Contractual nature conservation (Vertragsnaturschutz)
Voluntary contractual agreements on the priority implementation of nature conser-
vation objectives in the European Union. The agreements are entered into between
the environmental agency and landowners or farmers and generally apply to very
speciﬁc conservation measures aimed at the conservation of concrete areas particu-
larly worthy of conservation (for example speciﬁc conservation areas). Manage-
ment practices are agreed on with the landowner or farmer and he is paid for their
implementation. The borderline between these and the agri-environmental programs
is hazy. The only categorical distinction that is currently made is that contractual
conservation measures are not directly embedded in the CAP, that is, they are not
co-funded by the European Union. This gives the agencies more ﬂexibility in drawing
up the agreements.
➜ Agri-environmental programs, European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development
(EAFRD), Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (CAP), Natura 2000
In the English-speaking countries, the ‘currency’ used in the context of some PES,
determined by a deﬁned procedure.
➜ Certiﬁcate, Emissions trading
The potential displacement of intrinsic motivation by external incentives. If the
external incentive is lost, the behavior originally displayed gladly and voluntarily is
reduced as well. The opposite effect is called crowding in.
➜ Intrinsic motivation
A stakeholder who is prepared to pay for the protection and provision or enhance-
ment of ecosystem services and biodiversity within the framework of PES. Generic
term for buyer and ﬁnancier.
➜ Beneﬁciary, Buyer, Financier, Intermediary, Service provider, Supplier
Directive on Flora, Fauna and Habitats
Nature conservation directive of the European Union designed to maintain and pro-
tect wild animal and plant species and their habitats and the Europe-wide network-
ing of such habitats (Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conserva-
tion of natural habitats and of wild fauna and ﬂora). For this purpose, speciﬁc areas
are chosen according to uniform EU-wide standards and placed under protection.
➜ Natura 2000, Birds Directive
Ecological ﬁnancial compensation
Local agencies in Germany derive a large part of their revenues from the municipal
equalization fund. Population is currently used as one of the main indicators for the
Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (CAP)
The comprehensive monitoring and ﬁnancing instrument for environmental
protection in and with agriculture in the European Union. The CAP consists of
two ‘pillars’: Income support measures for farmers are funded in the ﬁrst pillar.
In the second, rural development and the positive impacts of agriculture on the
environment and landscape are promoted, in part through agri-environmental
programs and the EAFRD.
➜ Agri-environmental programs, European Agricultural Fund for Rural Develop-
ment (EAFRD), Contractual nature conservation
Describes a good from whose consumption nobody can be excluded or someone
can be excluded only with disproportionate effort. At the same time there is
rivalry between the beneﬁciaries, since consumption by one impedes or prevents
consumption by another. Classic examples are overcrowded public streets or
accessible, non-regulated ﬁsh stocks. (also referred to as common-pool resource,
common property resource)
➜ Public good
Requirement that the service paid for in a PES is actually provided and/or that
obligations and measures are actually carried out.
➜ Additionality, Leakage
Stockpiling of the means to compensate for impacts that threaten the habitat of
endangered animal and plant species. The legal basis is the Endangered Species
Act, which contains speciﬁc provisions for restoring destroyed habitats. Impor-
tant habitats for endangered species are restored or created and maintained
on permanently protected areas. These activities have to speciﬁcally serve as
compensation measures. Project developers committed to undertaking compen-
sation measures elsewhere in the course of the approval procedure can fall back
on such measures in the form of credits. (also referred to as Endangered Species
➜ Credit, Eingriffs-Ausgleichsregelung, Endangered Species Act, Flächenagentur,
Habitat Banking, Mitigation Bank
Contractual agreement under which a landowner voluntarily and as a rule indeﬁ-
nitely waives certain rights of use (primarily construction, conversion, intensive
farming). He remains the owner, however, so in the case of sale or inheritance the
easement passes to the new owner. A conservation easement can be donated or
Flächen agenturen (land agencies) in Germany. Any change in the form or use of
land that may signiﬁcantly or permanently affect the performance of the ecosystem
or landscape is considered an impact (§§ 14 et seq. BNatSchG).
➜ Conservation Bank, Flächenagentur, Habitat Banking, Mitigation Bank, Produk-
tionsintegrierte Kompensationsmaßnahmen (PIK)
Environmental instrument for reducing pollutant emissions wherever they can be
reduced at the lowest possible cost. For this purpose, a maximum total quantity of
certain emissions within a speciﬁc geographical area and over a certain period of
time is determined at the political level. On the basis of this upper limit, certiﬁcates
or credits are awarded entitling the holder to dispose of a certain quantity of the
pollutant. The certiﬁcates or credits are then freely tradable, with the price thus
being determined market-based by the corresponding demand. (also referred to as
cap and trade)
➜ Certiﬁcate, Credit
Endangered Species Act (ESA)
US law on endangered animal and plant species, the aim of which is to prevent the
extinction of endangered species and to conserve the stocks. Any species which
is in danger of extinction throughout all or a signiﬁcant portion of its range is con-
sidered to be endangered. Any species which is likely to become an endangered
species within the foreseeable future is considered threatened.
European Agricultural Fund for rural Development (EAFrD)
Fund to promote the development of rural areas in the European Union, through
which many incentive programs are funded. The objectives are to improve protec-
tion of the environment and animals in the landscape as well as to increase the
competitiveness of the agricultural and forestry sector and the quality of life in
rural areas through the promotion of innovative regional projects, among other
measures. Implemented locally by the member states. In Germany it is the respon-
sibility of the federal states.
