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SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION
Name
SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION—setthesessionuseridentifierandthecurrentuseridentifier
ofthecurrentsession
Synopsis
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] SESSION AUTHORIZATION
user_name
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] SESSION AUTHORIZATION DEFAULT
RESET SESSION AUTHORIZATION
Description
ThiscommandsetsthesessionuseridentifierandthecurrentuseridentifierofthecurrentSQLsession
tobe
user_name
.Theusernamecanbewrittenas eitheranidentifierorastringliteral.Usingthis
command,itispossible,forexample,totemporarilybecome anunprivilegeduserandlaterswitch
backtobeingasuperuser.
Thesessionuseridentifierisinitiallysettobethe(possiblyauthenticated)usernameprovidedbythe
client.The currentuseridentifieris normallyequaltothe sessionuseridentifier,butmightchange
temporarilyinthecontextof
SECURITY DEFINER
functionsandsimilarmechanisms;itcanalsobe
changedbySETROLE.Thecurrentuseridentifierisrelevantforpermissionchecking.
Thesessionuseridentifiercanbechangedonlyiftheinitialsessionuser(theauthenticateduser)had
thesuperuserprivilege.Otherwise,thecommandisacceptedonlyifitspecifiestheauthenticateduser
name.
The
SESSION
and
LOCAL
modifiersactthesameasfortheregularSETcommand.
The
DEFAULT
and
RESET
forms reset the session and current user identifiers tobe the originally
authenticatedusername.Theseformscanbeexecutedbyanyuser.
Notes
SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION
cannotbeusedwithina
SECURITY DEFINER
function.
Examples
SELECT SESSION_USER, CURRENT_USER;
session_user | current_user
--------------+--------------
peter
| peter
SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION ’paul’;
SELECT SESSION_USER, CURRENT_USER;
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SETSESSIONAUTHORIZATION
session_user | current_user
--------------+--------------
paul
| paul
Compatibility
TheSQL standardallowssome otherexpressions toappearinplaceofthe literal
user_name
,but
theseoptionsarenotimportantinpractice.PostgreSQLallowsidentifiersyntax(
"username"
),which
SQL doesnot.SQL doesnotallowthis commandduringatransaction;PostgreSQLdoesnotmake
this restrictionbecausethereisnoreasonto.The
SESSION
and
LOCAL
modifiersareaPostgreSQL
extension,asisthe
RESET
syntax.
Theprivilegesnecessarytoexecutethiscommandareleftimplementation-definedbythestandard.
See Also
SETROLE
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SET TRANSACTION
Name
SET TRANSACTION—setthecharacteristicsofthecurrenttransaction
Synopsis
SET TRANSACTION
transaction_mode
[, ...]
SET TRANSACTION SNAPSHOT
snapshot_id
SET SESSION CHARACTERISTICS AS TRANSACTION
transaction_mode
[, ...]
where
transaction_mode
is one of:
ISOLATION LEVEL { SERIALIZABLE | REPEATABLE READ | READ COMMITTED | READ UNCOMMITTED }
READ WRITE | READ ONLY
[ NOT ] DEFERRABLE
Description
The
SET TRANSACTION
commandsets thecharacteristics ofthe currenttransaction.It has noef-
fectonanysubsequenttransactions.
SET SESSION CHARACTERISTICS
setsthedefaulttransaction
characteristics forsubsequent transactions of a session. These defaults can be overridden by
SET
TRANSACTION
foranindividualtransaction.
Theavailabletransactioncharacteristicsarethetransactionisolationlevel,thetransactionaccessmode
(read/writeorread-only),andthe deferrablemode.Inaddition,asnapshotcanbe selected,though
onlyforthecurrenttransaction,notasasessiondefault.
Theisolationlevelofatransactiondetermineswhatdatathetransactioncanseewhenothertransac-
tionsarerunningconcurrently:
READ COMMITTED
Astatementcanonlyseerowscommittedbeforeitbegan.Thisisthedefault.
REPEATABLE READ
Allstatementsofthecurrenttransactioncanonlyseerowscommittedbeforethefirstqueryor
data-modificationstatementwasexecutedinthistransaction.
SERIALIZABLE
Allstatementsofthecurrenttransactioncanonlyseerowscommittedbeforethefirstqueryor
data-modification statementwas executed in this transaction.Ifa pattern of reads and writes
among concurrentserializabletransactionswouldcreatea situationwhichcouldnothaveoc-
curredforanyserial(one-at-a-time)executionofthosetransactions,oneofthemwillberolled
backwitha
serialization_failure
error.
The SQL standard defines one additional level,
READ UNCOMMITTED
. In PostgreSQL
READ
UNCOMMITTED
istreatedas
READ COMMITTED
.
Thetransactionisolationlevelcannotbechangedafterthefirstqueryordata-modificationstatement
(
SELECT
,
INSERT
,
DELETE
,
UPDATE
,
FETCH
,or
COPY
)ofatransactionhasbeenexecuted.SeeChap-
ter13formoreinformationabouttransactionisolationandconcurrencycontrol.
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SETTRANSACTION
The transaction access mode determines whether the transaction is read/write or read-only.
Read/write is the default. When a transaction is read-only, the following SQL commands are
disallowed:
INSERT
,
UPDATE
,
DELETE
, and
COPY FROM
if the table they wouldwrite to is not a
temporarytable;all
CREATE
,
ALTER
,and
DROP
commands;
COMMENT
,
GRANT
,
REVOKE
,
TRUNCATE
;
and
EXPLAIN ANALYZE
and
EXECUTE
ifthecommand theywould execute is amongthose listed.
Thisisahigh-levelnotionofread-onlythatdoesnotpreventallwritestodisk.
The
DEFERRABLE
transactionpropertyhas no effectunless the transaction is also
SERIALIZABLE
and
READ ONLY
.Whenallthreeofthesepropertiesareselectedforatransaction,thetransactionmay
blockwhenfirstacquiringitssnapshot,afterwhichitisabletorunwithoutthenormaloverheadofa
SERIALIZABLE
transactionandwithoutanyriskofcontributingtoorbeingcanceledbyaserialization
failure.Thismodeiswellsuitedforlong-runningreportsorbackups.
The
SET TRANSACTION SNAPSHOT
commandallowsanewtransactiontorunwiththesamesnap-
shot as anexistingtransaction. The pre-existing transaction must have exportedits snapshotwith
the
pg_export_snapshot
function(seeSection9.26.5).Thatfunctionreturnsasnapshotidentifier,
whichmustbegivento
SET TRANSACTION SNAPSHOT
tospecifywhichsnapshotistobeimported.
Theidentifiermustbewrittenasastringliteralinthiscommand,forexample
’000003A1-1’
.
SET
TRANSACTION SNAPSHOT
canonlybeexecutedatthestartofatransaction,beforethefirstqueryor
data-modificationstatement(
SELECT
,
INSERT
,
DELETE
,
UPDATE
,
FETCH
,or
COPY
)ofthetransaction.
Furthermore,thetransactionmustalreadybesetto
SERIALIZABLE
or
REPEATABLE READ
isolation
level(otherwise,thesnapshotwouldbediscardedimmediately,since
READ COMMITTED
modetakes
anewsnapshotforeachcommand).Iftheimportingtransactionuses
SERIALIZABLE
isolationlevel,
thenthetransactionthatexportedthesnapshotmustalsousethatisolationlevel.Also,anon-read-only
serializabletransactioncannotimportasnapshotfromaread-onlytransaction.
Notes
If
SET TRANSACTION
isexecutedwithoutaprior
START TRANSACTION
or
BEGIN
,itemitsawarning
andotherwisehasnoeffect.
It is possible to dispense with
SET TRANSACTION
by instead specifying the desired
transaction_modes
in
BEGIN
or
START TRANSACTION
.Butthatoptionisnotavailablefor
SET
TRANSACTION SNAPSHOT
.
The session default transaction modes can also be set by setting the configuration parameters
default_transaction_isolation,default_transaction_read_only,anddefault_transaction_deferrable.(In
fact
SET SESSION CHARACTERISTICS
is just a verbose equivalent for setting these variables
with
SET
.)This meansthe defaults canbe setintheconfigurationfile,via
ALTER DATABASE
,etc.
ConsultChapter18formoreinformation.
Examples
Tobeginanewtransactionwiththesamesnapshotasanalreadyexistingtransaction,firstexportthe
snapshotfromtheexistingtransaction.Thatwillreturnthesnapshotidentifier,forexample:
BEGIN TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ;
SELECT pg_export_snapshot();
pg_export_snapshot
--------------------
000003A1-1
(1 row)
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SETTRANSACTION
Thengivethesnapshotidentifierina
SET TRANSACTION SNAPSHOT
commandatthebeginningof
thenewlyopenedtransaction:
BEGIN TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ;
SET TRANSACTION SNAPSHOT ’000003A1-1’;
Compatibility
ThesecommandsaredefinedintheSQLstandard,exceptforthe
DEFERRABLE
transactionmodeand
the
SET TRANSACTION SNAPSHOT
form,whicharePostgreSQLextensions.
SERIALIZABLE
isthedefaulttransactionisolationlevelinthestandard.InPostgreSQLthedefaultis
ordinarily
READ COMMITTED
,butyoucanchangeitasmentionedabove.
Inthe SQL standard,there is one othertransactioncharacteristic that can be set withthese com-
mands:thesizeofthediagnosticsarea.ThisconceptisspecifictoembeddedSQL,andthereforeis
notimplementedinthePostgreSQLserver.
The SQL standard requires commas between successive
transaction_modes
,but for historical
reasonsPostgreSQLallowsthecommastobeomitted.
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SHOW
Name
SHOW—showthevalueofarun-timeparameter
Synopsis
SHOW
name
SHOW ALL
Description
SHOW
willdisplaythecurrentsettingofrun-time parameters.Thesevariables can be setusingthe
SET
statement,byeditingthe
postgresql.conf
configurationfile,throughthe
PGOPTIONS
envi-
ronmentalvariable(whenusinglibpqoralibpq-basedapplication),orthroughcommand-lineflags
whenstartingthe
postgres
server.SeeChapter18fordetails.
Parameters
name
Thenameofarun-timeparameter.AvailableparametersaredocumentedinChapter18andon
theSETreferencepage.Inaddition,thereareafewparametersthatcanbeshownbutnotset:
SERVER_VERSION
Showstheserver’sversionnumber.
SERVER_ENCODING
Showstheserver-sidecharactersetencoding.Atpresent,thisparametercanbeshownbut
notset,becausetheencodingisdeterminedatdatabasecreationtime.
LC_COLLATE
Showsthedatabase’slocalesettingforcollation(textordering).Atpresent,thisparameter
canbeshownbutnotset,becausethesettingisdeterminedatdatabasecreationtime.
LC_CTYPE
Shows thedatabase’slocalesettingforcharacterclassification.Atpresent,thisparameter
canbeshownbutnotset,becausethesettingisdeterminedatdatabasecreationtime.
IS_SUPERUSER
Trueifthecurrentrolehassuperuserprivileges.
ALL
Showthevaluesofallconfigurationparameters,withdescriptions.
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SHOW
Notes
The function
current_setting
produces equivalent output; see Section 9.26. Also, the
pg_settings
systemviewproducesthesameinformation.
Examples
Showthecurrentsettingoftheparameter
DateStyle
:
SHOW DateStyle;
DateStyle
-----------
ISO, MDY
(1 row)
Showthecurrentsettingoftheparameter
geqo
:
SHOW geqo;
geqo
------
on
(1 row)
Showallsettings:
SHOW ALL;
name
| setting |
description
-------------------------+---------+-------------------------------------------------
allow_system_table_mods | off
| Allows modifications of the structure of ...
.
.
.
xmloption
| content | Sets whether XML data in implicit parsing ...
zero_damaged_pages
| off
| Continues processing past damaged page headers.
(196 rows)
Compatibility
The
SHOW
commandisaPostgreSQLextension.
See Also
SET,RESET
1614
START TRANSACTION
Name
START TRANSACTION—startatransactionblock
Synopsis
START TRANSACTION [
transaction_mode
[, ...] ]
where
transaction_mode
is one of:
ISOLATION LEVEL { SERIALIZABLE | REPEATABLE READ | READ COMMITTED | READ UNCOMMITTED }
READ WRITE | READ ONLY
[ NOT ] DEFERRABLE
Description
Thiscommandbeginsanewtransactionblock.Iftheisolationlevel,read/writemode,ordeferrable
mode is specified,the new transaction has those characteristics,as if SET TRANSACTION was
executed.ThisisthesameastheBEGINcommand.
Parameters
RefertoSETTRANSACTIONforinformationonthemeaningoftheparameterstothisstatement.
Compatibility
Inthe standard,itis notnecessarytoissue
START TRANSACTION
tostarta transactionblock:any
SQL commandimplicitlybegins ablock.PostgreSQL’s behaviorcan be seenasimplicitlyissuing
a
COMMIT
aftereach command that does not follow
START TRANSACTION
(or
BEGIN
),and it is
therefore often called“autocommit”.Otherrelationaldatabase systems might offeran autocommit
featureasaconvenience.
The
DEFERRABLEtransaction_mode
isaPostgreSQLlanguageextension.
The SQL standard requires commas between successive
transaction_modes
,but for historical
reasonsPostgreSQLallowsthecommastobeomitted.
SeealsothecompatibilitysectionofSETTRANSACTION.
See Also
BEGIN,COMMIT,ROLLBACK,SAVEPOINT,SETTRANSACTION
1615
TRUNCATE
Name
TRUNCATE—emptyatableorsetoftables
Synopsis
TRUNCATE [ TABLE ] [ ONLY ]
name
[
*
] [, ... ]
[ RESTART IDENTITY | CONTINUE IDENTITY ] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]
Description
TRUNCATE
quicklyremovesallrows froma setoftables.Ithas the same effectas anunqualified
DELETE
oneachtable,butsinceitdoesnotactuallyscanthetablesitisfaster.Furthermore,itreclaims
diskspaceimmediately,ratherthanrequiringasubsequent
VACUUM
operation.Thisismostusefulon
largetables.
Parameters
name
Thename(optionallyschema-qualified)ofatabletotruncate.If
ONLY
is specifiedbefore the
tablename,onlythattableistruncated.If
ONLY
isnotspecified,thetableandallitsdescendant
tables (ifany) are truncated.Optionally,
*
can be specifiedafterthe table name toexplicitly
indicatethatdescendanttablesareincluded.
RESTART IDENTITY
Automaticallyrestartsequencesownedbycolumnsofthetruncatedtable(s).
CONTINUE IDENTITY
Donotchangethevaluesofsequences.Thisisthedefault.
CASCADE
Automaticallytruncatealltablesthathaveforeign-keyreferencestoanyofthenamedtables,or
toanytablesaddedtothegroupdueto
CASCADE
.
RESTRICT
Refusetotruncateifanyofthetableshaveforeign-keyreferencesfromtablesthatarenotlisted
inthecommand.Thisisthedefault.
Notes
Youmusthavethe
TRUNCATE
privilegeonatabletotruncateit.
TRUNCATE
acquiresan
ACCESS EXCLUSIVE
lockoneachtableitoperateson,whichblocksallother
concurrentoperationsonthetable.When
RESTART IDENTITY
isspecified,anysequences thatare
toberestarted arelikewise lockedexclusively.Ifconcurrentaccesstoa tableisrequired,thenthe
DELETE
commandshouldbeusedinstead.
1616
TRUNCATE
TRUNCATE
cannotbeusedonatablethathasforeign-keyreferencesfromothertables,unlessallsuch
tablesarealsotruncatedinthesamecommand.Checkingvalidityinsuchcaseswouldrequiretable
scans,andthewholepointisnottodoone.The
CASCADE
optioncanbeusedtoautomaticallyinclude
alldependenttables —butbeverycarefulwhenusingthisoption,orelseyoumightlosedatayou
didnotintendto!
TRUNCATE
will notfireany
ON DELETE
triggersthat mightexistforthe tables.Butitwillfire
ON
TRUNCATE
triggers.If
ON TRUNCATE
triggers are defined for any of the tables, then all
BEFORE
TRUNCATE
triggersarefiredbeforeanytruncationhappens,andall
AFTER TRUNCATE
triggers are
firedafterthelasttruncationis performedandanysequences arereset.Thetriggers willfireinthe
orderthatthe tables aretobeprocessed(firstthose listedinthecommand,andthenanythatwere
addedduetocascading).
TRUNCATE
isnotMVCC-safe.Aftertruncation,thetablewillappearemptytoconcurrenttransactions,
iftheyareusingasnapshottakenbeforethetruncationoccurred.SeeSection13.5formoredetails.
TRUNCATE
istransaction-safewithrespecttothedatainthetables:thetruncationwillbesafelyrolled
backifthesurroundingtransactiondoesnotcommit.
When
RESTART IDENTITY
is specified, the implied
ALTER SEQUENCE RESTART
operations are
also done transactionally;thatis,they will be rolledbackifthesurrounding transaction does not
commit.Thisisunlikethenormalbehaviorof
ALTER SEQUENCE RESTART
.Beawarethatifanyad-
ditionalsequenceoperationsaredoneontherestartedsequencesbeforethetransactionrollsback,the
effectsoftheseoperationsonthesequenceswillberolledback,butnottheireffectson
currval()
;
thatis,afterthetransaction
currval()
willcontinuetoreflectthelastsequencevalueobtainedinside
thefailedtransaction,eventhoughthesequenceitselfmaynolongerbeconsistentwiththat.Thisis
similartotheusualbehaviorof
currval()
afterafailedtransaction.
Examples
Truncatethetables
bigtable
and
fattable
:
TRUNCATE bigtable, fattable;
Thesame,andalsoresetanyassociatedsequencegenerators:
TRUNCATE bigtable, fattable RESTART IDENTITY;
Truncatethetable
othertable
,andcascadetoanytablesthatreference
othertable
viaforeign-
keyconstraints:
TRUNCATE othertable CASCADE;
Compatibility
The SQL:2008 standard includes a
TRUNCATE
command with the syntax
TRUNCATE TABLE
tablename
.Theclauses
CONTINUE IDENTITY
/
RESTART IDENTITY
alsoappear in that standard,
but have slightly different though related meanings. Some of the concurrency behavior of this
1617
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