Bourne and Moore’s edited work is comprised of empirical research summaries that
address the efficacy, quality, and design of online education. Covering multiple subject
areas and fields, the chapters report on various forms of online education to include both
asynchronous and synchronous teaching and learning. The work is divided into five
primary parts: (1) learning effectiveness, (2) cost effectiveness, (3) learner access, (4)
faculty satisfaction, and (5) student satisfaction. Within each section, the various reports
offer methodological models for investigating various elements of online learning,
recommendations for data analysis, best practices, and implications for program
development. Specific direction relating to future research and planning are also
Bourne, John, and Janet C. Moore, eds. Elements of Quality Online Education: Into the
. Sloane-C Series, Vol. 5. Needham, MA: The Sloan Consortium,
Bourne and Moore’s edited work builds on previous volumes of the Sloan-C Series,
Elements of Quality Online Education
. Specifically highlighting the rapid growth and
ever-changing nature and technology of online education, the volume focuses on the need
for shared language, definitions, and terms for online education. Ways of blending
traditional and online education and classifying best practices are also explored. The
contributing authors also attend to issues of scalability, cost management, and efficiency
for online education programs. Like previous volumes, this work is divided into thematic
sections: (1) student satisfaction and student success, (2) learning effectiveness, (3)
blended environments, and (4) assessment.
Carliner, Saul. An Overview of Online Learning
. Amherst, MA: HRD Press, 2004.
Carliner presents a general overview of fundamental principles, characteristics, and
processes of online learning. Divided into four primary chapters, He first defines online
learning within the context of, for example, distance learning and computer-based
training. He also addresses general issues of efficacy and program implementation. In his
second section, Carliner addresses formal and informal learning goals as well as the
blending of various learning types with the online environment. Issues of the technology
comprise the third section of the book. Carliner ends with “project and learning
considerations,” presenting a plan for designing, marketing, and managing online
learning programs. The book includes a comprehensive glossary of online learning terms.
Childers, Jeri L., and R. Thomas Berner. "General Education Issues, Distance
Education Practices: Building Community and Classroom Interaction through the
Integration of Curriculum, Instructional Design, and Technology." JGE: The
Journal of General Education
49.1 (2000): 53-65.
Childers and Berner review the design and development of a course that they taught, with
the aim to determine “the role of distance learning in the implementation of the best
practices in general education.” The authors organized practices and principles into the
categories of learning goals and content presentation; interactions; assessment and
measurement; instructional media and tools; and learner support systems and devices. To
these categories, Childers and Berner connect a set of twelve best practices for
undergraduate education: (1) “create high expectations”; (2) “[p]rovide coherent,
progressive learning and … reasonable and clear course goals and assignments”; (3)
“[c]reate synthesizing experiences”; (4) “[i]ntegrate education and experience”; (5)
“[c]reate active learning experiences”; (6) “[r]equire ongoing practice skills”; (7)
“[a]ssess learning and give prompt feedback”; (8) “[p]lan collaborative learning
experiences”; (9) “[p]rovide considerable time on task”; (10) “[r]espect diverse talents
and ways of knowing”; (11) “[i]ncrease informal contact with students”; and (12) “[g]ive
special attention to the early years.”
Clark, Ruth Colvin, and Richard E. Mayer. E-Learning and the Science of Instruction:
Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning
Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer, 2008.
Clark and Mayer’s work is grounded in learning science theory as it applies to adults, and
it serves as a comprehensive guide for designers and participants in e-learning. It
addresses both asynchronous and synchronous instructional settings within corporations,
government, and academia. In addition to offering practical advice about, for example,
the use of particular technologies, program design strategies, and instructional
techniques, Clark and Mayer substantiate claims with various forms of supporting
research into multimedia learning. The fifteen chapters in their book address a variety of
topics including: the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning, and design principles
for multi-media use, contiguity, modality, redundancy, personalization, and segmenting
and pre-training. A substantive glossary is also included.
Comeaux, Patricia, ed. Communication and Collaboration in the Online Classroom :
Examples and Applications
. Bolton, Mass: Anker Pub. Co, 2002.
This edited collection addresses a number of important issues for those involved in the
design and practice of online education. It is divided into three sections: (1) Program
Development for Distance Education; (2) Professional Collaborative Endeavors, and (3)
Creating Online Learning Communities. The contributors come from a range of
disciplines, and that makes this text useful for thinking about online education generally,
but none of the chapters deal specifically with writing instruction. Thus, while an
important collection for scholars in distance education, it is of limited value to those
particularly interested in OWI.
CREET. The Centre for Research in Education and Educational Technology
Keynes, UK: The Open University, 2007.
Serving as a research unit within the Open University, UK, the Centre for Research in
Education and Education Technology (CREET) focuses on a variety of interdisciplinary
areas of investigation associated with e-learning and its implementation. Within the
context of computer and Internet-mediated teaching and learning, CREET’s research
activities include academic literacies, design and evaluation of education learning
technologies, and models of teacher development and training. Best practices regarding
online learning from pedagogical, administrative, and policy perspectives are addressed.
Research is conducted by both graduate students, full-time faculty and researchers
associated with the Open University and other institutions. Ongoing research activities,
findings, and relevant articles are highlighted on CREET’s website. Although the focus is
largely on the UK and European education, recommendations can be meaningful for
North American contexts.
Dabbagh, Nada, and Brenda Bannan-Ritland. Online Learning: Concepts, Strategies,
. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2005.
Set within a largely a social constructivist instructional framework, Dabbagh and
Bannan-Ritland present fundamental concepts, overall approaches, and implementation
techniques for online learning. In presenting their definition of online learning, they
address participant (instructor and student) positions and perspectives. They also devote
an entire chapter to presenting relevant examples of published, empirical research on
online learning to include work on participant perceptions, interactions analysis, and
online learning communities. Subsequent chapters address instructional design issues
associated with online learning, the development of “authentic” learning experiences for
participants, ways to assess online learning, and authoring tools. The authors provide
practical advice when making decisions about the use of course management systems
Ehmann Powers, Christa and Beth Hewett. "Building Online Training for Virtual
Workplaces." Handbook of Research on Virtual Workplaces and the New Nature
of Business Practices
. Ed. Pavel Zemliansky and Kirk St. Amant. Hershey, PA:
Idea Group, Inc., 2007. 257-271.
Ehmann Powers and Hewett document strategies and solutions for employers who are
designing and implementing online professional development and training programs for
their employees. The recommendations put forth are grounded in educational principles
that have been used in a variety of fields. The work provides: (i) a rationale for
leveraging the Internet for human adaptive training; (ii) a theoretical framework for
practice; and (iii) a model for the deployment of scalable and efficient training activities.
The rationale and recommendations offered can inform OWI practices to include
teaching and learning activities for students, and training and on-going professional
development for instructors.
European Commission. E-Europe 2005
. Brussels: Commission of the European
Funded by the European Union’s European Commission on Information Society,
eEurope 2005 was a multi-year initiative that focused primarily on e-learning and e-
learning’s impact on education, government, and society for EU member states. The
website serves as a historical reference of agendas, updates, conference proceedings, and
relevant outcomes-based information of the project. Documented topics are categorized
into one of the following main sections: (1) e-learning: People and Technology; (2)
European Targets and Initiatives; and (3) Further Reading, and Results from the e-
Learning Conference 2005. The material presented on this website provides a valuable
snap shot of the nature of e-learning practice and policy within the EU. Such experiences
shed light on best practices and commonalities and differences with e-learning in US
European Commission. I-2010 Initiative
. Brussels: Commission of the European
Building on the eEurope 2005 initiative, i2010 is a five-year European Union funded
program that addresses information and communication technologies (ICT) as they affect
various aspects of society, to include ICT in education and life long learning. Three
priorities dominate i2010’s activities; they are: (1) the creation of a “Single European
Information Space” to foster a market for “information society and media services”; (2)
the support and growth ICT research and development; and (3) the accessibility and gains
in quality of life via ICT advances. Education-related topics include digital literacy,
digital libraries, e-Inclusion, e-Accessibility, and e-Skills. As with eEurope 2005, the
material presented on this website provides a valuable up-to-date record of the nature of
e-learning practice and policy within the EU. Such experiences shed light on best
practices and commonalities and differences in US-based e-learning contexts.
European Commission. Prolearn
. Brussels: Commission of European Communities,
Funded by the Information Society Technology (IST) of the European Commission,
PROLEARN is labeled a “Network of Excellence.” The group specifically deals with the
investigation and support of technology-enhanced professional learning. The primary
goal is to develop relationships between research groups (who focus on adult learning,
professional development, and training) and various industry and business partners.
PROLEARN brings together research from numerous fields and entities, to include
higher educational institutions, training and professional development programs, and
proven business programs. It is committed to narrowing the “theory vs. practice” divide,
thereby furthering an understanding of the implications that technology has on activities
within the workplace. As with i2010, the material presented on this website provides a
valuable current record of the nature of e-learning practice and policy within the EU.
Such experiences shed light on best practices and commonalities and differences with e-
learning in US contexts.
Fernando, Alonso, Genoveva López, Daniel Manrique, and José M. Viñes. "An
Instructional Model for Web-Based E-Learning Education with a Blended
Learning Process Approach." British Journal of Educational Technology
Few studies have addressed the instructional processes involved when working with e-
learning technologies; however, this article attempts to address the knowledge gap.
Borrowing methods from cognitive psychology, the authors outline a model for effective
and personalized instruction using e-learning. By outlining six stages of learning in
conjunction with specific educational objectives, the study recommends a blended
approach that combines e-learning with a self-paced strategy coupled with face-to-face
Garrison, D. R., and Terry Anderson. E-Learning in the 21st Century: A Framework for
Research and Practice
. New York: Routledge Falmer, 2003.
Garrison and Anderson’s work investigates the impact of e-learning on various aspects of
education to include technological, instructional, and institutional effects. Within this
context, they concentrate primarily on principles of education that drive e-learning
technology, rather than on specific technology advances and platforms. In Part 1, they
present a conceptual framework which explores the theoretical foundations of e-learning
as well as social, instructional, and cognitive perspectives. Part 2 addresses the
application of their conceptual framework. It provides practical recommendations and
models for implementation, strategic management and positioning, and on-going
evaluation within an academic context.
Ghaoui, Claude, ed. E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative
. Hershey, PA: Idea Group, Inc, 2004.
Drawing on perspectives from individuals representing twelve different countries, Ghaoui
stresses the need for learner-centric technology to dominate “e-education” and online
learning initiatives. The cross-disciplinary case studies and examples presented
throughout the book report on the opportunities and challenges of deploying online
programs for both participants and individuals. In doing so, the contributing authors
highlight best practices, technology deployment suggestions, and design
recommendations for online learning. The first section of the book broadly focuses on the
architecture and instructional design of various programs. The second section of the book
primarily explores the learner experience and socialization within online learning
Gignac, Francine. Building Successful Virtual Teams
. Boston: Artech House, 2005.
Gignac’s work offers a comprehensive, detailed guide for designing and deploying virtual
human resource teams. The facilitation of collaborative work and group interaction in a
virtual environment is a focus throughout the book. Gignac addresses affective
dimensions and issues of motivation for individuals and groups as a whole. Mechanisms
for program assessment and performance measurement are also recommended. Although
the book is designed for the development of online teams in corporate settings, Gignac’s
recommendations can have applicability to best practices for the training of online
writing instructors, general implementation in OWI programs, and implementation of
collaborative learning activities in online classes and programs.
Gillani, Bijan. Learning Theories and the Design of E-Learning Environments
MD: University Press of America, 2003.
Serving as both a theoretical and practical guide for e-learning implementation, Gillani’s
work presents key concepts and learning theories for Internet-based and computer
mediated instruction. Given this conceptual foundation, Gillani explores strategies for
content presentation and design that promote interactive learning. After presenting the
challenges of e-learning, Gillani’s work is divided into three primary sections. The first
section addresses specific learning theories that draw on behavioral cognitive, social, and
psychological fields. He then addresses key ideas for visual design, such as text, color,
animation, and page layout. The last section offers practical advice about the actual
design and implementation process for e-learning programs.
Hiltz, Starr Roxanne, and Ricki Goldman, eds. Learning Together Online: Research on
Asynchronous Learning Networks
. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
Hiltz and Goldman and their contributing authors provide a focused overview of
asynchronous web-based learning that focuses on presenting research findings about the
efficacy of online learning (or “learning networks”). The book introduces basic
definitions and a theoretical framework (the “Online Integrated Learning Model”) for
learning networks, as well as suggestions for research design, data collection and data
analysis. The second part of the book presents findings from completed research that
addresses faculty roles and satisfaction, collaborative learning online, and student
experiences in the online classroom. Within this investigative context, Hiltz and Goldman
highlight key areas and components of online learning that warrant further exploration.
Horton, William. Designing Web-Based Training : How to Teach Anyone Anything
. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000.
Horton addresses design and implementation components of web-based training (WBT)
in this practitioner-oriented book. He defines the parameters of WBT, offers a framework
for choosing and evaluating a particular training approach, and provides guidance on
organizing learning sequences for training. Within this structure, Horton then presents
practical advice on the promotion and maintenance of motivation, active learning and
collaboration amongst participants. Issues associated with overcoming technical
challenges, administering WBT on global, international levels, and accommodating new
developments (technological and pedagogical) in WBT are addressed. Throughout his
work, Horton highlights ways the Internet can be leveraged to attend to unique learner
needs across a variety of fields and subjects.
Horton, William. “Quick (and Not Too Dirty) Fix for Online Documentation.” Technical
40 (1993): 517-521.
Horton argues that the most essential ingredient for success in online documentation is
access; students and scholars, he points out, must be able to “readily find the one morsel
of information they need.” The first of Horton's two main themes is his argument for
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