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AURN Standard for Legal Document Ontology: a Best
Practice in the Italian Senate
Enrico Francesconi
,Carlo Marchetti
,Remigio Pietramala
,Pierluigi
Spinosa
InstituteofLegalInformationTheoryandTechniquesof CNR(ITTIG-CNR),Florence,Italy
Senateofthe Republic,Italy
Abstract. Uniform Resource Names (URNs) are conceived by the Internet community for
providingunambiguousandlastingidentifiersofnetworkresources,independentlyfromtheir
physical locations, availability and actual publication. In this paper a proposal of a URN
schema for indentifying sources of law at international level is presented. Moreover an im-
plementationofsuchschemaattheItalianSenateisshown.
Keywords:Sourcesoflaw,Internetresourcesidentification,URN
1. Introduction
Uniform Resource Names(URNs) areconceived by the Internet community
for providing unambiguous and lasting identifiers of network resources, in-
dependentlyfrom their physicallocations,availability and actualpublication.
In particular they play a key role in the legal domain where references to
other legislative measures are very frequent and extremely important: the
possibility of being able to immediately providing effective references and
accessing legaldocumentsisadesirablefeatureabletopromotetransparency
and “certainty oflaw”.Moreoverthegrowing necessity of improved quality
and accessibility of legal information amplifies the need for interoperabil-
ity among legal information systems in national and international setting.
Apersistent, shared, open standard identifier for legal documents at inter-
national level is an essential prerequisite for establish such interoperability.
Besides legal content providers, Internet content creators including publish-
ers operating well outside the traditional arenas of legal publishing (news,
technical documentation providers,etc.)can benefit by thisstandard because
it facilitates thelinking oflegal documents and reduces thecostofmaintain-
ing documents that contain such references. This will result in a benefit for
users as well, since they will enjoy a more richness and reliability of cross-
referencing facilities, not only limited within the same information system
as it is usually today. In the last few years a number of initiatives both in
and outside Europe have arisen in the field of legal document standards to
improve legal document accessibility on the Internet (Francesconi 2007). In
this paper we describe a standard for the identification of sources of law,
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54
E.Francesconi,C.Marchetti,R.Pietramala,P.Spinosa
recently submitted to the IETF as Internet Draft
1
:it is based on a URN
technique capable of scaling beyond national boundaries as well as on the
definition of a namespace convention (LEX) and a structure that will create
and manage identifiers for sources of law at international level. The iden-
tifiers will be globally unique, transparent, persistent, location-independent,
and language-neutral. Thesequalities will facilitate legal document manage-
ment, moreover they will provide a mechanism of stable cross-collections
and cross-country references.In this direction also the Permanent Bureau of
theHagueConferenceon PrivateInternational Lawhasrecentlyexpressedits
opinion,encouragingEUMemberStatesto adoptneutralmethodsofcitation
oftheirlegalmaterials,includingmethodsthataremedium-neutral,provider-
neutral and internationally consistent. This paper is organized as follows:
in Section 2 the general structure of the URN-LEX identifier is introduced;
in Section 3 the bibliographic FRBR reference model which the URN-LEX
schemaisbasedonisdescribed;inSection 4,5,6and7 themain components
of the schema able to identify legal documents at different levels of abstrac-
tion are shown; in Section 8 themodalitiesto establish referencesto awhole
documentorpart ofit using theURN-LEXmethodology isbrieflydiscussed;
inSection 9theprinciplesoftheresolution servicearedescribed; in Sections
10 and 11 the URN-LEX schema and a tool for automatic legal references
mark-upaccording to such standardasimplemented within theItalianSenate
Web site are respectively described.Finally in Section 12 someconclusions
arereported.
2. Structureoftheidentifier
As usual,theproblem is to providetheright amount guidanceat the core of
the standard while providing sufficient flexibility to cover a wide variety of
needs.Theproposed URN- LEX identifier standard doesthis by splitting the
identifier into ahierarchy ofcomponents.Itsmain structureis:
"urn:lex:"<NSS>
where “urn:lex”is theNamespace, which represents thedomain in which
thenamehasvalidity,as wellasNSS isthe NamespaceSpecificString com-
posed asfollows:
<NSS>::=<country>":"<local-name>
where: <country>is thepart providing the identification of the country,
or themulti-national or international organisation,issuing thesourceof law;
1
http://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-spinosa-urn-lex/
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AURNStandardforLegalDocumentOntology:aBestPracticeintheItalianSenate
55
<local-name> is the uniform name of the source of law itself. It is able to
representalltheaspectsofanintellectualproduction,asitisalegaldocument,
fromitsinitial idea,through itsevolutionduring thetime,toits realisationby
different means(paper, digital,etc.).
The <country>element iscomposed oftwo specificfields:
<country>::=<country-code>[";"<country-unit>]*
where: <country-code> is the identification code of the country where
thesourceoflawisissued.Thiscodefollowsthestandard[ISO3166]Alpha-
2(it=Italy, fr=France, dk=Denmark, etc.). In case of multi-national (e.g.,
European Union) or international (e.g., United Nations) organizations the
Top Level Domain Name (e.g., “eu”) or the Domain Name (e.g., un.org,
wto.int)isused insteadofISO3166 code; <country-unit>arethepossible
administrative hierarchical sub-structures defined by each country, or orga-
nization, according to its own structure. This additional information can be
used wheretwo ormorelevelsof legislativeor judicialproduction exist (e.g.,
federal, state and municipality level) and thesamebodiesmay be present in
each jurisdiction.Then acts of the same type issued by similar authorities in
different areas differfor thecountry-unit specification.
3. ReferenceModel forthe<local-name> structure
The<local-name>will encodeall theaspects of an intellectual production,
from its initial idea, through its evolution during the time, to its realisation
by different means (paper, digital,etc.).For thesepurposesit is based on the
FRBR
2
model developed by IFLA
3
.Following theFRBRmodel, in asource
of law, as in any intellectual production, 4 fundamental entities (or aspects)
can bespecified.
The first 2 entities reflect its contents: Work: identifies adistinct intellec-
tual creation; in our case, it identifies asourceof law both in its being (as it
hasbeen issued)andinitsbecoming(asitismodifiedovertime);Expression:
identifies aspecific intellectual realisation of awork; in our case it identifies
every different (original or up-to-date) version of the act over time and/or
languagein which thetext isexpressed;
whiletheother2 entities relateto itsform:
Manifestation: identifies a concrete realisation of an expression; in our
case it identifies realizations in different media (printing, digital, etc.), en-
coding formats (XML, PDF, etc.), or other publishing characteristics; Item:
2
Functional RequirementsforBibliographicRecord
3
International FederationofLibraryAssociationsandInstitutions
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56
E.Francesconi,C.Marchetti,R.Pietramala,P.Spinosa
identifiesaspecificcopyofamanifestation;inourcaseitidentifiesindividual
physical copies asthey arefound in particularphysical locations.
4. Structureof the<local-name>
The<local-name>component of theurn:lex identifier contains all the nec-
essarypiecesofinformation enabling theunequivocalidentificationofalegal
document, within aspecificlegal system.In the urn:lex specification, alegal
resourceat “work”levelisidentified byfourelements:theenactingauthority;
thetype of measure; details(or terms)(like dateof issue, numberof theact,
etc.) possibly, any annex.
It is often necessary to differentiate various expressions, that is: the orig-
inal version and all the amended versions of the same document; the ver-
sions of the text expressed in the different official languages of the state or
organization.
Finally the uniform name allows a distinction among diverse manifesta-
tions, which may be produced in multiple locations using different means
and formats. In every case, the basic identifier of the source of law (work)
remains the same, but information is added regarding the specific version
underconsideration (expression); similarly asuffixisaddedto theexpression
forrepresentingthecharacteristicsofthepublication(manifestation).Allthis
setofinformation isexpressed inthejurisdictionofficial language; incaseof
moreofficial languages,morenames(aliases) arecreated foreachlanguage.
Therefore, the more general structure of the national name appears as
follows:
<local-name>::=<work>[‘‘@’’<expression>]?["$"<manifestation>]?
However, consistent with legislative practice, the uniform name of the
original provision becomes the identifier of an entire class of documents
which includes:theoriginal document,the annexes, and all its versions,lan-
guages and formatssubsequently generated.
5. Structure oftheIdentifierat Work Level
The structure of the document identifier at work level is made of the four
fundamental elementsmentioned above,chosen from thoseused in citations,
clearly distinguished one from the other in accordance with an order iden-
tifying increasingly narrow domains and competences. The use of citation
elementsat worklevel allowsto construct theURNofthecited act manually
or by software tools implementing automatic hyperlinking of legal sources
on the basis of the textual citations of the acts. The general structure of the
identifier at work level is:
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AURNStandardforLegalDocumentOntology:aBestPracticeintheItalianSenate
57
<work>::=<authority>":"<measure>":"<details>[":"<annex>]*
where:
<authority> is the issuing authority of the measure (e.g., State, Ministry,
Municipality,Court, etc.);
<measure>isthetype ofthemeasure(e.g.,act,decree,decision,etc.);
<details>arethetermsassociatedto themeasure,typicallythedateandthe
number;
<annex>is theidentifierof theannex,if any (e.g.,Annex 1).
In case of annexes, both the main document and its annexes have their
own uniform name so that they can individually bereferenced; theidentifier
of the annex adds a suffix to that of the main document. In similar way the
identifierofan annex ofan annex addsan endingto thatoftheannexwhich it
isattached to.Themain elementsofthenational nameare generally divided
into several elementary components,and,foreach,specificrulesofrepresen-
tation are established (criteria, modalities, syntax and order)
4
.Examples of
<work>identifiers are:
urn:lex:it:stato:legge:2006-05-14;22
urn:lex:uk:ministry.justice:decree:1999-10-07;45
urn:lex:ch;glarus:regiere:erlass:2007-10-15;963
urn:lex:es:tribunal.supremo:decision:2001-09-28;68
In thestatesor organisations that have more than one official language, a
document has moreidentifiers,each of them expressed in adifferent official
language,basicallyasetofequivalentaliases.Thissystem permitsmanualor
automated construction of the uniform nameof thereferred source of law in
thesamelanguageused in thedocument itself (e.g.,urn:lex:eu:council:
directive:2004-12-07;31,urn:lex:eu:consiglio:direttiva:2004-
12-07;31, etc.). Moreover, a document can be assigned more than one uni-
formnameinordertofacilitateitslinkingtootherdocuments.Thisoptioncan
beused fordocuments that,althoughunique,arecommonly referenced from
different perspectives. For example, theform of adocument’s promulgation
and its specificcontent (e.g., a Regulation promulgated through a Decree of
thePresident of theRepublic).
6. Structureof theIdentifier atExpressionLevel
There may be several expressions of a legal text, connected to specific ver-
sionsorlanguages.Eachversionischaracterized bytheperiod oftimeduring
which that text istobeconsidered asthevalid text(in forceor effective).The
lifetime of a version ends with the issuing of the subsequent version. New
4
For the details regarding each element, see Attachment B of the IETF Internet Draft
http://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-spinosa-urn-lex/
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58
E.Francesconi,C.Marchetti,R.Pietramala,P.Spinosa
versions of atext may be brought into existence by: changes as regards text
or time(amendments)dueto theissuing of other legal actsand to thesubse-
quent production of updated or consolidated texts; correction of publication
errors(rectificationorerratacorrige);entryinto ordeparturefromaparticular
time span, depending on the specific date in which different partitions of a
text comeinto force. Each such version may be expressed in more than one
language, with each language-version having itsown specific identifier.The
identifier of a source of law expression adds such information to the work
identifier,using thefollowing main structure:
<expression>::="@"<version>[":"<language>]?
where:
<version>istheidentifieroftheversionofthe(originaloramended)source
of law. In general it is expressed by the promulgation date of the amending
act; anyway other specific information can be used for particular cases. If
necessary, theoriginal version isspecified by thestring “original”;
<language>istheidentificationcodeofthelanguagein which thedocument
isexpressed,according to ISO 639-1 [7] (it=Italian, fr=French, de=German,
etc.); in casethecode of alanguageisnot included in this standard, the ISO
639-2 (3 letters) is used. This information is not necessary when the text is
expressedintheuniqueofficial languageofthecountry.
Examplesofdocument identifiersforexpressions are:
urn:lex:ch:etat:lois:2006-05-14;22@originel:fr(original versioninFrench)
urn:lex:ch:staat:gesetz:2006-05-14;22@original:de(originalversioninGerman)
urn:lex:ch:etat:lois:2006-05-14;22@2008-03-12:fr(amendedversioninFrench)
urn:lex:ch:staat:gesetz:2006-05-14;22@2008-03-12:de (amended version in Ger-
man)
7. Structureof theIdentifier atManifestationLevel
Toidentify aspecificmanifestation,theuniformnameoftheexpression isfol-
lowed by a suitablesuffix describing the: digital format (e.g.,XML,HTML,
PDF, etc.) expressed according to the MIME Content-Type standard [RFC
2045],wherethe“/”character is to besubstituted by the“-”sign; publisher
or editorial staff who produced it; possible components of the expressions
contained in the manifestation. Such components are expressed by “body”
(thedefault value), representing thewholeorthemain partofthedocument,
or by the caption of the component itself (e.g. Table 1, Figure2,etc.); other
featuresofthe document (e.g., anonymized decision text).
The <manifestation>suffix will thusread:
<manifestation>::=<format>":"<editor>[":"<component>]?[":"<feature>]?
AURNStandardforLegalDocumentOntology:aBestPracticeintheItalianSenate
59
Toindicatepossiblefeaturesorpeculiarities,each principal elementofthe
manifestation may be followed by a further specification. For example, the
original version the Italian act 3 April 2000, n.56 might have the following
manifestationswith their relativeuniform names:
PDF format(vers. 1.7)of thewhole act edited by theParliament:
urn:lex:it:stato:legge:2000-04-03;56$application-pdf;1.7:parliament
Furthermore,itis usefulto beableto assign auniform nameto a compo-
nent of a manifestation in case non-textual objects are involved. These may
bemultimediaobjectsthat arenon-textual in their own right (e.g.geographic
maps, photographs, etc.), mixed with textual parts. In these ways, a “lex”
namepermits: exploitation ofall the advantages of an unequivocal identifier
thatisindependentofphysicallocation;ameansto providechoiceamongdif-
ferent existing manifestations (e.g. XML or PDF formats, resolution degree
ofan imageetc.)of thesameexpression.
8. Sourcesof LawReferences
Referencesto sources of lawoften referto specific partitions of theact (arti-
cle, paragraph, etc.) and not to the entire document. Therefore, for allowing
applications to manage this information(e.g.,pointing a specific partition on
thebrowser),it isnecessary that apartitionidentifierwithin theact ispresent
(i.e.anunequivocallabelorID).Forenablingtheconstruction ofthepartition
identifier between different collections of documents, specific construction
rules for IDs or labels SHOULD bedefined and shared, within each country
or jurisdiction, for any document type (e.g., for legislation, the paragraph 2
ofthearticle3 mighthaveas label orIDthevalue “art3-par2").
Furthermore,itisusefultoforeseethecompatibilitywith applicationsable
to managethisinformation (e.g.,returning theproper element); these proce-
dures are particularly useful in the case of rather long acts, such as codes,
constitutions,regulations,etc.
Forthispurposeitisnecessary thatthepartitionidentifieristransmitted to
the servers (resolution and application) and therefore it cannot be separated
by the typical “#”character of URI fragment, which is not transmitted to the
server.
