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EXPLAIN
Name
EXPLAIN—showtheexecutionplanofastatement
Synopsis
EXPLAIN [ (
option
[, ...] ) ]
statement
EXPLAIN [ ANALYZE ] [ VERBOSE ]
statement
where
option
can be one of:
ANALYZE [
boolean
]
VERBOSE [
boolean
]
COSTS [
boolean
]
BUFFERS [
boolean
]
TIMING [
boolean
]
FORMAT { TEXT | XML | JSON | YAML }
Description
ThiscommanddisplaystheexecutionplanthatthePostgreSQL plannergeneratesforthesupplied
statement.Theexecutionplanshowshowthetable(s)referencedbythestatementwillbescanned—
byplainsequentialscan,indexscan,etc.—andifmultipletablesarereferenced,whatjoinalgorithms
willbeusedtobringtogethertherequiredrowsfromeachinputtable.
Themostcriticalpartofthedisplayistheestimatedstatementexecutioncost,whichistheplanner’s
guess at howlong itwill take to runthe statement (measured incost units that are arbitrary,but
conventionallymeandiskpagefetches).Actuallytwonumbersareshown:thestart-upcostbeforethe
firstrowcanbereturned,andthetotalcosttoreturnalltherows.Formostqueries thetotalcostis
whatmatters,butincontextssuchasasubqueryin
EXISTS
,theplannerwillchoosethesmalleststart-
upcostinsteadofthesmallesttotalcost(sincetheexecutorwillstopaftergettingonerow,anyway).
Also,ifyoulimitthenumberofrowstoreturnwitha
LIMIT
clause,theplannermakesanappropriate
interpolationbetweentheendpointcoststoestimatewhichplanisreallythecheapest.
The
ANALYZE
optioncausesthestatementtobeactuallyexecuted,notonlyplanned.Thenactualrun
timestatistics areaddedtothe display,includingthetotalelapsedtimeexpendedwithin eachplan
node (inmilliseconds)and the totalnumberofrowsit actuallyreturned.This is useful forseeing
whethertheplanner’sestimatesareclosetoreality.
Important: Keep in mind that thestatementis actually executed whenthe
ANALYZE
optionis
used.Although
EXPLAIN
willdiscardanyoutputthata
SELECT
wouldreturn,othersideeffectsof
thestatementwillhappenasusual.Ifyouwishtouse
EXPLAIN ANALYZE
onan
INSERT
,
UPDATE
,
DELETE
,
CREATE TABLE AS
,or
EXECUTE
statementwithoutlettingthecommandaffectyourdata,
usethisapproach:
BEGIN;
EXPLAIN ANALYZE ...;
ROLLBACK;
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EXPLAIN
Onlythe
ANALYZE
and
VERBOSE
optionscanbespecified,andonlyinthatorder,withoutsurrounding
theoptionlistinparentheses.PriortoPostgreSQL9.0,theunparenthesizedsyntaxwastheonlyone
supported.Itisexpectedthatallnewoptionswillbesupportedonlyintheparenthesizedsyntax.
Parameters
ANALYZE
Carryoutthecommandandshowactualruntimesandotherstatistics.Thisparameterdefaults
to
FALSE
.
VERBOSE
Displayadditionalinformationregardingtheplan.Specifically,include theoutputcolumnlist
foreachnodeintheplantree,schema-qualifytableandfunctionnames,alwayslabelvariables
inexpressionswiththeirrangetablealias,andalwaysprintthenameofeachtriggerforwhich
statisticsaredisplayed.Thisparameterdefaultsto
FALSE
.
COSTS
Include informationontheestimatedstartupandtotalcost of each plannode,as well as the
estimatednumberofrowsandtheestimatedwidthofeachrow.Thisparameterdefaultsto
TRUE
.
