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References and Resources ................................................................423
15.7.2. Cygwin.....................................................................................................423
15.7.3. HP-UX.....................................................................................................424
15.7.4. MinGW/Native Windows ........................................................................425
15.7.4.1. Collecting Crash Dumps on Windows ........................................425
15.7.5. SCO OpenServer and SCO UnixWare.....................................................425
15.7.5.1. Skunkware...................................................................................426
15.7.5.2. GNU Make..................................................................................426
15.7.5.3. Readline.......................................................................................426
15.7.5.4. Using the UDKon OpenServer...................................................426
15.7.5.5. Reading the PostgreSQL Man Pages...........................................426
15.7.5.6. C99 Issues with the 7.1.1b Feature Supplement.........................427
15.7.5.7. Threading on UnixWare..............................................................427
15.7.6. Solaris ......................................................................................................427
15.7.6.1. Required Tools ............................................................................427
15.7.6.2. Problems with OpenSSL.............................................................427
15.7.6.3. configure Complains About a Failed Test Program ....................428
15.7.6.4. 64-bit Build Sometimes Crashes.................................................428
15.7.6.5. Compiling for Optimal Performance...........................................428
15.7.6.6. Using DTrace for Tracing PostgreSQL.......................................428
16. Installation from Source Code on Windows.....................................................................430
16.1. Building with Visual C++ or the Microsoft Windows SDK.................................430
16.1.1. Requirements...........................................................................................431
16.1.2. Special Considerations for 64-bit Windows ............................................432
16.1.3. Building ...................................................................................................433
16.1.4. Cleaning and Installing............................................................................433
16.1.5. Running the Regression Tests..................................................................434
16.1.6. Building the Documentation....................................................................434
16.2. Building libpq with Visual C++ or Borland C++.................................................435
16.2.1. Generated Files ........................................................................................435
17. Server Setup and Operation..............................................................................................437
17.1. The PostgreSQL User Account............................................................................437
17.2. Creating a Database Cluster .................................................................................437
17.2.1. Use of Secondary File Systems................................................................438
17.2.2. Use of Network File Systems ..................................................................438
17.3. Starting the Database Server.................................................................................439
17.3.1. Server Start-up Failures ...........................................................................440
17.3.2. Client Connection Problems ....................................................................441
17.4. Managing Kernel Resources.................................................................................442
17.4.1. Shared Memory and Semaphores ............................................................442
17.4.2. Resource Limits .......................................................................................447
17.4.3. Linux Memory Overcommit....................................................................448
17.4.4. Linux huge pages.....................................................................................449
17.5. Shutting Down the Server.....................................................................................450
17.6. Upgrading a PostgreSQL Cluster.........................................................................451
17.6.1. Upgrading Data via pg_dumpall..............................................................452
17.6.2. Upgrading Data via pg_upgrade..............................................................453
17.6.3. Upgrading Data via Replication...............................................................453
17.7. Preventing Server Spoofing..................................................................................453
17.8. Encryption Options...............................................................................................454
17.9. Secure TCP/IP Connections with SSL .................................................................455
17.9.1. Using Client Certificates..........................................................................456
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17.9.2. SSL Server File Usage.............................................................................456
17.9.3. Creating a Self-signed Certificate............................................................457
17.10. Secure TCP/IP Connections with SSH Tunnels.................................................457
17.11. Registering Event Log on Windows...................................................................458
18. Server Configuration.........................................................................................................460
18.1. Setting Parameters................................................................................................460
18.1.1. Parameter Names and Values...................................................................460
18.1.2. Parameter Interaction via the Configuration File.....................................460
18.1.3. Parameter Interaction via SQL.................................................................461
18.1.4. Parameter Interaction via the Shell..........................................................462
18.1.5. Managing Configuration File Contents....................................................462
18.2. File Locations.......................................................................................................463
18.3. Connections and Authentication...........................................................................464
18.3.1. ConnectionSettings.................................................................................464
18.3.2. Securityand Authentication.....................................................................467
18.4. Resource Consumption.........................................................................................469
18.4.1. Memory....................................................................................................469
18.4.2. Disk..........................................................................................................471
18.4.3. Kernel Resource Usage............................................................................472
18.4.4. Cost-based Vacuum Delay.......................................................................472
18.4.5. Background Writer...................................................................................473
18.4.6. Asynchronous Behavior...........................................................................474
18.5. Write Ahead Log..................................................................................................474
18.5.1. Settings.....................................................................................................474
18.5.2. Checkpoints..............................................................................................478
18.5.3. Archiving.................................................................................................479
18.6. Replication............................................................................................................479
18.6.1. Sending Server(s).....................................................................................480
18.6.2. Master Server...........................................................................................480
18.6.3. Standby Servers .......................................................................................481
18.7. Query Planning.....................................................................................................483
18.7.1. Planner Method Configuration.................................................................483
18.7.2. Planner Cost Constants............................................................................484
18.7.3. Genetic Query Optimizer.........................................................................485
18.7.4. Other Planner Options..............................................................................486
18.8. Error Reporting and Logging...............................................................................487
18.8.1. Where To Log ..........................................................................................487
18.8.2. When To Log...........................................................................................490
18.8.3. What To Log............................................................................................492
18.8.4. Using CSV-Format Log Output...............................................................495
18.9. Run-time Statistics................................................................................................496
18.9.1. Query and Index Statistics Collector .......................................................496
18.9.2. Statistics Monitoring................................................................................497
18.10. Automatic Vacuuming........................................................................................498
18.11. Client Connection Defaults ................................................................................499
18.11.1. Statement Behavior................................................................................500
18.11.2. Locale and Formatting...........................................................................503
18.11.3. Shared Library Preloading.....................................................................505
18.11.4. Other Defaults........................................................................................506
18.12. Lock Management..............................................................................................507
18.13. Version and Platform Compatibility...................................................................508
18.13.1. Previous PostgreSQL Versions ..............................................................508
xii
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18.13.2. Platform and Client Compatibility.........................................................509
18.14. Error Handling....................................................................................................510
18.15. Preset Options.....................................................................................................510
18.16. CustomizedOptions ...........................................................................................511
18.17. Developer Options..............................................................................................512
18.18. Short Options......................................................................................................514
19. Client Authentication........................................................................................................516
19.1. The
pg_hba.conf
File........................................................................................516
19.2. User Name Maps..................................................................................................522
19.3. Authentication Methods .......................................................................................524
19.3.1. Trust Authentication ................................................................................524
19.3.2. Password Authentication .........................................................................524
19.3.3. GSSAPI Authentication...........................................................................524
19.3.4. SSPI Authentication.................................................................................526
19.3.5. Ident Authentication.................................................................................526
19.3.6. Peer Authentication..................................................................................527
19.3.7. LDAP Authentication..............................................................................527
19.3.8. RADIUS Authentication..........................................................................529
19.3.9. Certificate Authentication........................................................................530
19.3.10. PAM Authentication..............................................................................531
19.4. Authentication Problems ......................................................................................531
20. Database Roles..................................................................................................................533
20.1. Database Roles .....................................................................................................533
20.2. Role Attributes......................................................................................................534
20.3. Role Membership.................................................................................................535
20.4. Dropping Roles.....................................................................................................536
20.5. Function and Trigger Security..............................................................................537
21. Managing Databases .........................................................................................................538
21.1. Overview ..............................................................................................................538
21.2. Creating a Database..............................................................................................538
21.3. Template Databases..............................................................................................539
21.4. Database Configuration........................................................................................540
21.5. Destroying a Database..........................................................................................541
21.6. Tablespaces...........................................................................................................541
22. Localization.......................................................................................................................544
22.1. Locale Support......................................................................................................544
22.1.1. Overview..................................................................................................544
22.1.2. Behavior...................................................................................................545
22.1.3. Problems ..................................................................................................546
22.2. Collation Support..................................................................................................546
22.2.1. Concepts...................................................................................................546
22.2.2. Managing Collations................................................................................548
22.3. Character Set Support...........................................................................................549
22.3.1. Supported Character Sets.........................................................................549
22.3.2. Setting the Character Set..........................................................................552
22.3.3. Automatic Character Set Conversion Between Server andClient...........553
22.3.4. Further Reading .......................................................................................555
23. Routine Database Maintenance Tasks...............................................................................556
23.1. Routine Vacuuming..............................................................................................556
23.1.1. Vacuuming Basics....................................................................................556
23.1.2. Recovering DiskSpace............................................................................557
23.1.3. Updating Planner Statistics......................................................................558
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23.1.4. Updating The Visibility Map...................................................................559
23.1.5. Preventing Transaction ID Wraparound Failures.....................................559
23.1.5.1. Multixacts and Wraparound........................................................561
23.1.6. The Autovacuum Daemon.......................................................................562
23.2. Routine Reindexing..............................................................................................563
23.3. Log File Maintenance...........................................................................................564
24. Backup and Restore ..........................................................................................................566
24.1. SQL Dump............................................................................................................566
24.1.1. Restoring the Dump.................................................................................566
24.1.2. Using pg_dumpall....................................................................................567
24.1.3. Handling Large Databases .......................................................................568
24.2. File System Level Backup....................................................................................569
24.3. Continuous Archivingand Point-in-Time Recovery (PITR)................................570
24.3.1. Setting Up WAL Archiving......................................................................571
24.3.2. Making a Base Backup............................................................................573
24.3.3. Making a Base Backup Using the Low Level API ..................................574
24.3.4. Recovering Using a Continuous Archive Backup ...................................575
24.3.5. Timelines..................................................................................................577
24.3.6. Tips and Examples...................................................................................578
24.3.6.1. Standalone Hot Backups .............................................................578
24.3.6.2. Compressed Archive Logs ..........................................................579
24.3.6.3.
archive_command
Scripts ........................................................579
24.3.7. Caveats.....................................................................................................579
25. High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replication.........................................................581
25.1. Comparison of Different Solutions.......................................................................581
25.2. Log-Shipping Standby Servers.............................................................................584
25.2.1. Planning ...................................................................................................585
25.2.2. Standby Server Operation........................................................................585
25.2.3. Preparing the Master for Standby Servers...............................................586
25.2.4. Setting Up a StandbyServer....................................................................586
25.2.5. Streaming Replication..............................................................................587
25.2.5.1. Authentication.............................................................................588
25.2.5.2. Monitoring...................................................................................588
25.2.6. ReplicationSlots......................................................................................589
25.2.6.1. Querying and manipulating replication slots ..............................589
25.2.6.2. Configuration Example ...............................................................589
25.2.7. Cascading Replication .............................................................................590
25.2.8. Synchronous Replication.........................................................................590
25.2.8.1. Basic Configuration.....................................................................590
25.2.8.2. Planning for Performance............................................................591
25.2.8.3. Planning for High Availability....................................................592
25.3. Failover.................................................................................................................592
25.4. Alternative Method for Log Shipping..................................................................593
25.4.1. Implementation........................................................................................594
25.4.2. Record-based Log Shipping.....................................................................594
25.5. Hot Standby..........................................................................................................595
25.5.1. User’s Overview.......................................................................................595
25.5.2. Handling Query Conflicts........................................................................597
25.5.3. Administrator’s Overview........................................................................599
25.5.4. Hot Standby Parameter Reference...........................................................601
25.5.5. Caveats.....................................................................................................601
26. Recovery Configuration....................................................................................................603
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26.1. Archive Recovery Settings ...................................................................................603
26.2. Recovery Target Settings......................................................................................604
26.3. Standby Server Settings........................................................................................605
27. Monitoring Database Activity...........................................................................................607
27.1. Standard UnixTools.............................................................................................607
27.2. The Statistics Collector.........................................................................................608
27.2.1. Statistics Collection Configuration..........................................................608
27.2.2. Viewing Collected Statistics ....................................................................608
27.2.3. Statistics Functions ..................................................................................622
27.3. Viewing Locks......................................................................................................624
27.4. Dynamic Tracing..................................................................................................624
27.4.1. Compiling for Dynamic Tracing..............................................................625
27.4.2. Built-in Probes.........................................................................................625
27.4.3. Using Probes............................................................................................633
27.4.4. Defining New Probes...............................................................................634
28. Monitoring Disk Usage.....................................................................................................636
28.1. Determining Disk Usage ......................................................................................636
28.2. DiskFull Failure...................................................................................................637
29. Reliability and the Write-Ahead Log................................................................................638
29.1. Reliability.............................................................................................................638
29.2. Write-Ahead Logging (WAL) ..............................................................................640
29.3. Asynchronous Commit.........................................................................................640
29.4. WAL Configuration..............................................................................................642
29.5. WAL Internals ......................................................................................................644
30. Regression Tests................................................................................................................646
30.1. Running the Tests.................................................................................................646
30.1.1. Running the Tests Against a Temporary Installation...............................646
30.1.2. Running the Tests Against an Existing Installation.................................646
30.1.3. Additional Test Suites..............................................................................647
30.1.4. Locale and Encoding................................................................................647
30.1.5. Extra Tests................................................................................................648
30.1.6. Testing Hot Standby.................................................................................648
30.2. Test Evaluation.....................................................................................................649
30.2.1. Error Message Differences.......................................................................649
30.2.2. Locale Differences...................................................................................649
30.2.3. Date and Time Differences ......................................................................650
30.2.4. Floating-Point Differences.......................................................................650
30.2.5. Row Ordering Differences.......................................................................650
30.2.6. Insufficient Stack Depth...........................................................................651
30.2.7. The “random” Test...................................................................................651
30.2.8. Configuration Parameters.........................................................................651
30.3. Variant Comparison Files.....................................................................................651
30.4. TAP Tests..............................................................................................................652
30.5. Test Coverage Examination..................................................................................653
IV. Client Interfaces .......................................................................................................................654
31. libpq - C Library ...............................................................................................................656
31.1. Database Connection Control Functions..............................................................656
31.1.1. ConnectionStrings...................................................................................662
31.1.1.1. Keyword/Value Connection Strings............................................662
31.1.1.2. Connection URIs.........................................................................662
31.1.2. Parameter Key Words ..............................................................................663
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31.2. Connection Status Functions................................................................................667
31.3. Command Execution Functions ...........................................................................671
31.3.1. Main Functions ........................................................................................671
31.3.2. Retrieving QueryResult Information......................................................678
31.3.3. Retrieving Other Result Information.......................................................681
31.3.4. Escaping Strings for Inclusion in SQL Commands.................................682
31.4. Asynchronous Command Processing...................................................................685
31.5. Retrieving Query Results Row-By-Row ..............................................................689
31.6. Canceling Queries in Progress..............................................................................690
31.7. The Fast-Path Interface.........................................................................................691
31.8. Asynchronous Notification...................................................................................692
31.9. Functions Associated with the
COPY
Command..................................................693
31.9.1. Functions for Sending
COPY
Data............................................................693
31.9.2. Functions for Receiving
COPY
Data.........................................................694
31.9.3. Obsolete Functions for
COPY
...................................................................695
31.10. Control Functions...............................................................................................697
31.11. Miscellaneous Functions ....................................................................................698
31.12. Notice Processing...............................................................................................700
31.13. Event System......................................................................................................701
31.13.1. Event Types............................................................................................701
31.13.2. Event Callback Procedure......................................................................703
31.13.3. Event Support Functions........................................................................704
31.13.4. Event Example.......................................................................................705
31.14. Environment Variables .......................................................................................707
31.15. The Password File ..............................................................................................709
31.16. The Connection Service File..............................................................................709
31.17. LDAP Lookup of Connection Parameters..........................................................710
31.18. SSL Support........................................................................................................711
31.18.1. Client Verification of Server Certificates...............................................711
31.18.2. Client Certificates...................................................................................712
31.18.3. ProtectionProvided in Different Modes................................................712
31.18.4. SSL Client File Usage............................................................................714
31.18.5. SSL Library Initialization......................................................................714
31.19. Behavior in Threaded Programs.........................................................................715
31.20. Building libpq Programs.....................................................................................716
31.21. Example Programs..............................................................................................717
32. Large Objects....................................................................................................................726
32.1. Introduction..........................................................................................................726
32.2. ImplementationFeatures ......................................................................................726
32.3. Client Interfaces....................................................................................................726
32.3.1. Creating a Large Object...........................................................................727
32.3.2. Importing a Large Object.........................................................................727
32.3.3. Exporting a Large Object.........................................................................728
32.3.4. Opening an Existing Large Object...........................................................728
32.3.5. Writing Data to a Large Object................................................................728
32.3.6. ReadingData from a Large Object..........................................................729
32.3.7. Seeking in a Large Object........................................................................729
32.3.8. Obtaining the Seek Position of a Large Object........................................729
32.3.9. Truncating a Large Object .......................................................................730
32.3.10. Closing a Large Object Descriptor ........................................................730
32.3.11. Removing a Large Object......................................................................730
32.4. Server-side Functions...........................................................................................731
xvi
32.5. Example Program.................................................................................................732
33. ECPG- Embedded SQL in C............................................................................................737
33.1. The Concept..........................................................................................................737
33.2. Managing Database Connections .........................................................................737
33.2.1. Connectingto the Database Server..........................................................737
33.2.2. Choosing a Connection............................................................................738
33.2.3. Closing a Connection...............................................................................740
33.3. Running SQL Commands.....................................................................................740
33.3.1. Executing SQL Statements ......................................................................740
33.3.2. Using Cursors...........................................................................................741
33.3.3. Managing Transactions............................................................................741
33.3.4. Prepared Statements.................................................................................742
33.4. Using Host Variables............................................................................................743
33.4.1. Overview..................................................................................................743
33.4.2. Declare Sections.......................................................................................743
33.4.3. Retrieving QueryResults.........................................................................744
33.4.4. Type Mapping..........................................................................................745
33.4.4.1. HandlingCharacter Strings.........................................................746
33.4.4.2. Accessing Special Data Types.....................................................746
33.4.4.2.1. timestamp, date...............................................................747
33.4.4.2.2. interval............................................................................747
33.4.4.2.3. numeric, decimal.............................................................748
33.4.4.3. Host Variables with Nonprimitive Types ....................................749
33.4.4.3.1. Arrays .............................................................................749
33.4.4.3.2. Structures........................................................................750
33.4.4.3.3. Typedefs..........................................................................751
33.4.4.3.4. Pointers...........................................................................752
33.4.5. Handling Nonprimitive SQL Data Types.................................................752
33.4.5.1. Arrays..........................................................................................752
33.4.5.2. Composite Types.........................................................................754
33.4.5.3. User-defined Base Types.............................................................755
33.4.6. Indicators..................................................................................................757
33.5. Dynamic SQL.......................................................................................................757
33.5.1. Executing Statements without a Result Set .............................................757
33.5.2. Executing a Statement withInput Parameters.........................................757
33.5.3. Executing a Statement witha Result Set .................................................758
33.6. pgtypes Library.....................................................................................................759
33.6.1. The numeric Type ....................................................................................759
33.6.2. The date Type...........................................................................................762
33.6.3. The timestamp Type.................................................................................765
33.6.4. The interval Type.....................................................................................769
33.6.5. The decimal Type.....................................................................................769
33.6.6. errno Values of pgtypeslib .......................................................................770
33.6.7. Special Constants of pgtypeslib...............................................................771
33.7. Using Descriptor Areas ........................................................................................771
33.7.1. Named SQL Descriptor Areas .................................................................771
33.7.2. SQLDA Descriptor Areas........................................................................773
33.7.2.1. SQLDA Data Structure................................................................774
33.7.2.1.1. sqlda_t Structure.............................................................774
33.7.2.1.2. sqlvar_t Structure............................................................775
33.7.2.1.3. struct sqlname Structure .................................................776
33.7.2.2. Retrieving a Result Set Using an SQLDA ..................................776
xvii
33.7.2.3. Passing Query Parameters Using an SQLDA..............................778
33.7.2.4. A Sample Application Using SQLDA ........................................779
33.8. Error Handling......................................................................................................784
33.8.1. Setting Callbacks .....................................................................................784
33.8.2. sqlca .........................................................................................................786
33.8.3.
SQLSTATE
vs.
SQLCODE
...........................................................................788
33.9. Preprocessor Directives........................................................................................791
33.9.1. Including Files .........................................................................................791
33.9.2. The define and undef Directives ..............................................................792
33.9.3. ifdef, ifndef, else, elif, and endif Directives.............................................792
33.10. Processing Embedded SQL Programs................................................................793
33.11. Library Functions ...............................................................................................794
33.12. Large Objects......................................................................................................795
33.13. C++ Applications ...............................................................................................796
33.13.1. Scope for Host Variables........................................................................797
33.13.2. C++ Application Development with External C Module......................798
33.14. Embedded SQL Commands...............................................................................800
ALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR ...............................................................................800
CONNECT...........................................................................................................802
DEALLOCATE DESCRIPTOR..........................................................................805
DECLARE...........................................................................................................806
DESCRIBE..........................................................................................................808
DISCONNECT....................................................................................................809
EXECUTE IMMEDIATE....................................................................................811
GET DESCRIPTOR ............................................................................................812
OPEN...................................................................................................................815
PREPARE ............................................................................................................817
SET AUTOCOMMIT ..........................................................................................818
SET CONNECTION...........................................................................................819
SET DESCRIPTOR.............................................................................................820
TYPE....................................................................................................................822
VAR......................................................................................................................824
WHENEVER.......................................................................................................825
33.15. Informix Compatibility Mode ............................................................................827
33.15.1. Additional Types....................................................................................827
33.15.2. Additional/Missing Embedded SQL Statements...................................827
33.15.3. Informix-compatible SQLDA Descriptor Areas....................................828
33.15.4. Additional Functions..............................................................................831
33.15.5. Additional Constants..............................................................................839
33.16. Internals..............................................................................................................840
34. The Information Schema...................................................................................................843
34.1. The Schema..........................................................................................................843
34.2. Data Types............................................................................................................843
34.3.
information_schema_catalog_name
...........................................................844
34.4.
administrable_role_authorizations
.......................................................844
34.5.
applicable_roles
............................................................................................844
34.6.
attributes
.........................................................................................................845
34.7.
character_sets
................................................................................................849
34.8.
check_constraint_routine_usage
.............................................................850
34.9.
check_constraints
.........................................................................................850
34.10.
collations
.......................................................................................................851
34.11.
collation_character_set_applicability
............................................851
xviii
34.12.
column_domain_usage
...................................................................................852
34.13.
column_options
..............................................................................................852
34.14.
column_privileges
.......................................................................................853
34.15.
column_udt_usage
..........................................................................................853
34.16.
columns
.............................................................................................................854
34.17.
constraint_column_usage
..........................................................................859
34.18.
constraint_table_usage
.............................................................................860
34.19.
data_type_privileges
.................................................................................860
34.20.
domain_constraints
.....................................................................................861
34.21.
domain_udt_usage
..........................................................................................862
34.22.
domains
.............................................................................................................862
34.23.
element_types
................................................................................................865
34.24.
enabled_roles
................................................................................................868
34.25.
foreign_data_wrapper_options
................................................................869
34.26.
foreign_data_wrappers
...............................................................................869
34.27.
foreign_server_options
.............................................................................869
34.28.
foreign_servers
............................................................................................870
34.29.
foreign_table_options
...............................................................................870
34.30.
foreign_tables
..............................................................................................871
34.31.
key_column_usage
..........................................................................................871
34.32.
parameters
.......................................................................................................872
34.33.
referential_constraints
..........................................................................875
34.34.
role_column_grants
.....................................................................................876
34.35.
role_routine_grants
...................................................................................876
34.36.
role_table_grants
.......................................................................................877
34.37.
role_udt_grants
............................................................................................878
34.38.
role_usage_grants
.......................................................................................879
34.39.
routine_privileges
.....................................................................................879
34.40.
routines
...........................................................................................................880
34.41.
schemata
...........................................................................................................886
34.42.
sequences
.........................................................................................................886
34.43.
sql_features
..................................................................................................888
34.44.
sql_implementation_info
..........................................................................888
34.45.
sql_languages
................................................................................................889
34.46.
sql_packages
..................................................................................................890
34.47.
sql_parts
.........................................................................................................890
34.48.
sql_sizing
.......................................................................................................891
34.49.
sql_sizing_profiles
...................................................................................891
34.50.
table_constraints
.......................................................................................892
34.51.
table_privileges
..........................................................................................892
34.52.
tables
...............................................................................................................893
34.53.
triggered_update_columns
........................................................................894
34.54.
triggers
...........................................................................................................895
34.55.
udt_privileges
..............................................................................................896
34.56.
usage_privileges
..........................................................................................897
34.57.
user_defined_types
.....................................................................................898
34.58.
user_mapping_options
.................................................................................899
34.59.
user_mappings
................................................................................................900
34.60.
view_column_usage
.......................................................................................900
34.61.
view_routine_usage
.....................................................................................901
34.62.
view_table_usage
..........................................................................................902
34.63.
views
.................................................................................................................902
xix
V. Server Programming.................................................................................................................904
35. Extending SQL..................................................................................................................906
35.1. How Extensibility Works......................................................................................906
35.2. The PostgreSQL Type System..............................................................................906
35.2.1. Base Types ...............................................................................................906
35.2.2. Composite Types......................................................................................906
35.2.3. Domains...................................................................................................907
35.2.4. Pseudo-Types...........................................................................................907
35.2.5. Polymorphic Types ..................................................................................907
35.3. User-defined Functions.........................................................................................908
35.4. Query Language (SQL) Functions .......................................................................908
35.4.1. Arguments for SQL Functions.................................................................909
35.4.2. SQL Functions on Base Types.................................................................910
35.4.3. SQL Functions on Composite Types .......................................................912
35.4.4. SQL Functions with Output Parameters..................................................915
35.4.5. SQL Functions with Variable Numbers of Arguments............................916
35.4.6. SQL Functions with Default Values for Arguments................................917
35.4.7. SQL Functions as Table Sources .............................................................917
35.4.8. SQL Functions ReturningSets ................................................................918
35.4.9. SQL Functions Returning
TABLE
............................................................920
35.4.10. Polymorphic SQL Functions .................................................................921
35.4.11. SQL Functions with Collations..............................................................922
35.5. Function Overloading...........................................................................................923
35.6. Function Volatility Categories..............................................................................924
35.7. Procedural Language Functions...........................................................................925
35.8. Internal Functions.................................................................................................925
35.9. C-Language Functions..........................................................................................926
35.9.1. Dynamic Loading.....................................................................................926
35.9.2. Base Types in C-Language Functions......................................................927
35.9.3. Version 0 Calling Conventions ................................................................930
35.9.4. Version 1 Calling Conventions ................................................................932
35.9.5. Writing Code............................................................................................935
35.9.6. Compiling and Linking Dynamically-loaded Functions..........................936
35.9.7. Composite-type Arguments.....................................................................938
35.9.8. Returning Rows (Composite Types) ........................................................939
35.9.9. Returning Sets..........................................................................................941
35.9.10. Polymorphic Arguments and Return Types...........................................946
35.9.11. Transform Functions..............................................................................947
35.9.12. Shared Memory and LWLocks ..............................................................948
35.9.13. Using C++ for Extensibility...................................................................948
35.10. User-defined Aggregates ....................................................................................949
35.10.1. Moving-Aggregate Mode.......................................................................950
35.10.2. Polymorphic and Variadic Aggregates...................................................952
35.10.3. Ordered-Set Aggregates.........................................................................953
35.10.4. Support Functions for Aggregates.........................................................954
35.11. User-defined Types.............................................................................................955
35.12. User-defined Operators.......................................................................................958
35.13. Operator Optimization Information....................................................................959
35.13.1.
COMMUTATOR
..........................................................................................959
35.13.2.
NEGATOR
................................................................................................960
35.13.3.
RESTRICT
..............................................................................................961
xx
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