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Naresh Paneru 
Implementation of Lean Manufacturing Tools in Garment 
Manufacturing Process Focusing Sewing Section of Men’s 
Shirt 
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Implementation of Lean Manufacturing Tools in Garment 
Manufacturing Process Focusing Sewing Section of Men’s 
Shirt 
Naresh Paneru 
Master’s thesis 
Autumn 2011 
Degree Programme in Industrial Management 
Oulu University of Applied Sciences 
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Author: 
Naresh Paneru 
Title of Thesis: 
Implementation of lean manufacturing tools in 
garment manufacturing process focusing 
sewing section of Men’s Shirt 
Thesis Supervisor: 
Hannu Päätalo 
Degree:  
Degree Programme in Industrial Management  
Graduation Year: 
Autumn, 2011 
Number of Pages:  
72 + 8 
ABSTRACT  
Traditionally operated garment industries are facing problems like low productivity, 
longer  production  lead  time,  high  rework  and  rejection,  poor  line  balancing,  low 
flexibility of style changeover etc. These problems were addressed in this study by the 
implementation  of  lean  tools  like cellular  manufacturing,  single  piece  flow,  work 
standardization, just in time production etc.  
After implementation of lean tools, results observed were highly encouraging. Some of 
the key benefits entail production cycle time decreased by 8%, number of operators 
required to produce equal  amount of  garment is decreased  by 14%, rework  level 
reduced by 80%, production lead time comes down to one hour from two days, work in 
progress inventory stays at a maximum of 100 pieces from around 500 to 1500 pieces. 
Apart from these tangible benefits operator multi-skilling as well as the flexibility of 
style changeover has been improved.  
This study is conducted in the stitching section of a shirt manufacturing company. Study 
includes time studies, the conversion of traditional batch production into single piece 
flow and long assembly line into small work cells. 
Key Words: Lean manufacturing, Just In Time, Cellular manufacturing, Time study, 
Single Piece Flow  
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  
I would  like to thank the Oulu  University of Applied Science for giving  me  the 
opportunity to pursue Master’s Degree in Industrial Management.  
 would  like  to  thank  my  supervisor,  Hannu  Päätalo  for  his  continued  support 
throughout the course of this thesis.  
Similarly, I would like to express my genuine appreciation for senior lecturer Mr. Tauno 
Jokinen who guided me throughout this thesis process.  
I am obliged to all seniors and juniors in the industry, who coordinated and helped me 
directly or indirectly during the research process.  
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CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 12 
1.1 Background ............................................................................................................ 12 
1.2 Research Problems ................................................................................................ 13 
1.3 Research Objective ................................................................................................ 14 
1.4 Research Approach ................................................................................................ 15 
1.5 Report Construction ............................................................................................... 16 
2 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................. 17 
2.1 History of Lean ...................................................................................................... 17 
2.2 Definition of Lean ................................................................................................. 18 
2.3 Lean Principles ...................................................................................................... 18 
2.4 Toyota Production System .................................................................................... 19 
2.5 Kind of Wastes ...................................................................................................... 21 
2.6 Lean Manufacturing Tools and Techniques .......................................................... 22 
2.6.1 Cellular Manufacturing ................................................................................... 22 
2.6.2 Continuous Improvement................................................................................ 24 
2.6.3 Just in Time ..................................................................................................... 25 
2.6.4 Total Productive Maintenance ........................................................................ 28 
2.6.6 Waste Reduction Techniques .......................................................................... 31 
2.6.7 Value Stream mapping .................................................................................... 32 
2.7 Method Study ........................................................................................................ 33 
2.8 Labor Standards and Work Measurements ............................................................ 33 
2.8.1 Historical Experience ...................................................................................... 34 
2.8.2 Time Studies ................................................................................................... 34 
2.8.3 Predetermined Time Standards ....................................................................... 36 
2.8.4 Work Sampling ............................................................................................... 36 
7
2.9 Layout Design ....................................................................................................... 38 
2.10 Assembly Line Balancing .................................................................................... 39 
2.10.1 Takt Time ...................................................................................................... 40 
2.10.2 Cycle Time .................................................................................................... 41 
2.11 Summary .............................................................................................................. 41 
3 GARMENT MANUFACTURIGN PROCESS ............................................................ 43 
3.1 Industry Background ............................................................................................. 43 
3.2 Garment Manufacturing Process ........................................................................... 44 
3.2.1 Cutting Section................................................................................................ 44 
3.2.2 Preparatory Section ......................................................................................... 44 
3.2.3 Assembly Section............................................................................................ 47 
3.2.4 Finishing Section ............................................................................................ 48 
3.3 Style Communication ............................................................................................ 49 
3.4 Existing Production Layout ................................................................................... 49 
3.5 WIP Movement System ......................................................................................... 51 
4 RESEARCH OF THE EXISTING PRODUCTION .................................................... 52 
4.1 Conducting Time Study ......................................................................................... 52 
4.2 Creating Cellular Layout ....................................................................................... 53 
4.3 Work Balancing between Operators ...................................................................... 54 
4.4 Critical Operation Handling .................................................................................. 56 
4.5 Trial Production on New Layout ........................................................................... 58 
5 RESULT ANALYSES ................................................................................................. 59 
5.1 Throughput Time Comparison .............................................................................. 59 
5.2 Comparison of Production Time ........................................................................... 60 
5.3 Comparison of Number of Operation .................................................................... 61 
5.4 Comparing Number of Operator Required ............................................................ 62 
5.5 Comparison of Information Flow .......................................................................... 64 
8
5.6 Comparison of Rework Level ............................................................................... 64 
5.7 Operator Skill Improvement .................................................................................. 65 
5.8 Operator Motivation .............................................................................................. 65 
6 RESEARCH SUMMARY ........................................................................................... 66 
6.1 Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 66 
6.2 Limitations of the Study ........................................................................................ 67 
6.3 Recommendation for Future Research .................................................................. 68 
7 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................. 70 
8 LISTS OF APPENDICES ............................................................................................ 73
9
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Difference between Push and Pull Manufacturing System…………………...27 
Table 2: Section wise Number of Operation and Number of Operator requirement …..57 
10
LIST OF FIGURES 
Figure1: Toyota Production System…………………………………………….
.……20 
Figure 2: Pillars of TPM………………………………………………………………29 
Figure 3: Garment Production Process Flow Chart…………
………………………..43 
Figure 4: Cutting Section Production Flow Chart…………
…………………….…...45 
Figure 5: Preparatory Section Production Flow Chart………………………………..46 
Figure 6: Assembly Section Production Flow Chart………
…………………………47 
Figure 7: Finishing Section Production Flow Chart……
…………………………….48 
Figure 8: Existing Production Layout of Stitching Section…………………………..50 
Figure 9: Recommended Stitching Section Layout……………
……………………..55 
Figure 10: Comparison of Production Time for Different Stitching Sections……….61 
Figure 11: Comparison of Number of Operation in Different Sections……………..62 
Figure 12: Comparison of Number of Operator Required in Different Sections…….63 
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