BUFFERS
Includeinformationonbufferusage.Specifically,includethenumberofsharedblockshit,read,
dirtied,andwritten,thenumberoflocalblockshit,read,dirtied,andwritten,andthenumberof
tempblocksreadandwritten.Ahitmeansthatareadwasavoidedbecausetheblockwasfound
alreadyincachewhenneeded.Sharedblockscontaindatafromregulartablesandindexes;local
blocks containdatafromtemporarytables andindexes;whiletempblockscontainshort-term
working datausedinsorts,hashes,Materializeplannodes,andsimilarcases.The numberof
blocks dirtiedindicatesthenumberofpreviouslyunmodifiedblocksthatwerechangedbythis
query; while the number of blocks written indicates the numberofpreviously-dirtiedblocks
evictedfromcachebythisbackendduringqueryprocessing.Thenumberofblocksshownfor
anupper-level node includes those usedby all its child nodes.In text format,only non-zero
valuesareprinted.Thisparametermayonlybeusedwhen
ANALYZE
isalsoenabled.Itdefaults
to
FALSE
.
TIMING
Includeactualstartuptimeandtimespentineachnodeintheoutput.Theoverheadofrepeatedly
readingthesystemclockcanslowdownthequerysignificantlyonsomesystems,soitmaybe
usefulto setthis parameterto
FALSE
when onlyactual rowcounts,andnotexact times,are
needed.Runtimeoftheentire statementisalwaysmeasured,evenwhennode-leveltimingis
turnedoffwiththisoption.Thisparametermayonlybeusedwhen
ANALYZE
isalsoenabled.It
defaultsto
TRUE
.
FORMAT
Specifytheoutputformat,whichcanbeTEXT,XML,JSON,orYAML.Non-textoutputcon-
tainsthesameinformationasthetextoutput format,butiseasierforprograms toparse.This
parameterdefaultsto
TEXT
.
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EXPLAIN
boolean
Specifieswhethertheselectedoptionshouldbeturnedonoroff.Youcanwrite
TRUE
,
ON
,or
1
to
enabletheoption,and
FALSE
,
OFF
,or
0
todisableit.The
boolean
valuecanalsobeomitted,
inwhichcase
TRUE
isassumed.
statement
Any
SELECT
,
INSERT
,
UPDATE
,
DELETE
,
VALUES
,
EXECUTE
,
DECLARE
,
CREATE TABLE AS
,or
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW AS
statement,whoseexecutionplanyouwishtosee.
Outputs
The command’s resultis a textual description of the planselectedforthe
statement
,optionally
annotatedwithexecutionstatistics.Section14.1describestheinformationprovided.
Notes
InordertoallowthePostgreSQLqueryplannertomakereasonablyinformeddecisionswhenoptimiz-
ingqueries,the
pg_statistic
datashouldbeup-to-dateforalltablesusedinthequery.Normally
theautovacuumdaemonwilltakecareofthatautomatically.Butifatablehasrecentlyhadsubstantial
changesinitscontents,youmightneedtodoamanualANALYZEratherthanwaitforautovacuum
tocatchupwiththechanges.
Inordertomeasuretherun-timecostofeachnodeintheexecutionplan,thecurrentimplementation
of
EXPLAIN ANALYZE
adds profiling overhead toqueryexecution. As a result, running
EXPLAIN
ANALYZE
onaquerycansometimestakesignificantlylongerthanexecutingthequerynormally.The
amountofoverheaddependsonthenatureofthequery,aswellastheplatformbeingused.Theworst
caseoccursforplannodesthatinthemselvesrequireverylittletimeperexecution,andonmachines
thathaverelativelyslowoperatingsystemcallsforobtainingthetimeofday.
Examples
Toshowtheplanforasimplequeryonatablewithasingle
integer
columnand10000rows:
EXPLAIN SELECT
*
FROM foo;
QUERY PLAN
---------------------------------------------------------
Seq Scan on foo
(cost=0.00..155.00 rows=10000 width=4)
(1 row)
Hereisthesamequery,withJSONoutputformatting:
EXPLAIN (FORMAT JSON) SELECT
*
FROM foo;
QUERY PLAN
--------------------------------
[
+
{
+
"Plan": {
+
"Node Type": "Seq Scan",+
"Relation Name": "foo", +
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EXPLAIN
"Alias": "foo",
+
"Startup Cost": 0.00,
+
"Total Cost": 155.00,
+
"Plan Rows": 10000,
+
"Plan Width": 4
+
}
+
}
+
]
(1 row)
Ifthereisanindexandweuseaquerywithanindexable
WHERE
condition,
EXPLAIN
mightshowa
differentplan:
EXPLAIN SELECT
*
FROM foo WHERE i = 4;
QUERY PLAN
--------------------------------------------------------------
Index Scan using fi on foo
(cost=0.00..5.98 rows=1 width=4)
Index Cond: (i = 4)
(2 rows)
Hereisthesamequery,butinYAMLformat:
EXPLAIN (FORMAT YAML) SELECT
*
FROM foo WHERE i=’4’;
QUERY PLAN
-------------------------------
- Plan:
+
Node Type: "Index Scan"
+
Scan Direction: "Forward"+
Index Name: "fi"
+
Relation Name: "foo"
+
Alias: "foo"
+
Startup Cost: 0.00
+
Total Cost: 5.98
+
Plan Rows: 1
+
Plan Width: 4
+
Index Cond: "(i = 4)"
(1 row)
XMLformatisleftasanexerciseforthereader.
Hereisthesameplanwithcostestimatessuppressed:
EXPLAIN (COSTS FALSE) SELECT
*
FROM foo WHERE i = 4;
QUERY PLAN
----------------------------
Index Scan using fi on foo
Index Cond: (i = 4)
(2 rows)
Hereisanexampleofaqueryplanforaqueryusinganaggregatefunction:
EXPLAIN SELECT sum(i) FROM foo WHERE i < 10;
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EXPLAIN
QUERY PLAN
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Aggregate
(cost=23.93..23.93 rows=1 width=4)
->
Index Scan using fi on foo
(cost=0.00..23.92 rows=6 width=4)
Index Cond: (i < 10)
(3 rows)
Hereisanexampleofusing
EXPLAIN EXECUTE
todisplaytheexecutionplanforapreparedquery:
PREPARE query(int, int) AS SELECT sum(bar) FROM test
WHERE id > $1 AND id < $2
GROUP BY foo;
EXPLAIN ANALYZE EXECUTE query(100, 200);
QUERY PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HashAggregate
(cost=9.54..9.54 rows=1 width=8) (actual time=0.156..0.161 rows=11 loops=1)
Group Key: foo
->
Index Scan using test_pkey on test
(cost=0.29..9.29 rows=50 width=8) (actual time=0.039..0.091 rows=99 loops=1)
Index Cond: ((id > $1) AND (id < $2))
Planning time: 0.197 ms
Execution time: 0.225 ms
(6 rows)
Ofcourse,thespecificnumbersshownheredependontheactualcontentsofthetablesinvolved.Also
notethatthenumbers,andeventheselectedquerystrategy,mightvarybetweenPostgreSQLreleases
duetoplannerimprovements.Inaddition,the
ANALYZE
commandusesrandomsamplingtoestimate
datastatistics;therefore,itispossibleforcostestimatestochangeafterafreshrunof
ANALYZE
,even
iftheactualdistributionofdatainthetablehasnotchanged.
Compatibility
Thereisno
EXPLAIN
statementdefinedintheSQLstandard.
See Also
ANALYZE
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FETCH
Name
FETCH—retrieverowsfromaqueryusingacursor
Synopsis
FETCH [
direction
[ FROM | IN ] ]
cursor_name
where
direction
can be empty or one of:
NEXT
PRIOR
FIRST
LAST
ABSOLUTE
count
RELATIVE
count
count
ALL
FORWARD
FORWARD
count
FORWARD ALL
BACKWARD
BACKWARD
count
BACKWARD ALL
Description
FETCH
retrievesrowsusingapreviously-createdcursor.
Acursorhas anassociatedposition,whichis usedby
FETCH
.Thecursorpositioncanbebeforethe
firstrowofthequeryresult,onanyparticularrowoftheresult,orafterthelastrowoftheresult.When
created,acursorispositionedbeforethefirstrow.Afterfetchingsomerows,thecursorispositioned
ontherowmostrecentlyretrieved.If
FETCH
runsofftheendoftheavailablerowsthenthecursoris
leftpositionedafterthelastrow,orbeforethefirstrowiffetchingbackward.
FETCH ALL
or
FETCH
BACKWARD ALL
willalwaysleavethecursorpositionedafterthelastroworbeforethefirstrow.
Theforms
NEXT
,
PRIOR
,
FIRST
,
LAST
,
ABSOLUTE
,
RELATIVE
fetchasinglerowaftermovingthe
cursorappropriately.Ifthereisnosuchrow,anemptyresultisreturned,andthecursorisleftposi-
tionedbeforethefirstroworafterthelastrowasappropriate.
Theformsusing
FORWARD
and
BACKWARD
retrievetheindicatednumberofrows movinginthefor-
wardorbackwarddirection,leavingthecursorpositionedonthelast-returnedrow(orafter/beforeall
rows,ifthe
count
exceedsthenumberofrowsavailable).
RELATIVE 0
,
FORWARD 0
,and
BACKWARD 0
allrequestfetchingthecurrentrowwithout moving
thecursor,thatis,re-fetchingthemostrecentlyfetchedrow.Thiswillsucceedunlessthecursoris
positionedbeforethefirstroworafterthelastrow;inwhichcase,norowisreturned.
Note:ThispagedescribesusageofcursorsattheSQLcommandlevel.Ifyouaretryingtouse
cursorsinsideaPL/pgSQLfunction,therulesaredifferent—seeSection40.7.
1523
FETCH
Parameters
direction
direction
definesthefetchdirectionandnumberofrowstofetch.Itcanbeoneofthefollow-
ing:
NEXT
Fetchthenextrow.Thisisthedefaultif
direction
isomitted.
PRIOR
Fetchthepriorrow.
FIRST
Fetchthefirstrowofthequery(sameas
ABSOLUTE 1
).
LAST
Fetchthelastrowofthequery(sameas
ABSOLUTE -1
).
ABSOLUTE
count
Fetchthe
count
’throwofthequery,orthe
abs(
count
)
’throwfromtheendif
count
is
negative.Positionbeforefirstroworafterlastrowif
count
isoutofrange;inparticular,
ABSOLUTE 0
positionsbeforethefirstrow.
RELATIVE
count
Fetchthe
count
’thsucceedingrow,orthe
abs(
count
)
’thpriorrowif
count
isnegative.
RELATIVE 0
re-fetchesthecurrentrow,ifany.
count
Fetchthenext
count
rows(sameas
FORWARD
count
).
ALL
Fetchallremainingrows(sameas
FORWARD ALL
).
FORWARD
Fetchthenextrow(sameas
NEXT
).
FORWARD
count
Fetchthenext
count
rows.
FORWARD 0
re-fetchesthecurrentrow.
FORWARD ALL
Fetchallremainingrows.
BACKWARD
Fetchthepriorrow(sameas
PRIOR
).
BACKWARD
count
Fetchtheprior
count
rows(scanningbackwards).
BACKWARD 0
re-fetchesthecurrentrow.
BACKWARD ALL
Fetchallpriorrows(scanningbackwards).
1524
FETCH
count
count
isapossibly-signedintegerconstant,determiningthelocationornumberofrowstofetch.
For
FORWARD
and
BACKWARD
cases,specifyinganegative
count
isequivalenttochangingthe
senseof
FORWARD
and
BACKWARD
.
cursor_name
Anopencursor’sname.
Outputs
Onsuccessfulcompletion,a
FETCH
commandreturnsacommandtagoftheform
FETCH
count
The
count
isthenumberofrowsfetched(possiblyzero).Notethatinpsql,thecommandtagwillnot
actuallybedisplayed,sincepsqldisplaysthefetchedrowsinstead.
Notes
Thecursorshouldbedeclaredwiththe
SCROLL
optionifoneintends touseanyvariantsof
FETCH
otherthan
FETCH NEXT
or
FETCH FORWARD
withapositivecount.ForsimplequeriesPostgreSQL
willallowbackwardsfetchfromcursorsnotdeclaredwith
SCROLL
,butthisbehaviorisbestnotrelied
on.Ifthecursorisdeclaredwith
NO SCROLL
,nobackwardfetchesareallowed.
ABSOLUTE
fetches are not any fasterthan navigatingtothe desired row witha relative move: the
underlyingimplementationmusttraversealltheintermediaterowsanyway.Negativeabsolutefetches
areevenworse:thequerymustbereadtotheendtofindthelastrow,andthentraversedbackward
fromthere.However,rewindingtothestartofthequery(aswith
FETCH ABSOLUTE 0
)isfast.
DECLAREisusedtodefineacursor.UseMOVEtochangecursorpositionwithoutretrievingdata.
Examples
Thefollowingexampletraversesatableusingacursor:
BEGIN WORK;
-- Set up a cursor:
DECLARE liahona SCROLL CURSOR FOR SELECT
*
FROM films;
-- Fetch the first 5 rows in the cursor liahona:
FETCH FORWARD 5 FROM liahona;
code
|
title
| did | date_prod
|
kind
|
len
-------+-------------------------+-----+------------+----------+-------
BL101 | The Third Man
| 101 | 1949-12-23 | Drama
| 01:44
BL102 | The African Queen
| 101 | 1951-08-11 | Romantic | 01:43
JL201 | Une Femme est une Femme | 102 | 1961-03-12 | Romantic | 01:25
P_301 | Vertigo
| 103 | 1958-11-14 | Action
| 02:08
P_302 | Becket
| 103 | 1964-02-03 | Drama
| 02:28
-- Fetch the previous row:
1525
FETCH
FETCH PRIOR FROM liahona;
code
|
title
| did | date_prod
|
kind
|
len
-------+---------+-----+------------+--------+-------
P_301 | Vertigo | 103 | 1958-11-14 | Action | 02:08
-- Close the cursor and end the transaction:
CLOSE liahona;
COMMIT WORK;
Compatibility
The SQLstandard defines
FETCH
foruseinembeddedSQL only.Thevariantof
FETCH
described
herereturnsthedataasifitwerea
SELECT
resultratherthanplacingitinhostvariables.Otherthan
thispoint,
FETCH
isfullyupward-compatiblewiththeSQLstandard.
The
FETCH
formsinvolving
FORWARD
and
BACKWARD
,aswellastheforms
FETCH
count
and
FETCH
ALL
,inwhich
FORWARD
isimplicit,arePostgreSQLextensions.
TheSQLstandardallowsonly
FROM
precedingthecursorname;theoptiontouse
IN
,ortoleavethem
outaltogether,isanextension.
See Also
CLOSE,DECLARE,MOVE
1526
GRANT
Name
GRANT—defineaccessprivileges
Synopsis
GRANT { { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | TRUNCATE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER }
[, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON { [ TABLE ]
table_name
[, ...]
| ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA
schema_name
[, ...] }
TO { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
GRANT { { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | REFERENCES } (
column_name
[, ...] )
[, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] (
column_name
[, ...] ) }
ON [ TABLE ]
table_name
[, ...]
TO { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
GRANT { { USAGE | SELECT | UPDATE }
[, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON { SEQUENCE
sequence_name
[, ...]
| ALL SEQUENCES IN SCHEMA
schema_name
[, ...] }
TO { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
GRANT { { CREATE | CONNECT | TEMPORARY | TEMP } [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON DATABASE
database_name
[, ...]
TO { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON DOMAIN
domain_name
[, ...]
TO { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER
fdw_name
[, ...]
TO { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON FOREIGN SERVER
server_name
[, ...]
TO { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
GRANT { EXECUTE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON { FUNCTION
function_name
( [ [
argmode
] [
arg_name
]
arg_type
[, ...] ] ) [, ...]
| ALL FUNCTIONS IN SCHEMA
schema_name
[, ...] }
TO { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON LANGUAGE
lang_name
[, ...]
TO { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
GRANT { { SELECT | UPDATE } [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON LARGE OBJECT
loid
[, ...]
TO { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
GRANT { { CREATE | USAGE } [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
1527
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