Evolution, Adaptation and Yield (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Universi-
ty Press, 1993), pp. 242–44.
8. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1; Margriet F. Caswell et al., Agricultural
Biotechnology: An Economic Perspective (Washington, DC: USDA, ERS,
1998), p. 19; Kenneth G. Cassman and Adam J. Liska, “Food and Fuel for
All: Realistic or Foolish?” Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, vol. 1,
no. 1 (2007), pp. 18–23.
9. World Food Prize Foundation, “A World-Brand Name: Yuan Longping,
The Father of Hybrid Rice,” at www.worldfoodprize.org/laureates/yuan-
spotlight.htm, viewed 15 July 2009.
10. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1; FAO, FAOSTAT, electronic database, at
faostat.fao.org, updated June 2009.
11. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1.
12. IFA, IFADATA, op. cit. note 5; IFA, Country Reports, op. cit. note 5, pp.
8, 19, 21; USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1; USDA, National Agricultural Sta-
tistics Service (NASS), Crop Production 2008 Summary (Washington,
DC: January 2009), p. 5.
13. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1.
14. Lester R. Brown, Eco-Economy (New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
2001), pp. 145–46; Thomas R. Sinclair, “Limits to Crop Yield?” in Amer-
ican Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Sci-
ence Society of America, Physiology and Determination of Crop Yield
(Madison, WI: 1994), pp. 509–32; USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1.
15. U.N. Population Division, op. cit. note 3; World Bank, “Malawi, Fertiliz-
er Subsidies and the World Bank,” at web.worldbank.org, viewed 14 July
2008; Celia W. Dugger, “Ending Famine, Simply by Ignoring the Experts,”
New York Times, 2 December 2007; USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1.
16. Ben Block, “African Leaders Pursue ‘Malawi Miracle’,” Eye on Earth, at
www.worldwatch.org, 26 May 2009.
17. USDA, op. cit. note 12, pp. 5, 13.
18. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1; 1950 data from USDA, in Worldwatch Insti-
tute, Signposts 2001, CD-ROM (Washington, DC: 2001).
19. Jorge Sanchez and Jiang Junyang, China Grain and Feed Annual 2009
(Beijing: USDA, March 2009); USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1.
20. A. Govindian, India Grain and Feed Annual 2009 (New Delhi: USDA, Feb-
ruary 2009); USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1; U.N. Population Division, op.
cit. note 3.
21. Richard Magleby, “Soil Management and Conservation,” in USDA, Agri-
cultural Resources and Environmental Indicators 2003 (Washington, DC:
February 2003), Chapter 4.2, p. 14.
22. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1; Randall D. Schnepf et al., Agriculture in
Brazil and Argentina (Washington, DC: USDA ERS, 2001), pp. 8–10.
23. Pedro Sanchez, “The Climate Change–Soil Fertility–Food Security
Nexus,” summary note (Bonn: IFPRI, 4 September 2001).
24. Edward Cody, “Chinese Lawmakers Approve Measure to Protect Private
Property Rights,” Washington Post, 17 March 2007; Jim Yardley, “China
Nears Passage of Landmark Property Law,” New York Times, 9 March
2007; Zhu Keliang and Roy Prosterman, “From Land Rights to Econom-
ic Boom,” China Business Review, July–August 2006.
25. Land productivity from USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1, with pre-1961 data
Notes: chapter 9
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, “Table
C.1. GDP and Other Major NIPA Aggregates,” in Survey of Current
Business, September 2005, p. D–48.
74. H. E. Dregne and Nan-Ting Chou, “Global Desertification Dimensions
and Costs,” in H. E. Dregne, ed., Degradation and Restoration of Arid
Lands (Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech. University, 1992); restoring rangelands
from UNEP, op. cit. note 63, pp. 73–92.
75. Balmford et al., op. cit. note 52.
76. World Parks Congress, Recommendations, op. cit. note 63, pp. 17–19;
World Parks Congress, “The Durban Accord,” op. cit. note 63.
77. Irrigated cropland from FAO, ResourceSTAT, electronic database, at
faostat.fao.org, updated April 2009.
78. Jordan from Tom Gardner-Outlaw and Robert Engelman, Sustaining
Water, Easing Scarcity: A Second Update (Washington, DC: Population
Action International, 1997); Mexico from Sandra Postel, Last Oasis (New
York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1997), pp. 150–51.
79. Sandra Postel, Pillar of Sand (New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1999), pp. 230–35; Mexico from Postel, op. cit. note 78, pp. 167–68.
Chapter 9. Feeding Eight Billion People Well
1. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Production, Supply and Distrib-
ution (PS&D), electronic database, at www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline,
updated 12 May 2009; USDA, Feedgrains Database, electronic database at
www.ers.usda.gov/Data/feedgrains, updated 19 May 2009.
2. U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), “FAO-OECD to Weigh
Investments Against Hunger,” press release (Rome: 4 May 2009);
Shenggen Fan and Mark W. Rosegrant, Investing in Agriculture to Over-
come the World Food Crisis and Reduce Poverty and Hunger (Washing-
ton, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), June 2008).
3. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1; U.N. Population Division, World Population
Prospects, The 2008 Revision Population Database, electronic database,
at esa.un.org/unpp, updated 11 March 2009.
4. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1.
5. Historical data compiled by Worldwatch Institute from FAO, Fertilizer
Yearbook (Rome: various years), and by Earth Policy Institute from Inter-
national Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA), IFADATA, electronic data-
base at www.fertilizer.org/ifa/ifadata/search, retrieved 3 February 2009;
current data from Patrick Heffer, Medium-Term Outlook for World Agri-
culture and Fertilizer Demand 2007/08 – 2012/13 (Paris: IFA, June 2008),
p. 34, and from IFA, Fertilizer Consumption 2007/08 – 2012/13 Country
Reports (Paris: June 2008), pp. 8, 19, 21.
6. Irrigation data for 1950–60 compiled from Lester R. Brown, “Eradicating
Hunger: A Growing Challenge,” in Lester R. Brown et al., State of the
World 2001 (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001), pp. 52–53; data
for 1961–2007 from FAO, ResourceSTAT, electronic database at
faostat.fao.org, updated April 2009.
7. Lester R. Brown, Increasing World Food Output: Problems and Prospects,
Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 25 (Washington, DC: USDA,
Economic Research Service (ERS), 1965), pp. 13–14; L. T. Evans, Crop
Notes: chapters 8 and 9
40. FAO, op. cit. note 10.
41. FAO, FISHSTAT Plus, electronic database, at www.fao.org, updated Feb-
ruary 2009; Naylor et al., op. cit. note 39.
42. FAO, op. cit. note 41; Taija-Riitta Tuominen and Maren Esmark, Food for
Thought: The Use of Marine Resources in Fish Feed (Oslo: WWF-Nor-
way, 2003); Rosamond Naylor and Marshall Burke, “Aquaculture and
Ocean Resources: Raising Tigers of the Sea,” Annual Review of Envi-
ronmental Resources, vol. 30 (November 2005), pp. 185–218.
43. FAO, op. cit. note 41.
44. S. F. Li, “Aquaculture Research and Its Relation to Development in
China,” in World Fish Center, Agricultural Development and the Oppor-
tunities for Aquatic Resources Research in China (Penang, Malaysia:
2001), p. 26; FAO, op. cit. note 41.
45. FAO, op. cit. note 10; FAO, op. cit. note 41.
46. Naylor et al., op. cit. note 39; W. C. Nandeesha et al., “Breeding of Carp
with Oviprim,” in Indian Branch, Asian Fisheries Society, India, Special
Publication No. 4 (Mangalore, India: 1990), p. 1.
47. “Mekong Delta to Become Biggest Aquatic Producer in Vietnam,” Viet-
nam News Agency, 3 August 2004; “The Mekong Delta Goes Ahead with
the WTO,” Vietnam Economic News Online, 8 June 2007; FAO, op. cit.
48. Naylor et al., op. cit. note 39; FAO, op. cit. note 41; USDA, NASS, Catfish
Production (Washington, DC: 30 January 2009), pp. 17–20; U.N. Popula-
tion Division, op. cit. note 3.
49. USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service, Oilseeds: World Markets and Trade
(Washington, DC: May 2009).
50. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1.
51. Historical data from USDA, in Worldwatch Institute, op. cit. note 18;
USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1.
52. FAO, op. cit. note 10.
53. S. C. Dhall and Meena Dhall, “Dairy Industry—India’s Strength in Its
Livestock,” Business Line, Internet Edition of Financial Daily, Hindu
group of publications, 7 November 1997; see also Surinder Sud, “India Is
Now World’s Largest Milk Producer,” India Perspectives, May 1999, pp.
25–26; A. Banerjee, “Dairying Systems in India,” World Animal Review,
vol. 79, no. 2 (1994).
54. FAO, op. cit. note 10; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. note 3.
55. Dhall and Dhall, op. cit. note 53; Banerjee, op. cit. note 53; FAO, op. cit.
56. John Wade, Adam Branson, and Xiang Qing, China Grain and Feed
Annual Report 2002 (Beijing: USDA, 2002); Gao Tengyun, “Treatment
and Utilization of Crop Straw and Stover in China,” Livestock Research
for Rural Development, February 2000.
57. USDA, ERS, “China’s Beef Economy: Production, Marketing, Consump-
tion, and Foreign Trade,” International Agriculture and Trade Reports:
China (Washington, DC: July 1998), p. 28.
58. FAO, op. cit. note 10; FAO, op. cit. note 41; U.N. Population Division,
op. cit. note 3.
59. U.N. Population Division, op. cit. note 3; China’s economic growth from
International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Economic Outlook Data-
Notes: chapter 9
from USDA, in Worldwatch Institute, op. cit. note 18; water requirements
for grain production from FAO, Yield Response to Water (Rome: 1979).
26. Water use from I. A. Shiklomanov, “Assessment of Water Resources and
Water Availability in the World,” Report for the Comprehensive Assess-
ment of the Freshwater Resources of the World (St. Petersburg, Russia:
State Hydrological Institute, 1998), cited in Peter H. Gleick, The World’s
Water 2000–2001 (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2000), p. 53; Sandra Pos-
tel and Amy Vickers, “Boosting Water Productivity,” in Worldwatch Insti-
tute, State of the World 2004 (New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
2004), pp. 51–52.
27. Wang Shucheng, discussion with author, Beijing, May 2004.
28. FAO, Crops and Drops (Rome: 2002), p. 17; Alain Vidal, Aline Comeau,
and Hervé Plusquellec, Case Studies on Water Conservation in the
Mediterranean Region (Rome: FAO, 2001), p. vii.
29. Postel and Vickers, op. cit. note 26, p. 53.
30. Sandra Postel et al., “Drip Irrigation for Small Farmers: A New Initiative
to Alleviate Hunger and Poverty,” Water International, March 2001, pp.
32. “Punjab’s Depleting Groundwater Stagnates Agricultural Growth,”
Down to Earth, vol. 16, no. 5 (30 July 2007).
33. R. Maria Saleth and Arial Dinar, Water Challenge and Institutional
Response: A Cross-Country Perspective (Washington, DC: World Bank,
1999), p. 6; Comisión Nacional del Agua (CONAGUA), National Water
Program 2007–2012 (Coyoacán, Mexico: February 2008), p. 71.
34. World Bank and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Sum-
mary Report, Middle East and North Africa Regional Water Initiative
Workshop on Sustainable Groundwater Management, Sana’a, Yemen,
25–28 June 2000, p. 19; Mei Xie, senior water resources specialist, World
Bank Institute, e-mail to J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy Institute, 10 July
35. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1; Cynthia Guven and Sherif Ibrahim, Egypt
Grain and Feed Annual 2009 (Cairo: USDA, March 2009); “Rice Cropped
for Water,” China Daily, 9 January 2002; National Bureau of Statistics
of China, Statistical Data, electronic database, at www.stats.gov.cn/
english/statisticaldata/yearlydata, viewed 9 June 2009.
36. U.N. Population Division, op. cit. note 3; USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1;
water calculation based on 1,000 tons of water for 1 ton of grain from
FAO, op. cit. note 25.
37. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1.
38. FAO, 1948–1985 World Crop and Livestock Statistics (Rome: 1987); FAO,
op. cit. note 10; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. note 3.
39. Conversion ratio for feed-to-poultry derived from data in Robert V. Bish-
op et al., The World Poultry Market—Government Intervention and Mul-
tilateral Policy Reform (Washington, DC: USDA, 1990); beef based on
Allen Baker, Feed Situation and Outlook staff, ERS, USDA, discussion
with author, 27 April 1992; pork from Leland Southard, Livestock and
Poultry Situation and Outlook staff, ERS, USDA, discussion with author,
27 April 1992; fish from Rosamond Naylor et al., “Effect of Aquaculture
on World Fish Supplies,” Nature, vol. 405 (29 June 2000), pp. 1,017–24.
Notes: chapter 9
Crisis,” Scientific American, June 2009, pp. 54–59.
72. Program for Appropriate Technology in Health and U.N. Population
Fund, Meeting the Need: Strengthening Family Planning Programs (Seat-
tle, WA: 2006), pp. 5–11.
73. Author’s calculations from USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1; U.N. Population
Division, op. cit. note 3.
74. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. note 3;
FAO, FAOSTAT, electronic database at faostat.fao.org, updated May
75. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, “Total
Health Expenditure per Capita, US$ PPP,” in OECD Health Data 2008 –
Frequently Requested Data, at www.oecd.org, December 2008; FAO, op.
cit. note 59.
76. Gidon Eshel and Pamela A. Martin, “Diet, Energy, and Global Warming,”
Earth Interactions, vol. 10, no. 9 (April 2006), pp. 1–17.
77. Poultry from data in Bishop et al., op. cit. note 39; beef from Baker, op.
cit. note 39; fish from Naylor et al., op. cit. note 39.
78. Land area estimate from Stanley Wood, Kate Sebastian, and Sara J.
Scherr, Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems: Agroecosystems (Washing-
ton, DC: IFPRI and World Resources Institute, 2000), p. 3.
79. Yields from USDA, NASS, Agricultural Statistics 2008 (Washington, DC:
2008), pp. I-21, III-16.
80. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. note 1; USDA, Feedgrains Database, op. cit. note 1;
U.N. Population Division, op. cit. note 3.
81. Money going to land acquisitions from Joachim von Braun, IFPRI, cited
in Joe DeCapua, “Food Crisis Triggers Land Grab in Developing Coun-
tries,” Voice of America News, 29 April 2009.
Chapter 10. Can We Mobilize Fast Enough?
1. Peter Goldmark, Environmental Defense Fund, e-mail to author, 28 June
2. Lester R. Brown, “Could Food Shortages Bring Down Civilization?” Sci-
entific American, May 2009, pp. 50–57.
3. Mohammad Yunus and Karl Weber, Creating a World Without Poverty
(New York: PublicAffairs, 2008), p. 105.
4. Øystein Dahle, discussion with author, State of the World Conference,
Aspen, CO, 22 July 2001.
5. Norway, Costa Rica, and the Maldives from U.N. Environment Pro-
gramme (UNEP), Climate Neutral Network, “Countries,” at
www.unep.org/climateneutral, viewed 24 June 2009; Olivia Lang, “Mal-
dives Vows to be First Carbon-neutral Nation,” Reuters, 15 March 2009.
6. UNEP, “UNEP Unveils the Climate Neutral Network to Catalyze a Tran-
sition to a Low Carbon World” press release (Nairobi: Climate Neutral
Network, 21 February 2008).
7. Redefining Progress, “The Economists’ Statement on Climate Change,”
at www.rprogress.org/publications/1997/econstatement.htm, viewed 26
8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Sustaining State Programs
for Tobacco Control: Data Highlights 2006 (Atlanta, GA: 2006).
9. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, “State Cigarette Excise Tax Rank and
Notes: chapters 9 and 10
base, at www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo, updated April 2009; FAO,
FAOSTAT, electronic database at faostat.fao.org, updated 30 June 2007.
60. Lisa McLaughlin, “Inner-City Farms,” Time, 4 August 2008; Caryn
Rousseau, “More Schools Cultivate Learning in Student Gardens,” Asso-
ciated Press, 17 November 2008; USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service,
“Farmers Market Growth: 1994–2008,” at www.ams.usda.gov, updated 22
61. Historical trend from Carolyn Dimitri, Anne Effland, and Neilson Con-
klin, The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agriculture and Farm Pol-
icy (Washington, DC: USDA, ERS, June 2005), p. 5; USDA, NASS, 2007
Census of Agriculture (Washington, DC: February 2009), pp. 7, 64,
110–11; Andrew Martin, “Farm Living (Subsidized by a Job Elsewhere),”
New York Times, 8 February 2009.
62. Martin, op. cit. note 61; USDA, op. cit. note 61, pp. 52, 66–67.
63. Marian Burros, “Obamas to Plant Vegetable Garden at White House,”
New York Times, 20 March 2009; Michael Pollan, “Farmer in Chief,”
New York Times Magazine, 12 October 2008.
64. Cristina Milesi et al., “Mapping and Modeling the Biogeochemical
Cycling of Turf Grasses in the United States,” Environmental Manage-
ment, vol. 36, no. 3 (19 July 2005), pp. 426–38.
65. McLaughlin, op. cit. note 60; “Digging Their Way Out of Recession,” The
Economist, 26 February 2009; Adrian Higgins, “Community Gardens
Need Room to Grow,” Washington Post, 14 February 2008.
66. USDA, op. cit. note 60; current total from Joan Shaffer, USDA, Agricul-
tural Marketing Service, discussion with J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy
Institute, 13 May 2009; Valerie Bauman, “More Farmers Markets to
Accept Food Stamps,” Associated Press, 26 August 2008.
67. Rousseau, op. cit. note 60; Mary MacVean, “Maria Shriver Says Edible
Garden Will Be Planted in Capitol Park Flower Bed,” Los Angeles Times,
27 March 2009.
68. Marian Burros, “Supermarket Chains Narrow Their Sights,” New York
Times, 6 August 2008; “Digging Their Way Out of Recession,” op. cit.
69. Rich Pirog and Andrew Benjamin, Checking the Food Odometer: Com-
paring Food Miles for Local Versus Conventional Produce Sales to Iowa
Institutions (Ames, IA: Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Iowa
State University, July 2003); Michael Pollan, In Defense of Food (New
York: The Penguin Group, 2008), pp. 157–58; Marc Xuereb, Food Miles:
Environmental Implications of Food Imports to Waterloo Region(Water-
loo, ON: Region of Waterloo Public Health, November 2005); Erika
Engelhaupt, “Do Food Miles Matter?” Environmental Science and Tech-
nology Online, at pubs.acs.org, 16 April 2008.
70. “The Environment: Not on the Label,” The Economist, 19 May 2007;
John Waples, “Tesco Turns Itself into a Green Giant,” Sunday Times
(London), 31 May 2009; Tesco PLC, “Tesco Wins Green ‘Gold Standard’
Award,” press release (Hertfordshire, U.K.: 5 June 2009); Miles Costello,
“Tesco Reports Record £3 Billion Profit,” The Times (London), 21 April
71. Lauren Etter, “Lofty Prices for Fertilizer Put Farmers in a Squeeze,” Wall
Street Journal, 27 May 2008; David A. Vaccari, “Phosphorus: A Looming
Notes: chapter 9
ments in Tools for Integration, Environmental Issues Series No. 18
(Copenhagen: 2000); polls from David Malin Roodman, The Natural
Wealth of Nations (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1998), p. 243.
15. Redefining Progress, op. cit. note 7; N. Gregory Mankiw, “Gas Tax
Now!” Fortune, 24 May 1999, pp. 60–64.
16. Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants, Landfill Taxes and
Bans (Brussels: April 2007); Tom Miles, “London Drivers to Pay UK’s
First Congestion Tax,” Reuters, 28 February 2002; Energy Council, Ener-
gy Efficiency Policies and Indicators (London: 2001), Annex 1; “DONG
Satisfied with Electric Car Tax Relief,” Copenhagen Post, 22 May 2009;
Nick Kurczewski, “Scariest Place in the World to Buy a Car,” New York
Times Wheels Blog, 7 May 2008; Office of the Mayor, “Car Plate Prices
Climb” (Shanghai: 21 June 2009).
17. South Australian Fisheries Management Series, Management Plan for the
South Australian Southern Zone Rock Lobster Fishery (Adelaide, South
Australia: 2007); South Australian Research and Development Institute,
Southern Zone Rock Lobster (Jasus edwardsii) Fishery, assessment report
to PIRSA (Adelaide, South Australia: 2008).
18. Edwin Clark, letter to author, 25 July 2001.
19. André de Moor and Peter Calamai, Subsidizing Unsustainable Develop-
ment (San José, Costa Rica: Earth Council, 1997).
20. World Bank, World Development Report 2003 (New York: Oxford Uni-
versity Press, 2003), pp. 30, 142; IEA, World Energy Outlook 2006 (Paris:
2006), p. 279.
21. Belgium, France, and Japan from Seth Dunn, “King Coal’s Weakening
Grip on Power,” World Watch, September/October 1999, pp. 10–19; Ger-
many from UNEP, Reforming Energy Subsides: Opportunities to Con-
tribute to the Climate Change Agenda (Nairobi: 2008), and from DOE,
EIA, International Energy Annual 2006 (Washington, DC: October 2008),
Table 1.4; China, Indonesia, and Nigeria subsidy cuts from GTZ Trans-
port Policy Advisory Service, International Fuel Prices 2007 (Eschborn,
Germany: April 2007), p. 3.
22. John Whitelegg and Spencer Fitz-Gibbon, Aviation’s Economic Down-
side, 3rd ed. (London: Green Party of England & Wales, 2003); dollar
conversion based on August 2007 exchange rate in International Mone-
tary Fund, “Representative Exchange Rates for Selected Currencies in
August 2007,” Exchange Rate Archives by Month, at www.imf.org/
external, viewed 16 August 2007; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. note 14.
23. Doug Koplow, Subsidies in the U.S. Energy Sector: Magnitude, Causes,
and Options for Reform (Cambridge, MA: Earth Track, November 2006);
Doug Koplow, Earth Track, e-mail to Jessie Robbins, Earth Policy Insti-
tute, 2 July 2009.
24. Fishery subsidy value includes “bad” subsidies and fuel subsidies as esti-
mated in Fisheries Center, Catching More Bait: A Bottom-Up Re-Estima-
tion of Global Fisheries Subsidies (2nd Version) (Vancouver, BC:
University of British Columbia, 2006), p. 21.
25. Coal Moratorium NOW!, “Progress Towards a Coal Moratorium: 59
Coal Plants Cancelled or Shelved in 2007,” press release (San Francisco:
17 January 2008); Mark Clayton, “Rising Construction Costs and Poten-
tial Climate Legislation in Congress Halt at Least 18 Proposed Power
Notes: chapter 10
Ratings,” fact sheet (Washington, DC: 28 May 2009); Campaign for
Tobacco-Free Kids, “Raising Cigarette Taxes Reduces Smoking, Especial-
ly Among Kids (And the Cigarette Companies Know It),” fact sheet
(Washington, DC: 9 January 2009); Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids,
“Cigarette Tax Increases by State per Year 2000–2009,” fact sheet (Wash-
ington, DC: 28 May 2009).
10. Gasoline indirect cost calculated based on International Center for Tech-
nology Assessment (ICTA), The Real Price of Gasoline, Report No. 3
(Washington, DC: 1998), p. 34, updated using the following: ICTA, Gaso-
line Cost Externalities Associated with Global Climate Change: An
Update to CTA’s Real Price of Gasoline Report (Washington, DC: Sep-
tember 2004), ICTA, Gasoline Cost Externalities: Security and Protection
Services: An Update to CTA’s Real Price of Gasoline Report (Washington,
DC: January 2005), Terry Tamminen, Lives Per Gallon: The True Cost of
Our Oil Addiction (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2006), p. 60, and
Bureau for Economic Analysis, “Table 3—Price Indices for Gross Domes-
tic Product and Gross Domestic Purchases,” GDP and Other Major
Series, 1929–2007 (Washington, DC: August 2007); U.S. Department of
Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), This Week in
Petroleum (Washington, DC: various issues); EIA, “US Weekly Retail,”
Retail Gasoline Historical Prices (Washington, DC: 15 June 2009).
11. American Petroleum Institute, State Gasoline Tax Report (Washington
DC: 1 April 2009); DOE, EIA, “Weekly (Monday) Retail Premium Gaso-
line Prices, Selected Countries,” at www.eia.doe.gov/emeu, updated 16
June 2009; gasoline consumption from International Energy Agency
(IEA), in World Resources Institute, “Energy and Resources: Energy Con-
sumption by Source: Oil and Petroleum Products (2005),” EarthTrends
electronic database, at www.earthtrends.wri.org, updated 2007.
12. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, “Cigarette
Price Increase Follows Tobacco Pact,” Agricultural Outlook,
13. Markus Knigge and Benjamin Görlach, Effects of Germany’s Ecological
Tax Reforms on the Environment, Employment and Technological Inno-
vation: Summary of the Final Report of the Project (Berlin: Ecologic
Institute for International and European Environmental Policy, August
2005); Michael Renner, Sean Sweeney, and Jill Kubit, Green Jobs: Towards
Decent Work in a Sustainable, Low Carbon World (Nairobi: UNEP, 2008),
14. Estimate of Swedish tax shifting based on Paul Ekins and Stefan Speck,
“Environmental Tax Reform in Europe: Energy Tax Rates and Competi-
tiveness,” in Nathalie J. Chalifour et al., Critical Issues in Environmental
Taxation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 77–105; Ministry
of Finance, Sweden, “Taxation and the Environment,” press release
(Stockholm: 25 May 2005); household size from Target Group Index,
“Household Size,” Global TGI Barometer (Miami: 2005) and from U.N.
Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Pop-
ulation Database, at esa.un.org/unpp, updated 11 March 2009; Andrew
Hoerner and Benoît Bosquet, Environmental Tax Reform: The European
Experience (Washington, DC: Center for a Sustainable Economy, 2001);
European Environment Agency, Environmental Taxes: Recent Develop-
Notes: chapter 10
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested