need for more accurate and detailed
hydrographic surveys. Around the time of the First World War the military began to
require charts to have accurate hydrography down to 100 meters or more (U.S.
Department of Commerce et al. 1915, 9). No longer just useful for determining location
for lost ships, knowledge of these depths was required for submarines to operate safely.
Another change in maritime activity was the rise of population of boating in small
craft. The advent of gasoline-engine powered recreational motorboats led to a major part
of this class of use, and recreational yachting and commercial fishing comprised most of
the rest (U.S. Department of Commerce et al. 1923, 21; U.S. Department of Commerce et
al. 1950). An increase in free time, discretionary spending, and improved land
transportation predicated the recreational uses, according to the survey (U.S. Department
of Commerce et al. 1923, 23). Noted as a new source of chart users in 1911, the agency
responded by creating additional large-scale charts to serve the needs of recreational
boaters (U.S. Department of Commerce and Labor et al. 1912, 12). It also began to
publish charts pre-folded instead of rolled, so as to better fit in small boats. While not
necessarily affecting the content of the charts, these new users pushed up demand on the
agency's resources in the 1920s, adding to the pressure to speed up chart production
while reducing costs. Among the agency's responses was the decision to remove non-
essential topographic information from the charts, freeing some staff time.
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested