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CREATE LANGUAGE
Name
CREATE LANGUAGE—defineanewprocedurallanguage
Synopsis
CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE
name
CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] [ TRUSTED ] [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE
name
HANDLER
call_handler
[ INLINE
inline_handler
] [ VALIDATOR
valfunction
]
Description
CREATE LANGUAGE
registersanewprocedurallanguagewithaPostgreSQLdatabase.Subsequently,
functionsandtriggerprocedurescanbedefinedinthisnewlanguage.
Note:AsofPostgreSQL9.1,mostprocedurallanguageshavebeenmadeinto“extensions”,and
shouldtherefore be installed with CREATE EXTENSION not
CREATE LANGUAGE
. Directuseof
CREATE LANGUAGE
shouldnowbeconfinedtoextensioninstallationscripts.Ifyouhavea“bare”
languageinyourdatabase,perhapsasaresultofanupgrade,youcanconvertittoanextension
using
CREATE EXTENSION
langname
FROM unpackaged
.
CREATE LANGUAGE
effectively associates the language name with handlerfunction(s)thatarere-
sponsibleforexecutingfunctionswritteninthelanguage.RefertoChapter52formoreinformation
aboutlanguagehandlers.
Therearetwoformsofthe
CREATE LANGUAGE
command.Inthefirstform,theusersuppliesjustthe
nameofthedesiredlanguage,andthePostgreSQLserverconsultsthe
pg_pltemplate
systemcata-
logtodeterminethecorrectparameters.Inthesecondform,theusersuppliesthelanguageparameters
alongwiththelanguagename.Thesecondformcanbeusedtocreatealanguagethatisnotdefined
in
pg_pltemplate
,butthisapproachisconsideredobsolescent.
Whentheserverfindsanentryinthe
pg_pltemplate
catalogforthegivenlanguagename,itwill
use the catalog data evenifthe command includes language parameters. This behaviorsimplifies
loadingofolddumpfiles,whicharelikelytocontainout-of-dateinformationaboutlanguagesupport
functions.
Ordinarily,theusermusthavethePostgreSQLsuperuserprivilegetoregisteranewlanguage.How-
ever,the ownerof adatabase canregistera new language withinthatdatabase ifthe language is
listedinthe
pg_pltemplate
catalog and is markedas allowed to be created by databaseowners
(
tmpldbacreate
istrue).Thedefaultisthattrustedlanguages canbecreatedbydatabaseowners,
butthiscanbeadjustedbysuperusersbymodifyingthecontentsof
pg_pltemplate
.Thecreatorof
alanguagebecomesitsownerandcanlaterdropit,renameit,orassignittoanewowner.
CREATE OR REPLACE LANGUAGE
willeithercreateanewlanguage,orreplaceanexistingdefinition.
Ifthelanguagealreadyexists,itsparametersareupdatedaccordingtothevaluesspecifiedortaken
from
pg_pltemplate
,butthelanguage’sownershipandpermissions settings donotchange,and
anyexistingfunctionswritteninthelanguageareassumedtostillbevalid.Inadditiontothenormal
privilegerequirementsforcreatingalanguage,theusermustbesuperuserorowneroftheexisting
language.The
REPLACE
case is mainly meant to be used toensure thatthelanguageexists.Ifthe
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CREATELANGUAGE
language has a
pg_pltemplate
entrythen
REPLACE
will not actuallychange anything about an
existingdefinition,exceptintheunusualcasewherethe
pg_pltemplate
entryhas beenmodified
sincethelanguagewascreated.
Parameters
TRUSTED
TRUSTED
specifiesthatthelanguagedoes notgrantaccesstodatathattheuserwouldnototh-
erwise have.Ifthis key word is omitted whenregistering the language,only users with the
PostgreSQLsuperuserprivilegecanusethislanguagetocreatenewfunctions.
PROCEDURAL
Thisisanoiseword.
name
Thenameofthenewprocedurallanguage.Thenamemustbeuniqueamongthelanguages in
thedatabase.
Forbackwardcompatibility,thenamecanbeenclosedbysinglequotes.
HANDLERcall_handler
call_handler
isthenameofapreviouslyregisteredfunctionthatwillbecalledtoexecutethe
procedurallanguage’sfunctions.Thecallhandlerforaprocedurallanguagemustbewrittenina
compiledlanguagesuchasCwithversion1callconventionandregisteredwithPostgreSQLas
afunctiontakingnoargumentsandreturningthe
language_handler
type,aplaceholdertype
thatissimplyusedtoidentifythefunctionasacallhandler.
INLINEinline_handler
inline_handler
isthenameofapreviouslyregisteredfunctionthatwillbecalledtoexecute
ananonymouscode block(DOcommand)inthislanguage.Ifno
inline_handler
function
isspecified,thelanguagedoesnotsupportanonymouscodeblocks.Thehandlerfunctionmust
takeoneargumentoftype
internal
,whichwillbethe
DO
command’sinternalrepresentation,
anditwilltypicallyreturn
void
.Thereturnvalueofthehandlerisignored.
VALIDATORvalfunction
valfunction
is thenameofapreviouslyregisteredfunctionthatwillbe calledwhenanew
functioninthelanguageiscreated,tovalidatethenewfunction.Ifnovalidatorfunctionisspec-
ified,thena newfunctionwillnotbe checkedwhenitiscreated.Thevalidatorfunctionmust
takeoneargumentoftype
oid
,whichwillbetheOIDofthe to-be-createdfunction,andwill
typicallyreturn
void
.
Avalidatorfunctionwouldtypicallyinspectthefunctionbodyforsyntacticalcorrectness,but
itcanalsolookatotherpropertiesofthefunction,forexampleifthe languagecannothandle
certain argument types.To signalan error,thevalidatorfunctionshould usethe
ereport()
function.Thereturnvalueofthefunctionisignored.
The
TRUSTED
optionandthesupportfunctionname(s)areignorediftheserverhasanentryforthe
specifiedlanguagenamein
pg_pltemplate
.
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CREATELANGUAGE
Notes
Thecreatelangprogramisasimplewrapperaroundthe
CREATE LANGUAGE
command.Iteasesin-
stallationofprocedurallanguagesfromtheshellcommandline.
UseDROPLANGUAGE,orbetteryetthedroplangprogram,todropprocedurallanguages.
The systemcatalog
pg_language
(see Section48.28)records informationaboutthe currentlyin-
stalledlanguages.Also,
createlang
hasanoptiontolisttheinstalledlanguages.
Tocreatefunctionsinaprocedurallanguage,ausermusthavethe
USAGE
privilegeforthelanguage.
Bydefault,
USAGE
isgrantedto
PUBLIC
(i.e.,everyone)fortrustedlanguages.Thiscanberevokedif
desired.
Procedurallanguagesarelocaltoindividualdatabases.However,alanguagecanbeinstalledintothe
template1
database,whichwillcauseittobe available automaticallyinallsubsequently-created
databases.
Thecallhandlerfunction,theinlinehandlerfunction(ifany),andthevalidatorfunction(ifany)must
alreadyexistiftheserverdoesnothaveanentryforthelanguagein
pg_pltemplate
.Butwhenthere
isanentry,thefunctionsneednotalreadyexist;theywillbeautomaticallydefinedifnotpresentin
thedatabase.(Thismightresultin
CREATE LANGUAGE
failing,ifthesharedlibrarythatimplements
thelanguageisnotavailableintheinstallation.)
InPostgreSQL versions before 7.3,it was necessary todeclarehandlerfunctions as returning the
placeholdertype
opaque
,ratherthan
language_handler
.To supportloadingofold dump files,
CREATE LANGUAGE
will acceptafunctiondeclared as returning
opaque
,butitwillissuea notice
andchangethefunction’sdeclaredreturntypeto
language_handler
.
Examples
Thepreferredwayofcreatinganyofthestandardprocedurallanguagesisjust:
CREATE LANGUAGE plperl;
Foralanguagenotknowninthe
pg_pltemplate
catalog,asequencesuchasthisisneeded:
CREATE FUNCTION plsample_call_handler() RETURNS language_handler
AS ’$libdir/plsample’
LANGUAGE C;
CREATE LANGUAGE plsample
HANDLER plsample_call_handler;
Compatibility
CREATE LANGUAGE
isaPostgreSQLextension.
See Also
ALTERLANGUAGE,CREATEFUNCTION,DROPLANGUAGE,GRANT,REVOKE,createlang,
droplang
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CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW
Name
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW—defineanewmaterializedview
Synopsis
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW
table_name
[ (
column_name
[, ...] ) ]
[ WITH (
storage_parameter
[=
value
] [, ... ] ) ]
[ TABLESPACE
tablespace_name
]
AS
query
[ WITH [ NO ] DATA ]
Description
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW
defines amaterialized view ofaquery.The queryis executedand
usedtopopulatetheviewatthetimethecommandisissued(unless
WITH NO DATA
isused)andmay
berefreshedlaterusing
REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW
.
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW
issimilarto
CREATE TABLE AS
,exceptthatitalsoremembersthe
queryusedtoinitializetheview,sothatitcanberefreshedlaterupondemand.Amaterializedview
hasmanyofthesamepropertiesasatable,butthereisnosupportfortemporarymaterializedviews
orautomaticgenerationofOIDs.
Parameters
table_name
Thename(optionallyschema-qualified)ofthematerializedviewtobecreated.
column_name
Thenameofacolumninthenewmaterializedview.Ifcolumnnamesarenotprovided,theyare
takenfromtheoutputcolumnnamesofthequery.
WITH (
storage_parameter
[=
value
] [, ... ] )
Thisclausespecifiesoptionalstorageparametersforthenewmaterializedview;seeStoragePa-
rametersformoreinformation.Allparameterssupportedfor
CREATE TABLE
arealsosupported
for
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW
withtheexceptionof
OIDS
.SeeCREATETABLEformore
information.
TABLESPACE
tablespace_name
The
tablespace_name
isthenameofthetablespaceinwhichthenewmaterializedviewisto
becreated.Ifnotspecified,default_tablespaceisconsulted.
query
ASELECT,TABLE,or VALUEScommand.This query willrun within asecurity-restricted
operation;inparticular,callstofunctionsthatthemselvescreatetemporarytableswillfail.
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CREATEMATERIALIZEDVIEW
WITH [ NO ] DATA
Thisclausespecifieswhetherornotthematerializedviewshouldbepopulatedatcreationtime.
Ifnot,thematerializedviewwillbeflaggedasunscannableandcannotbequerieduntil
REFRESH
MATERIALIZED VIEW
isused.
Compatibility
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW
isaPostgreSQLextension.
See Also
ALTERMATERIALIZEDVIEW,CREATETABLEAS,CREATEVIEW,DROPMATERIALIZED
VIEW,REFRESHMATERIALIZEDVIEW
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CREATE OPERATOR
Name
CREATE OPERATOR—defineanewoperator
Synopsis
CREATE OPERATOR
name
(
PROCEDURE =
function_name
[, LEFTARG =
left_type
] [, RIGHTARG =
right_type
]
[, COMMUTATOR =
com_op
] [, NEGATOR =
neg_op
]
[, RESTRICT =
res_proc
] [, JOIN =
join_proc
]
[, HASHES ] [, MERGES ]
)
Description
CREATE OPERATOR
defines anewoperator,
name
.The userwho defines an operatorbecomes its
owner.Ifaschemanameisgiventhentheoperatoriscreatedinthespecifiedschema.Otherwiseitis
createdinthecurrentschema.
Theoperatornameis asequence ofupto
NAMEDATALEN
-1(63bydefault)characters fromthefol-
lowinglist:
+-*/<>=~!@#%^&|‘?
Thereareafewrestrictionsonyourchoiceofname:
--
and
/
*
cannotappearanywhereinanoperatorname,sincetheywillbetakenasthestartofa
comment.
Amulticharacteroperatornamecannotendin
+
or
-
,unlessthenamealsocontainsatleastoneof
thesecharacters:
~!@#%^&|‘?
Forexample,
@-
isanallowedoperatorname,but
*
-
isnot.ThisrestrictionallowsPostgreSQLto
parseSQL-compliantcommandswithoutrequiringspacesbetweentokens.
Theuseof
=>
asanoperatornameisdeprecated.Itmaybedisallowedaltogetherinafuturerelease.
Theoperator
!=
ismappedto
<>
oninput,sothesetwonamesarealwaysequivalent.
Atleast one of
LEFTARG
and
RIGHTARG
mustbedefined. For binaryoperators,bothmust be de-
fined.Forrightunaryoperators,only
LEFTARG
shouldbedefined,whileforleftunaryoperatorsonly
RIGHTARG
shouldbedefined.
The
function_name
proceduremusthavebeenpreviouslydefinedusing
CREATE FUNCTION
and
mustbedefinedtoacceptthecorrectnumberofarguments(eitheroneortwo)oftheindicatedtypes.
Theotherclausesspecifyoptionaloperatoroptimizationclauses.TheirmeaningisdetailedinSection
35.13.
1373
CREATEOPERATOR
Tobeabletocreateanoperator,youmusthave
USAGE
privilegeontheargumenttypesandthereturn
type,aswellas
EXECUTE
privilegeontheunderlyingfunction.Ifacommutatorornegatoroperatoris
specified,youmustowntheseoperators.
Parameters
name
Thenameoftheoperatortobe defined.Seeaboveforallowable characters.Thenamecanbe
schema-qualified,forexample
CREATE OPERATOR myschema.+ (...)
.Ifnot,thentheoper-
atoriscreatedinthecurrentschema.Twooperatorsinthesameschemacanhavethesamename
iftheyoperateondifferentdatatypes.Thisiscalledoverloading.
function_name
Thefunctionusedtoimplementthisoperator.
left_type
Thedatatypeoftheoperator’sleftoperand,ifany.Thisoptionwouldbeomittedforaleft-unary
operator.
right_type
Thedatatypeoftheoperator’srightoperand,ifany.Thisoptionwouldbeomittedforaright-
unaryoperator.
com_op
Thecommutatorofthisoperator.
neg_op
Thenegatorofthisoperator.
res_proc
Therestrictionselectivityestimatorfunctionforthisoperator.
join_proc
Thejoinselectivityestimatorfunctionforthisoperator.
HASHES
Indicatesthisoperatorcansupportahashjoin.
MERGES
Indicatesthisoperatorcansupportamergejoin.
To give a schema-qualified operator name in
com_op
or the other optional arguments, use the
OPERATOR()
syntax,forexample:
COMMUTATOR = OPERATOR(myschema.===) ,
Notes
RefertoSection35.12forfurtherinformation.
1374
CREATEOPERATOR
It is not possible to specify anoperator’s lexical precedence in
CREATE OPERATOR
,because the
parser’sprecedencebehaviorishard-wired.SeeSection4.1.6forprecedencedetails.
Theobsoleteoptions
SORT1
,
SORT2
,
LTCMP
,and
GTCMP
wereformerlyusedtospecifythenamesof
sortoperatorsassociatedwithamerge-joinableoperator.Thisisnolongernecessary,sinceinforma-
tionaboutassociatedoperatorsisfoundbylookingatB-treeoperatorfamiliesinstead.Ifoneofthese
optionsisgiven,itisignoredexceptforimplicitlysetting
MERGES
true.
UseDROPOPERATORtodeleteuser-definedoperatorsfromadatabase.UseALTEROPERATOR
tomodifyoperatorsinadatabase.
Examples
Thefollowingcommanddefinesanewoperator,area-equality,forthedatatype
box
:
CREATE OPERATOR === (
LEFTARG = box,
RIGHTARG = box,
PROCEDURE = area_equal_procedure,
COMMUTATOR = ===,
NEGATOR = !==,
RESTRICT = area_restriction_procedure,
JOIN = area_join_procedure,
HASHES, MERGES
);
Compatibility
CREATE OPERATOR
isaPostgreSQLextension.Therearenoprovisionsforuser-definedoperatorsin
theSQLstandard.
See Also
ALTEROPERATOR,CREATEOPERATORCLASS,DROPOPERATOR
1375
CREATE OPERATOR CLASS
Name
CREATE OPERATOR CLASS—defineanewoperatorclass
Synopsis
CREATE OPERATOR CLASS
name
[ DEFAULT ] FOR TYPE
data_type
USING
index_method
[ FAMILY
family_name
] AS
{
OPERATOR
strategy_number operator_name
[ (
op_type
,
op_type
) ] [ FOR SEARCH | FOR ORDER BY
| FUNCTION
support_number
[ (
op_type
[ ,
op_type
] ) ]
function_name
(
argument_type
[, ...] )
| STORAGE
storage_type
} [, ... ]
Description
CREATE OPERATOR CLASS
createsanewoperatorclass.Anoperatorclassdefineshowaparticular
datatypecanbeusedwithanindex.Theoperatorclassspecifiesthatcertainoperatorswillfillpartic-
ularrolesor“strategies”forthisdatatypeandthisindexmethod.Theoperatorclassalsospecifiesthe
supportprocedurestobeusedbytheindexmethodwhentheoperatorclassisselectedforanindex
column.Alltheoperatorsandfunctionsusedbyanoperatorclassmustbedefinedbeforetheoperator
classcanbecreated.
Ifaschemanameisgiventhentheoperatorclassiscreatedinthespecifiedschema.Otherwiseitis
createdinthecurrentschema.Twooperatorclassesinthesameschemacanhavethesamenameonly
iftheyarefordifferentindexmethods.
The userwho defines an operator class becomes its owner. Presently,thecreatingusermust be a
superuser.(Thisrestrictionismadebecauseanerroneousoperatorclassdefinitioncouldconfuseor
evencrashtheserver.)
CREATE OPERATOR CLASS
doesnotpresentlycheckwhethertheoperatorclassdefinitionincludes
alltheoperatorsandfunctionsrequiredbytheindexmethod,norwhethertheoperatorsandfunctions
formaself-consistentset.Itistheuser’sresponsibilitytodefineavalidoperatorclass.
Related operatorclasses canbegroupedintooperatorfamilies.To adda newoperatorclass to an
existingfamily,specifythe
FAMILY
optionin
CREATE OPERATOR CLASS
.Withoutthisoption,the
newclassisplacedintoafamilynamedthesameasthenewclass(creatingthatfamilyifitdoesn’t
alreadyexist).
RefertoSection35.14forfurtherinformation.
Parameters
name
Thenameoftheoperatorclasstobecreated.Thenamecanbeschema-qualified.
DEFAULT
Ifpresent,theoperatorclasswillbecomethedefaultoperatorclassforitsdatatype.Atmostone
operatorclasscanbethedefaultforaspecificdatatypeandindexmethod.
1376
CREATEOPERATORCLASS
data_type
Thecolumndatatypethatthisoperatorclassisfor.
index_method
Thenameoftheindexmethodthisoperatorclassisfor.
family_name
Thenameoftheexistingoperatorfamilytoaddthisoperatorclassto.Ifnotspecified,afamily
namedthesameastheoperatorclassisused(creatingit,ifitdoesn’talreadyexist).
strategy_number
Theindexmethod’sstrategynumberforanoperatorassociatedwiththeoperatorclass.
operator_name
Thename(optionallyschema-qualified)ofanoperatorassociatedwiththeoperatorclass.
op_type
Inan
OPERATOR
clause,theoperanddatatype(s)oftheoperator,or
NONE
tosignifyaleft-unary
orright-unaryoperator.Theoperanddatatypescanbeomittedinthenormalcasewheretheyare
thesameastheoperatorclass’sdatatype.
Ina
FUNCTION
clause,theoperanddatatype(s)thefunctionisintendedtosupport,ifdifferent
fromtheinputdatatype(s)ofthefunction(forB-treecomparisonfunctionsandhashfunctions)
ortheclass’s datatype (forB-treesort supportfunctions and all functions inGiST,SP-GiST
andGINoperatorclasses).Thesedefaultsarecorrect,andso
op_type
neednotbespecifiedin
FUNCTION
clauses,exceptforthecaseofaB-treesortsupportfunctionthatismeanttosupport
cross-data-typecomparisons.
sort_family_name
Thename(optionallyschema-qualified)ofanexisting
btree
operatorfamilythatdescribesthe
sortorderingassociatedwithanorderingoperator.
Ifneither
FOR SEARCH
nor
FOR ORDER BY
isspecified,
FOR SEARCH
isthedefault.
support_number
Theindexmethod’ssupportprocedurenumberforafunctionassociatedwiththeoperatorclass.
function_name
Thename(optionallyschema-qualified)ofafunctionthatisanindexmethodsupportprocedure
fortheoperatorclass.
argument_type
Theparameterdatatype(s)ofthefunction.
storage_type
Thedatatypeactuallystoredintheindex.Normallythis is thesameasthecolumndatatype,
butsomeindexmethods(currentlyGiSTandGIN)allowittobedifferent.The
STORAGE
clause
mustbeomittedunlesstheindexmethodallowsadifferenttypetobeused.
The
OPERATOR
,
FUNCTION
,and
STORAGE
clausescanappearinanyorder.
1377
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