According to theserequirements,thesyntax of areferenceis:
<URN-reference>::=<URN-document>["~"<partition-id>]?
(e.g.,to refertotheparagraph 3 of thearticle15 of theFrench Actof15 may
2004,n. 106, thereferenceiswritten
urn:lex:fr:etat:loi:2004-05-15;106~art15-par3).
60
E.Francesconi,C.Marchetti,R.Pietramala,P.Spinosa
Using a different separator ("~") from the document name, the parti-
tion ID is not withheld by the browser but it is transmitted to the resolu-
tion process. This enables the resolver to retrieve (for example, out of a
database),if it is possible, only thereferred partition, otherwiseto return the
whole act. Anyway, to make it effective pointing to the indicated partition,
the resolver SHOULD transform the partition ID of each returned URL in
aURI fragment; this is obtained appending to URL the "#" character fol-
lowed by the partition ID (in the example above, the returned URL will be
<URL-document>#art15-par3).
Anyway it is possible to use the general syntax (with "#"); in this case
only the URN document component of the reference is transmitted to the
resolver,thereforethe wholedocument will bealwaysretrieved.
9. TheResolution Service
Thetask oftheresolution serviceisthat of associating a LEX identifier with
aspecific document address on the network. The system has a distributed
architecture based on two fundamental components: a chain of information
in DNS (Domain Name System) and a series of resolution services from
URNs to URLs, each competent within a specificdomain of the namespace.
Through the NAPTR records of the DNS (described in [RFC 3403]), the
client identifies the characteristics (protocol, port, site) of the service ca-
pable of associating the relative URLs with the URN in question, thereby
allowing access to the document. A resolution service can delegate the res-
olution and management of hierarchically-dependent portions of the name.
Delegation of thisresponsibility will not beunreasonably withheld provided
that the processes for their resolution and management are robust and are
followed. For the “lex” namespace, the declared registrant of the names-
pace (ITTIG-CNR) will maintain the root zone “lex.urn.arpa” and, in cor-
respondence with the adhesion of a new country (e.g., “br”), will update
the DNS information with a new record to delegate the relative resolution.
This may be obtained by a regular expression that matches the initial part
of the URN (e.g., “urn:lex:br”) and redirects towards the proper zone (e.g.,
“lex.senado.gov.br”).Likewisetheinstitution responsibleforthecountry uni-
form names (e.g., “urn:lex:br”) has the task of managing the relative root in
the DNS system (e.g., “lex.senado.gov.br” zone) and routing the resolution
towardsitsresolversonthebasisofpartsoftheuniformnames.Insimilarway
itcandelegatetheresolutionofcountrysub-levels(e.g.,“urn:lex:br;sao.paolo”)
towards the relative zone (e.g., “lex.sao-paolo.gov.br”). At the end of the
delegation chain routing, the address of the resolution service is provided
and this service gives back thenetwork addresses (URLs) of the items. The
resolutionserviceisbasedontwomain elements:aknowledgebase(consist-
AURNStandardforLegalDocumentOntology:aBestPracticeintheItalianSenate
61
ing inacatalogueorasetoftransformation rules)andasoftwareto querythe
knowledgebaseitself.
9.1. C
ATALOGUES FOR
R
ESOLUTION
The architecture of the catalogue of resolution has to take into account that
incompleteness and inaccuracy are rather frequent in legal citations, and in-
complete or inaccurate uniform names of the referred document are thus
likely tobebuiltfromtextualreferences(thisisevenmorefrequent iftheyare
created automatically through aspecificparser).Bycontrastwithsystemsthat
can be constructed around rigorous and enforceable engineering premises,
such asDNS, the LEX resolverwill be expected to cope with a widevariety
of “dirty” inputs, particularly those created by the automated extraction of
references from incomplete or inaccurate texts. In this document, the result
is a particular emphasis on a flexible and robust resolver design. For these
reasons, the implementation of a catalogue, based on a relational-database,
is suggested, as it will lead to a more higher flexibility in the resolution
process as partial match. In addition thecataloguemust manage the aliases,
thevariousversionsandlanguagesofthesamesourceoflawaswellasthere-
lated manifestations.It is suggested that each enacting authority implements
itsown catalogue,assigning a corresponding unambiguousuniform name to
each resource.
9.2. S
UGGESTED
R
ESOLVER
B
EHAVIOUR
First of all the resolution process should implement a normalization of the
uniform name to be resolved. This may involve transforming some compo-
nents to the canonical form (e.g., filling out the acronyms, expanding the
abbreviations,unifying theinstitution names, standardizing thetype of mea-
sures, etc.). For this function the registers of names and authorities organi-
zation, including validity time span, as well as the registers of the types of
measure are useful. The resolver should then query the catalogue search-
ing for the URN which corresponds exactly to the given one (normalized
ifnecessary).Sincethenamescoming fromthereferencesmay beinaccurate
or incomplete, an iterative, heuristic approach (based on partial matches) is
suggested.Itisworth remarking thatincompletereferences(notincludingall
the elements to create the canonical uniform name) are normal and natural;
forahuman reader,thereferencewouldbe“completed”by contextualunder-
standinggivenbytheincludingdocument.Lackingmorespecificindications,
the resolver should select the best (most recent) version of the requested
source of law, and provide all the manifestations with their related items.
Amorespecificindication intheuniformnametoberesolved will,ofcourse,
result in amoreselectiveretrieval,based on any suggested expression and/or
manifestationscomponents(e.g. date,language,format,etc.).
62
E.Francesconi,C.Marchetti,R.Pietramala,P.Spinosa
10. URNstandard withintheItalianSenate
URN:LEX standard has stemmed from the experience of the Italian legisla-
tiveXMLproject NormeInRete(NIR).Thefeasibilitystudyofsuch aproject
was launched in 1999, while the real implementation of the system started
in 2001. A URN naming convention for legal resources was in particular
defined, in terms of a URN:NIR namespace, whose structure shares, with
theURN:LEXstandard, principles,characteristicsand identification compo-
nents, therefore it can be considered an ante-litteram implementation of the
URN:LEX naming convention.Due to theserelationships achangefrom the
NIR to the LEX more general namespace is straightforward and can be au-
tomatically implemented.Currently within theItalian SenateoftheRepublic
Web site,aURN:NIRstandard is implemented to identify thefollowing type
of documents: Assembly reports, Assembly agenda, Committee reports and
minutes, Bills, Bill relations, Bill preambles, “Iter Legis” cards, Questions
and answers reports. A transparent identifier for the previously mentioned
types of documents are constructed, starting from the formal parameters of
theacts.Herebelowaresomeexamples:
Assemblyreportn.365ofthe XVILegislature
urn:nir:senato.repubblica;assemblea:resoconto:16.legislatura;365
Assemblyagendaof15April2010
urn:nir:senato.repubblica;assemblea:ordine.giorno:2010-04-15
Committeereportn.259ofthe XVILegislature
urn:nir:senato.repubblica;commissioni:bollettino:16.legislatura;259
Billn.1880oftheXVILegislature
urn:nir:senato.repubblica:disegno.legge:16.legislatura;1880
Relation(template A)totheBilln. 1880oftheXVILegislature
urn:nir:senato.repubblica:disegno.legge;relazione:16.legislatura;1880-a
Approvedpreambletothe Billn.1880oftheXVILegislature
urn:nir:senato.repubblica:disegno.legge;approvato:16.legislatura;1880
IterLegiscardbetweenchambers,n. 1880ofthe XVILegislature
urn:senato-it:parl:ddl:senato;16.legislatura;1880
11. Atool forautomaticlegalreferencesmark-up within theItalian
SenateWeb site
Alegal text may contain lots of references to other documents which are
described using the related URN, so that references can be transformed in
effective links when documents are published on the Web. Information for
URNconstruction is usually contained in citations(for example thecitation:
“Act 24 November 1999, No. 468” generates the following URN-NIR urn:
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested