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REINDEX
Name
REINDEX—rebuildindexes
Synopsis
REINDEX { INDEX | TABLE | DATABASE | SYSTEM }
name
[ FORCE ]
Description
REINDEX
rebuilds anindexusingthedatastoredinthe index’stable,replacingtheoldcopyofthe
index.Thereareseveralscenariosinwhichtouse
REINDEX
:
Anindexhasbecomecorrupted,andnolongercontainsvaliddata.Althoughintheorythisshould
neverhappen,inpracticeindexescanbecomecorruptedduetosoftwarebugsorhardwarefailures.
REINDEX
providesarecoverymethod.
Anindexhas become“bloated”,thatis itcontains manyemptyornearly-emptypages.This can
occurwithB-treeindexesinPostgreSQLundercertainuncommonaccesspatterns.
REINDEX
pro-
videsawaytoreducethe spaceconsumptionoftheindexbywritinganewversionoftheindex
withoutthedeadpages.SeeSection23.2formoreinformation.
Youhavealteredastorageparameter(suchas fillfactor)foranindex,andwishtoensurethatthe
changehastakenfulleffect.
Anindexbuildwiththe
CONCURRENTLY
optionfailed,leaving an “invalid” index.Suchindexes
areuselessbutitcanbeconvenienttouse
REINDEX
torebuildthem.Notethat
REINDEX
willnot
performaconcurrentbuild.Tobuildtheindexwithoutinterferingwithproductionyoushoulddrop
theindexandreissuethe
CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY
command.
Parameters
INDEX
Recreatethespecifiedindex.
TABLE
Recreateallindexesofthespecifiedtable.Ifthetablehasasecondary“TOAST”table,thatis
reindexedaswell.
DATABASE
Recreateall indexes within the current database.Indexes onshared systemcatalogs are also
processed.Thisformof
REINDEX
cannotbeexecutedinsideatransactionblock.
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REINDEX
SYSTEM
Recreateallindexesonsystemcatalogswithinthecurrentdatabase.Indexesonsharedsystem
catalogsareincluded.Indexesonusertablesarenotprocessed.Thisformof
REINDEX
cannotbe
executedinsideatransactionblock.
name
Thenameofthespecificindex,table,ordatabasetobereindexed.Indexandtablenamescanbe
schema-qualified.Presently,
REINDEX DATABASE
and
REINDEX SYSTEM
canonlyreindexthe
currentdatabase,sotheirparametermustmatchthecurrentdatabase’sname.
FORCE
Thisisanobsoleteoption;itisignoredifspecified.
Notes
Ifyoususpectcorruptionofanindexonausertable,youcansimplyrebuildthatindex,orallindexes
onthetable,using
REINDEX INDEX
or
REINDEX TABLE
.
Things aremoredifficultifyouneedtorecoverfromcorruptionofanindexonasystemtable.In
this caseit’s importantforthesystemtonothaveusedanyofthesuspectindexesitself.(Indeed,in
thissortofscenarioyoumightfindthatserverprocessesarecrashingimmediatelyatstart-up,dueto
relianceonthecorruptedindexes.)Torecoversafely,theservermustbestartedwiththe
-P
option,
whichpreventsitfromusingindexesforsystemcataloglookups.
Onewaytodothis is toshutdownthe serverandstart a single-user PostgreSQL serverwith the
-P
optionincludedonitscommandline.Then,
REINDEX DATABASE
,
REINDEX SYSTEM
,
REINDEX
TABLE
,or
REINDEX INDEX
canbeissued,dependingon how muchyouwanttoreconstruct.Ifin
doubt,use
REINDEX SYSTEM
toselectreconstructionofallsystemindexesinthedatabase.Thenquit
thesingle-userserversessionandrestarttheregularserver.Seethepostgresreferencepageformore
informationabouthowtointeractwiththesingle-userserverinterface.
Alternatively,aregularserversessioncanbestartedwith
-P
includedinitscommandlineoptions.
Themethodfordoingthisvariesacrossclients,butinalllibpq-basedclients,itispossibletosetthe
PGOPTIONS
environmentvariableto
-P
beforestartingtheclient.Notethatwhilethismethoddoes
notrequirelockingoutotherclients,itmightstillbewisetopreventotherusersfromconnectingto
thedamageddatabaseuntilrepairshavebeencompleted.
REINDEX
is similar to adropandrecreate of the index in thattheindexcontents arerebuiltfrom
scratch.However,thelockingconsiderations areratherdifferent.
REINDEX
locks outwritesbutnot
readsoftheindex’sparenttable.Italsotakesanexclusivelockonthespecificindexbeingprocessed,
whichwillblockreadsthatattempttousethatindex.Incontrast,
DROP INDEX
momentarilytakesan
exclusivelockontheparenttable,blockingbothwrites andreads.Thesubsequent
CREATE INDEX
locksoutwritesbutnotreads;sincetheindexisnotthere,noreadwillattempttouseit,meaningthat
therewillbenoblockingbutreadsmightbeforcedintoexpensivesequentialscans.
Reindexing a single index ortable requires being the owner ofthat index or table.Reindexing a
databaserequiresbeingtheownerofthedatabase(notethattheownercanthereforerebuildindexes
oftablesownedbyotherusers).Ofcourse,superuserscanalwaysreindexanything.
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REINDEX
Examples
Rebuildasingleindex:
REINDEX INDEX my_index;
Rebuildalltheindexesonthetable
my_table
:
REINDEX TABLE my_table;
Rebuildallindexesinaparticulardatabase,withouttrustingthesystemindexestobevalidalready:
$
export PGOPTIONS="-P"
$
psql broken_db
...
broken_db=> REINDEX DATABASE broken_db;
broken_db=> \q
Compatibility
Thereisno
REINDEX
commandintheSQLstandard.
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RELEASE SAVEPOINT
Name
RELEASE SAVEPOINT—destroyapreviouslydefinedsavepoint
Synopsis
RELEASE [ SAVEPOINT ]
savepoint_name
Description
RELEASE SAVEPOINT
destroysasavepointpreviouslydefinedinthecurrenttransaction.
Destroyinga savepointmakesitunavailableas arollbackpoint,butithasnootheruservisiblebe-
havior.Itdoesnotundotheeffectsofcommandsexecutedafterthesavepointwasestablished.(Todo
that,seeROLLBACKTOSAVEPOINT.)Destroyingasavepointwhenitisnolongerneededallows
thesystemtoreclaimsomeresourcesearlierthantransactionend.
RELEASE SAVEPOINT
alsodestroys allsavepoints thatwereestablishedafterthenamedsavepoint
wasestablished.
Parameters
savepoint_name
Thenameofthesavepointtodestroy.
Notes
Specifyingasavepointnamethatwasnotpreviouslydefinedisanerror.
Itisnotpossibletoreleaseasavepointwhenthetransactionisinanabortedstate.
Ifmultiplesavepointshavethesamename,onlytheonethatwasmostrecentlydefinedisreleased.
Examples
Toestablishandlaterdestroyasavepoint:
BEGIN;
INSERT INTO table1 VALUES (3);
SAVEPOINT my_savepoint;
INSERT INTO table1 VALUES (4);
RELEASE SAVEPOINT my_savepoint;
COMMIT;
Theabovetransactionwillinsertboth3and4.
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RELEASESAVEPOINT
Compatibility
ThiscommandconformstotheSQLstandard.Thestandardspecifiesthatthekeyword
SAVEPOINT
ismandatory,butPostgreSQLallowsittobeomitted.
See Also
BEGIN,COMMIT,ROLLBACK,ROLLBACKTOSAVEPOINT,SAVEPOINT
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RESET
Name
RESET—restorethevalueofarun-timeparametertothedefaultvalue
Synopsis
RESET
configuration_parameter
RESET ALL
Description
RESET
restoresrun-timeparameterstotheirdefaultvalues.
RESET
isanalternativespellingfor
SET
configuration_parameter
TO DEFAULT
RefertoSETfordetails.
Thedefaultvalueisdefinedasthevaluethattheparameterwouldhavehad,ifno
SET
hadeverbeen
issuedforitinthecurrentsession.Theactualsourceofthisvaluemightbeacompiled-indefault,the
configurationfile,command-lineoptions,orper-databaseorper-userdefaultsettings.Thisis subtly
differentfromdefiningitas“thevaluethattheparameterhadatsessionstart”,becauseifthevalue
camefromtheconfigurationfile,itwillberesettowhateverisspecifiedbytheconfigurationfilenow.
SeeChapter18fordetails.
The transactionalbehaviorof
RESET
is thesameas
SET
:its effects willbeundone bytransaction
rollback.
Parameters
configuration_parameter
Nameofasettablerun-timeparameter.AvailableparametersaredocumentedinChapter18and
ontheSETreferencepage.
ALL
Resetsallsettablerun-timeparameterstodefaultvalues.
Examples
Setthe
timezone
configurationvariabletoitsdefaultvalue:
RESET timezone;
1563
RESET
Compatibility
RESET
isaPostgreSQLextension.
See Also
SET,SHOW
1564
REVOKE
Name
REVOKE—removeaccessprivileges
Synopsis
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | TRUNCATE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER }
[, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON { [ TABLE ]
table_name
[, ...]
| ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA
schema_name
[, ...] }
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | REFERENCES } (
column_name
[, ...] )
[, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] (
column_name
[, ...] ) }
ON [ TABLE ]
table_name
[, ...]
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { USAGE | SELECT | UPDATE }
[, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON { SEQUENCE
sequence_name
[, ...]
| ALL SEQUENCES IN SCHEMA
schema_name
[, ...] }
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { CREATE | CONNECT | TEMPORARY | TEMP } [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON DATABASE
database_name
[, ...]
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON DOMAIN
domain_name
[, ...]
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER
fdw_name
[, ...]
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON FOREIGN SERVER
server_name
[, ...]
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
1565
REVOKE
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ EXECUTE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON { FUNCTION
function_name
( [ [
argmode
] [
arg_name
]
arg_type
[, ...] ] ) [, ...]
| ALL FUNCTIONS IN SCHEMA
schema_name
[, ...] }
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON LANGUAGE
lang_name
[, ...]
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { SELECT | UPDATE } [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON LARGE OBJECT
loid
[, ...]
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { CREATE | USAGE } [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON SCHEMA
schema_name
[, ...]
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ CREATE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON TABLESPACE
tablespace_name
[, ...]
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON TYPE
type_name
[, ...]
FROM { [ GROUP ]
role_name
| PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
REVOKE [ ADMIN OPTION FOR ]
role_name
[, ...] FROM
role_name
[, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
Description
The
REVOKE
commandrevokespreviouslygrantedprivilegesfromoneormoreroles.Thekeyword
PUBLIC
referstotheimplicitlydefinedgroupofallroles.
SeethedescriptionoftheGRANTcommandforthemeaningoftheprivilegetypes.
Notethatanyparticularrolewillhavethesumofprivilegesgranteddirectlytoit,privilegesgrantedto
anyroleitispresentlyamemberof,andprivilegesgrantedto
PUBLIC
.Thus,forexample,revoking
SELECT
privilegefrom
PUBLIC
doesnotnecessarilymeanthatallroleshavelost
SELECT
privilegeon
theobject:thosewhohaveitgranteddirectlyorviaanotherrolewillstillhaveit.Similarly,revoking
SELECT
fromausermightnotpreventthatuserfromusing
SELECT
if
PUBLIC
oranothermembership
rolestillhas
SELECT
rights.
1566
REVOKE
If
GRANT OPTION FOR
isspecified,onlythegrantoptionfortheprivilegeisrevoked,nottheprivilege
itself.Otherwise,boththeprivilegeandthegrantoptionarerevoked.
Ifauserholdsaprivilegewithgrantoptionandhasgrantedittootherusersthentheprivilegesheld
bythoseotherusers arecalleddependentprivileges.Iftheprivilegeorthegrantoptionheldbythe
firstuserisbeingrevokedanddependentprivilegesexist,thosedependentprivilegesarealsorevoked
if
CASCADE
isspecified;ifitisnot,therevokeactionwillfail.Thisrecursiverevocationonlyaffects
privilegesthatweregrantedthroughachainofusersthatistraceabletotheuserthatisthesubject
ofthis
REVOKE
command.Thus,theaffectedusersmighteffectivelykeeptheprivilegeifitwasalso
grantedthroughotherusers.
Whenrevokingprivilegesonatable,thecorrespondingcolumnprivileges(ifany)areautomatically
revokedoneachcolumnofthetable,aswell.Ontheotherhand,ifarolehasbeengrantedprivileges
onatable,thenrevokingthesameprivilegesfromindividualcolumnswillhavenoeffect.
Whenrevokingmembershipinarole,
GRANT OPTION
isinsteadcalled
ADMIN OPTION
,butthebe-
haviorissimilar.Notealsothatthisformofthecommanddoesnotallowthenoiseword
GROUP
.
Notes
Use psql’s
\dp
command to display the privileges granted on existing tables and columns. See
GRANTforinformationabouttheformat.Fornon-tableobjectsthereareother
\d
commandsthat
candisplaytheirprivileges.
Ausercanonlyrevokeprivilegesthatweregranteddirectlybythatuser.If,forexample,userAhas
grantedaprivilegewithgrantoptiontouserB,anduserB has inturnedgrantedittouserC,then
userAcannotrevoketheprivilegedirectlyfromC.Instead,userAcouldrevokethegrantoptionfrom
userBandusethe
CASCADE
optionsothattheprivilegeisinturnrevokedfromuserC.Foranother
example,ifbothAandBhavegrantedthesameprivilegetoC,Acanrevokehisowngrantbutnot
B’sgrant,soCwillstilleffectivelyhavetheprivilege.
Whenanon-ownerofanobjectattemptsto
REVOKE
privileges ontheobject,thecommandwillfail
outrightiftheuserhasnoprivilegeswhatsoeverontheobject.Aslongassomeprivilegeisavailable,
thecommandwillproceed,butitwillrevokeonlythoseprivilegesforwhichtheuserhasgrantoptions.
The
REVOKE ALL PRIVILEGES
forms willissue awarningmessageifnograntoptions are held,
whiletheotherformswillissueawarningifgrantoptionsforanyoftheprivilegesspecificallynamed
inthecommandarenotheld.(Inprinciplethesestatementsapplytotheobjectowneras well,but
sincetheownerisalwaystreatedasholdingallgrantoptions,thecasescanneveroccur.)
Ifasuperuserchoosestoissuea
GRANT
or
REVOKE
command,thecommandisperformedasthoughit
wereissuedbytheowneroftheaffectedobject.Sinceallprivilegesultimatelycomefromtheobject
owner(possibly indirectlyviachains ofgrant options),it ispossible fora superuserto revoke all
privileges,butthismightrequireuseof
CASCADE
asstatedabove.
REVOKE
canalsobedonebyarolethatisnottheowneroftheaffectedobject,butisamemberof
therolethatownstheobject,oris amemberofa role thatholds privileges
WITH GRANT OPTION
ontheobject.Inthiscasethecommandisperformedasthoughitwereissuedbythecontainingrole
thatactuallyownstheobjectorholdstheprivileges
WITH GRANT OPTION
.Forexample,iftable
t1
is owned by role
g1
,ofwhichrole
u1
is a member,then
u1
can revoke privileges on
t1
that are
recordedasbeinggrantedby
g1
.Thiswouldincludegrantsmadeby
u1
aswellasbyothermembers
ofrole
g1
.
Iftheroleexecuting
REVOKE
holdsprivilegesindirectlyviamorethanonerolemembershippath,it
is unspecifiedwhichcontainingrole willbeusedtoperformthecommand.Insuchcases it is best
practicetouse
SET ROLE
tobecomethespecificroleyouwanttodothe
REVOKE
as.Failuretodoso
mightleadtorevokingprivilegesotherthantheonesyouintended,ornotrevokinganythingatall.
1567
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