➜ Agri-environmental schemes, Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union
(CAP), Contractual nature conservation
Refers to the impact of economic activities (e.g. production or consumption) on
third parties, usually not taken into account when economic decisions are made.
Negative externalities include all effects harming uninvolved third parties. Positive
externalities refer to activities that beneﬁt third parties. (also referred to external
distribution of ﬁnancial resources. The concept of ecological ﬁnancial compen-
sation provides for greater consideration of environmental services in providing
incentives to municipalities to give greater consideration to nature conservation
concerns. For example, protected areas could be used as an indicator for munici-
pal ﬁnancial compensation.
A complex and dynamic interplay between living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic)
components, characterized by synergetic interactions within the system and with
➜ Biodiversity, Ecosystem service
Direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human well-being. Distinctions
are currently drawn between provisioning, regulating and cultural services.
➜ Biodiversity, Ecosystem
Measure of operative effect. Describes the degree of target achievement or the
ratio of achieved target to deﬁned target, regardless of the expenditure.
Measure of proﬁtability. Describes the ratio of the cost of achieving the deﬁned
objective to the beneﬁt achieved (cost-beneﬁt ratio). There are two criteria of
economic efﬁciency: Static efﬁciency means the objective is achieved at the
lowest possible cost. In terms of dynamic efﬁciency, however, the question is
whether or not incentives are provided to accelerate the achievement of the ob-
jectives so that the goal is reached at a lower cost or exceeded at the same cost.
If dynamic efﬁciency is present, it leads to (further) development of services and
institutions and to product and process innovations.
Eingriffs-Ausgleichsregelung (Impact Mitigation regulation)
Environmental policy instrument in Germany designed to preclude or minimize
project-related impacts on nature and landscape and to offset unavoidable
impacts through nature conservation measures. The process follows a level
check to ﬁrst distinguish avoidable from unavoidable impacts. Unavoidable
adverse effects must be offset through compensation or substitution measures.
Compensation measures take place in the spatial and functional context, while
substitution measures are usually non-functional, but ‘equivalent’ measures
in the spatial context and only in difﬁcult cases not in the spatial context. The
equal status of the two options in the current legislation forms the basis for the
Proxy for an object or state that cannot be directly observed or that can be measured
only at considerable expense. A variable is used that is comparatively easy to meas-
ure and has a close and scientiﬁcally proven connection with the object or state to
be mapped. For example, certain plant species (called indicator species) are used to
demonstrate changes in the provision of ecosystem services.
➜ Output-based payment
Payment is made for the implementation of a given management action, not for
the measurable change with regard to the provision or enhancement of ecosystem
services and biodiversity. (also referred to as measure-oriented payment)
➜ Output-based payment
One who supports the emergence of PES by mediating between service providers
and beneﬁciaries in one way or another and ensures the smooth functioning of the
exchange of payments in the course of implementation. (also referred to as agent or
➜ Beneﬁciary, Buyer, Customer, Financier, Service provider, Supplier
The desire or intention to perform a certain action because the action itself is fun, in-
teresting or satisfying. Hence the motivation arises from the action itself. In contrast,
extrinsic motivation is fed by external incentives; the idea is to bring about positive
consequences or to avoid negative consequences. (also referred to as primary
➜ Crowding out
Invitation to tender
A good or a service is purchased by a contracting agency. The agency deﬁnes exactly
what it wants to buy and asks bidders for appropriate tenders. The bidders describe
what concrete service they can provide and specify at what price they are willing
to carry out the necessary measures. The selection among bidders is based on the
lowest offers. The term ‘reverse auction’ is often used in the literature as well. (also
referred to as solicitation process)
Landschaftspﬂegeverband (Landcare Association)
Voluntary alliance of nature conservation, agriculture, and local politics representa-
tives in a non-proﬁt association with the aim of jointly establishing and preserving
natural landscapes. The umbrella organization is the German Association for Land-
care (DVL) e.V.
A stakeholder who pays for the provision of ecosystem services or for the protec-
tion and enhancement of biodiversity in a PES but is not the actual beneﬁciary.
Thus the ﬁnancier is an intermediary who pays on behalf of the beneﬁciaries (for
example, a government stakeholder who ﬁnances the conservation and develop-
ment of biodiversity on behalf of the general public).
➜ Supplier, Intermediary, Buyer, Service provider, Customer, Beneﬁciary
Flächenagentur (land agency)
Service provider between project developers, landowners and land users within
the framework of the statutory Eingriffs-Ausgleichsregelung. The Flächenagen-
turen provide suitable ﬁelds (through land purchase, exchange or lease) and
develop so-called Flächenpools (land pools) or Ökokonten (green accounts).
These ﬁelds or the measures implemented there in advance are made available
to project developers with compensation obligations. The Flächenagenturen
look after the land in the long term and assist in the implementation of the
➜ Conservation Bank, Eingriffs-Ausgleichsregelung, Habitat Banking, Mitigation
Bank, Produktionsintegrierte Kompensationsmaßnahmen (PIK)
Generic term for roads, rail, water supply, sewer system and other technical
➜ Green infrastructure
Natural and semi-natural areas with different environmental characteristics that
are strategically planned, created and managed with a view to the provision
of various ecosystem services. The concept of green infrastructure is meant to
encourage conscious consideration of natural processes and ecosystem services
in land use planning and territorial development.
➜ Gray infrastructure
Characterizes the biosphere in which an animal or plant naturally occurs.
Generic term for environmental/economic tools used to compensate for harmful
impacts on nature or certain ecosystems and habitats, that is, in which trade in
compensation measures takes place.
➜ Conservation Bank, Eingriffs-Ausgleichsregelung, Flächenagentur, Mitigation
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested